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Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Structure Analysis by Particle Image Velocimetry Under Steady State Condition

2012-09-24
2012-01-1975
This paper deals with experimental investigations of the in-cylinder flow structures under steady state conditions utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experiments have been conducted on an engine head of a pent-roof type (Lotus) for a number of fixed valve lifts and different inlet valve configurations at two pressure drops, 250mm and 635mm of H2O that correlate with engine speeds of 2500 and 4000 RPM respectively. From the two-dimensional in-cylinder flow measurements, a tumble flow analysis is carried out for six planes parallel to the cylinder axis. In addition, a swirl flow analysis is carried out for one horizontal plane perpendicular to the cylinder axis at half bore downstream from the cylinder head (44mm). The results show the advantage of using the planar technique (PIV) for investigating the complete flow structures developed inside the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Fitted Piston Compression Ring: Modal Behaviour and Frictional Assessment

2011-05-17
2011-01-1535
Piston compression rings are thin, incomplete circular structures which are subject to complex motions during a typical 4-stroke internal combustion engine cycle. Ring dynamics comprises its inertial motion relative to the piston, within the confine of its seating groove. There are also elastodynamic modes, such as the ring in-plane motions. A number of modes can be excited, dependent on the net applied force. The latter includes the ring tension and cylinder pressure loading, both of which act outwards on the ring and conform it to the cylinder bore. There is also the radial inward force as the result of ring-bore conjunctional pressure (i.e. contact force). Under transient conditions, the inward and outward forces do not equilibrate, resulting in the small inertial radial motion of the ring.
Technical Paper

Cycle-to-Cycle Variation Analysis of Two-Colour PLIF Temperature Measurements Calibrated with Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy in a Firing GDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0722
In-cylinder temperatures and their cyclic variations strongly influence many aspects of internal combustion engine operation, from chemical reaction rates determining the production of NOx and particulate matter to the tendency for auto-ignition leading to knock in spark ignition engines. Spatially resolved measurements of temperature can provide insights into such processes and enable validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations used to model engine performance and guide engine design. This work uses a combination of Two-Colour Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (TC-PLIF) and Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) to measure the in-cylinder temperature distributions of a firing optically accessible spark ignition engine. TC-PLIF performs 2-D temperature measurements using fluorescence emission in two different wavelength bands but requires calibration under conditions of known temperature, pressure and composition.
Technical Paper

Towards In-Cylinder Flow Informed Engine Control Strategies Using Linear Stochastic Estimation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0717
Many modern I.C. engines rely on some form of active control of injection, timing and/or ignition timing to help combat tailpipe out emissions, increase the fuel economy and improve engine drivability. However, development of these strategies is often optimised to suit the average cycle at each condition; an assumption that can lead to sub-optimal performance, especially an increase in particulate (PN) emissions as I.C. engine operation, and in-particular its charge motion is subject to cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV). Literature shows that the locations of otherwise repeatable large-scale flow structures may vary by as much 25% of the bore dimension; this could have an impact on fuel break-up and distribution and therefore subsequent combustion performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

The Measurement of Liner - Piston Skirt Oil Film Thickness by an Ultrasonic Means

2006-04-03
2006-01-0648
The paper presents a novel method for the measurement of lubricant film thickness in the piston-liner contact. Direct measurement of the film in this conjunction has always posed a problem, particularly under fired conditions. The principle is based on capturing and analysing the reflection of an ultrasonic pulse at the oil film. The proportion of the wave amplitude reflected can be related to the thickness of the oil film. A single cylinder 4-stroke engine on a dyno test platform was used for evaluation of the method. A piezo-electric transducer was bonded to the outside of the cylinder liner and used to emit high frequency short duration ultrasonic pulses. These pulses were used to determine the oil film thickness as the piston skirt passed over the sensor location. Oil films in the range 2 to 21 μm were recorded varying with engine speeds. The results have been shown to be in agreement with detailed numerical predictions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of DI Diesel Engine Performance Using Three Different Biodiesel Fuels

2006-04-03
2006-01-0234
Methyl esters derived from vegetable oils by the process of transesterification (commonly referred as ‘biodiesel’), can be used as an alternative fuel in compression ignition engines. In this study, three different vegetable oils (rape, soy and waste oil) were used to produce biodiesel fuels that were then tested in a four cylinder direct injection engine, typically used in small diesel genset applications. Engine performance and emissions were recorded at five load conditions and at two different speeds. This paper presents the results obtained for measurements of NOx and smoke opacity at the different speed and load conditions for the three biodiesels, and their blends (5 and 50% v/v) with mineral diesel. A simple combustion analysis was also performed where ignition delay, position and magnitude of peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were examined to asses how the variation of chemical structure and blend percentage affects engine performance.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Cylinder De-Activation on Thermo-Friction Characteristics of the Connecting Rod Bearing in the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC)

