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Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Tappet/Bore and Cam/Tappet Friction for a Direct Acting Bucket Tappet Valvetrain

Tappet/bore friction and torque at the camshaft were measured for a direct acting bucket tappet using a cam/tappet friction apparatus. Tappet/bore and cam/tappet friction torque and friction coefficient as a function of cam angle were derived from those measurements. The results showed that, for the particular geometry tested, tappet/bore friction torque accounted for about 13% of the total cam/tappet/bore friction torque at 250 cam rpm. This fraction decreased with increasing speed. Tappet bore friction was greatest at about ± 40 degrees of cam angle, where side loads on the tappet bore were highest. In contrast, earlier results for a center pivot rocker arm design showed tappet bore friction to be negligible.
Technical Paper

Friction Reduction in valve Trains: The Influence of Friction Reducing Oil Additives

The influence of friction reducing oil additives was assessed as- part of a broader study of valve train friction. Experiments were performed using a motored valve train to measure overall oil effects. Experiments were carried out using a cam/tappet tribometer to evaluate the detailed behavior of the cam/tappet contact. Both sliding and roller tappets were employed in the study the results illustrate the potential for the reduction of frictional losses in sliding cam/tappet contacts through lubricant optimization.
Technical Paper

A Tappet Rotation Monitor Based on Light Reflectance - Development and Functional Testing

To meet a need identified in earlier valve train friction testing, a tappet rotation monitor was developed and implemented on a cam/tappet tribometer. The system was based on reflecting a light beam from a rotating and translating segmented surface onto a phototransistor. The resulting output was then processed by linear frequency to voltage conversion and multiple cycle integration. The experimental apparatus, signal processing circuit, and the testing circuit are presented. The multiple cycle integration was found to yield average tappet rotation as a function of cam shaft position. These results agreed well with earlier attempts to measure tappet rotation with high speed photography, were repeatable, and correlated with cam shaft speed. Some selected data is also presented which indicates that tappet rotation reduces cam/tappet friction.