2014-06-30
2014-01-2089
This paper presents an investigation of Cylinder De-Activation (CDA) technology on the performance of big end bearings. A multi-physics approach is used in order to take into account more realistic dynamic loading effects on the tribological behavior. The power loss, minimum film thickness and maximum temperature of big end bearings have been calculated during maneuver pertaining to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Results show that bearing efficiency runs contrary to efficiency gained through combustion and pumping losses. Under CDA mode, the power loss of big end bearings is more than the power loss under engine normal mode. The problem is predominant at higher engine speeds and higher Brake mean Effective Pressures (BMEP) in active cylinders. It is also observed that the minimum film thickness is reduced under the CDA mode. This can affect wear performance. In addition, same behavior is noted for the maximum temperature rise which is higher under CDA.
Technical Paper

The Effect of EGR on Diesel Engine Wear

1999-03-01
1999-01-0839
As part of an ongoing programme of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) wear investigations, this paper reports a study into the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation, and a variety of interacting factors, on the wear rate of the top piston ring and the liner top ring reversal point on a 1.0 litre/cylinder medium duty four cylinder diesel engine. Thin Layer Activation (TLA - also known as Surface Layer Activation in the US) has been used to provide individual wear rates for these components when engine operating conditions have been varied. The effects of oil condition, EGR level, fuel sulphur content and engine coolant temperature have been investigated at one engine speed at full load. The effects of engine load and uncooled EGR have also been assessed. The effects of these parameters on engine wear are presented and discussed. When EGR was applied a significant increase in wear was observed at EGR levels of between 10% and 15%.
Journal Article

Crankcase Sampling of PM from a Fired and Motored Compression Ignition Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0209
Crankcase emissions are a complex mixture of combustion products and aerosol generated from lubrication oil. The crankcase emissions contribute substantially to the total particulate matter (PM) emitted from an engine. Environment legislation demands that either the combustion and crankcase emissions are combined to give a total measurement, or the crankcase gases are re-circulated back into the engine. There is a lack of understanding regarding the physical processes that generate crankcase aerosols, with a paucity of information on the size/mass concentrations of particles present in the crankcase. In this study the particulate matter crankcase emissions were measured from a fired and motored 4-cylinder compression ignition engine at a range of speeds and crankcase locations.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Air Flow Around an Inlet Valve Using a Pitot Probe

1998-02-23
980142
This paper describes a detailed study into the use of a pitot probe to measure air flow around an inlet valve under steady state conditions. The study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of the method for locating areas of a port and valve which may be contributing to a poor overall discharge coefficient. This method would provide a simple and cheap experimental tool for use throughout the industry. The method involves mounting a miniature internal chamfer pitot tube on a slider attached to the base of the valve. The probe can traverse the appropriate area by rotating the valve and moving it along the slide. Changing the probe allows measurements in different planes, allowing the whole region around the valve to be surveyed. The cylinder head complete with instrumentation is mounted on a steady flow rig. The paper presents the results obtained at different valve lifts on a production cylinder head.
Technical Paper

An Optical Analysis of a DISI Engine Cold Start-Up Strategy

2015-09-01
2015-01-1877
Particulate number (PN) standards in the current ‘Euro 6’ European emissions standards pose a challenge for engine designers and calibrators during the warm-up phases of cold direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. To achieve catalyst light-off in the shortest time, engine strategies are often employed which inherently use more fuel to attain higher exhaust temperatures. This can lead to the generation of locally fuel-rich regions within the combustion chamber and the emission of particulates. This investigation analyses the combustion structures during the transient start-up phase of an optical DISI engine. High-speed, colour 9 kHz imaging was used to investigate five important operating points of an engine start-up strategy whilst simultaneously recording in-cylinder pressure.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on the Burning Rate of Methane and PRF95 Dual Fuels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0804
Natural gas as an alternative fuel offers the potential of clean combustion and emits relatively low CO2 emissions. The main constitute of natural gas is methane. Historically, the slow burning speed of methane has been a major concern for automotive applications. Literature on experimental methane-gasoline Dual Fuel (DF) studies on research engines showed that the DF strategy is improving methane combustion, leading to an enhanced initial establishment of burning speed even compared to that of gasoline. The mechanism of such an effect remains unclear. In the present study, pure methane (representing natural gas) and PRF95 (representing gasoline) were supplied to a constant volume combustion vessel to produce a DF air mixture. Methane was added to PRF95 in three different energy ratios 25%, 50% and 75%. Experiments have been conducted at equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1, 1.2, initial pressures of 2.5, 5 and 10 bar and a temperature of 373K.
Technical Paper

Explicit Model Predictive Control of the Diesel Engine Fuel Path

2012-04-16
2012-01-0893
For diesel engines, fuel path control plays a key role in achieving optimal emissions and fuel economy performance. There are several fuel path parameters that strongly affect the engine performance by changing the combustion process, by modifying for example, start of injection and fuel rail pressure. This is a multi-input multi-output problem. Linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a good approach for such a system with optimal solution. However, fuel path has fast dynamics. On-line optimisation MPC is not the good choice to cope with such fast dynamics. Explicit MPC uses off-line optimisation, therefore, it can be used to control the system with fast dynamics.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Potential of Intra-Cycle Combustion Control for Direct Injection Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1158
The injection timing of a Diesel internal combustion engine typically follows a prescribed sequence depending on the operating condition using open loop control. Due to advances in sensors and digital electronics it is now possible to implement closed loop control based on in cylinder pressure values. Typically this control action is slow, and it may take several cycles or at least one cycle (cycle-to-cycle control). Using high speed sensors, it becomes technically possible to measure pressure deviations and correct them within the same cycle (intra-cycle control). For example the in cylinder pressure after the pilot inject can be measured, and the timing of the main injection can be adjusted in timing and duration to compensate any deviations in pressure from the expected reference value. This level of control can significantly reduce the deviations between cycles and cylinders, and it can also improve the transient behavior of the engine.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics and CFD Validation of Jacket Cooling System Filling and the Occurrence of Trapped Air

2012-04-16
2012-01-1213
This paper reports the findings from an experimental investigation of the engine cooling jacket filling process for a medium duty off-highway diesel engine to characterise the physical processes that lead to the occurrence of trapped air. The motivation for the project was to provide knowledge and data to aid the development of a computational design tool capable of predicting the amount and location of trapped air in a cooling circuit following a fill event. To quantify the coolant filling process, a transparent replica of a section of the cylinder head cooling core was manufactured from acrylic to allow the application of optical diagnostic techniques. Experimentation has characterised the coolant filling process through the use of three optical techniques. These include the two established methods of High-Speed Imaging and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), as well as a novel approach developed for tracking the liquid-air interface during the fill event.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computational Study of Vehicle Surface Contamination on a Generic Bluff Body

2016-04-05
2016-01-1604
This paper focuses on methods used to model vehicle surface contamination arising as a result of rear wake aerodynamics. Besides being unsightly, contamination, such as self-soiling from rear tyre spray, can degrade the performance of lighting, rear view cameras and obstruct visibility through windows. In order to accurately predict likely contamination patterns, it is necessary to consider the aerodynamics and multiphase spray processes together. This paper presents an experimental and numerical (CFD) investigation of the phenomenon. The experimental study investigates contamination with controlled conditions in a wind tunnel using a generic bluff body (the Windsor model.) Contamination is represented by a water spray located beneath the rear of the vehicle.
Journal Article

Modelling the Effect of Spray Breakup, Coalescence, and Evaporation on Vehicle Surface Contamination Dynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0705
Vehicle surface contamination is an important design consideration as it affects drivers’ vision and the performance of onboard camera and sensor systems. Previous work has shown that eddy-resolving methods are able to accurately capture the flow field and particle transport, leading to good agreement for vehicle soiling with experiments. What is less clear is whether the secondary breakup, coalescence, and evaporation of liquid particles play an important role in spray dynamics. The work reported here attempts to answer this and also give an idea of the computational cost associated with these extra physics models. A quarter-scale generic Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) model is used as a test case in which the continuous phase is solved using the Spalart-Allmaras Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) model. The dispersed phase is computed concurrently with the continuous phase using the Lagrangian approach.
Technical Paper

Mode Transition Optimisation for Variable Displacement Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0619
The deactivation of one or more cylinders in internal combustion engines has long been established in literature as a means of reducing engine pumping losses and thereby improving brake specific fuel consumption. As down-sizing and down-speeding of modern engines becomes more extreme, drivability issues associated with mode transition become more acute and need to be managed within a suitable calibration framework. This paper presents methodology by which a calibration may be deduced for optimal mode-transitioning in respect of minimising the torque disturbance as cylinders are deactivated and re-activated. At the outset of this study a physics based engine model is used to investigate the key parameters that influence the transition. Having understood these, experiments are designed to establish the level of mode transition disturbance using quantitative statistical indicators such that the cost function may be defined and an optimisation undertaken.
Journal Article

Insights into Cold-Start DISI Combustion in an Optical Engine Operating at −7°C

2013-04-08
2013-01-1309
Particulate Matter (PM) emissions reduction is an imminent challenge for Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine designers due to the introduction of Particulate Number (PN) standards in the proposed Euro 6 emissions legislation aimed at delivering the next phase of air quality improvements. An understanding of how the formation of combustion-derived nanoparticulates in engines is affected by the engine operating temperature is important for air quality improvement and will influence future engine design and control strategies. This investigation has examined the effect on combustion and PM formation when reducing the engine operating temperature to -7°C. A DISI single-cylinder optical research engine was modified to simulate a range of operating temperatures down to the proposed -7°C.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Fuel Metering Control for Optimising Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-0894
Low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines offers attractive benefits through simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides and soot. However, it is known that the in-cylinder conditions typical of LTC operation tend to produce high emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO), reducing combustion efficiency. The present study develops from the hypothesis that this characteristic poor combustion efficiency is due to in-cylinder mixture preparation strategies that are non-optimally matched to the requirements of the LTC combustion mode. In this work, the effects of three key fuel path parameters - injection fuel quantity ratio, dwell and injection timing - on CO and HC emissions were examined using a Central Composite Design (CCD) Design of Experiments (DOE) method.
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