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Technical Paper

Ford P2000 Hydrogen Engine Dynamometer Development

As part of the P2000 hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicle program, an engine dynamometer research project was conducted in order to systematically investigate the unique hydrogen related combustion characteristics cited in the literature. These characteristics include pre-ignition, NOx emissions formation and control, volumetric efficiency of gaseous fuel injection and related power density, thermal efficiency, and combustion control. To undertake this study, several dedicated, hydrogen-fueled spark ignition engines (compression ratios: 10, 12.5, 14.5 and 15.3:1) were designed and built. Engine dynamometer development testing was conducted at the Ford Research Laboratory and the University of California at Riverside. This engine dynamometer work also provided the mapping data and control strategy needed to develop the engine in the P2000 vehicle.
Technical Paper

Lean NOx Trap Desulfation Through Rapid Air Fuel Modulation

A novel method of desulfating lean NOx traps has been developed. Rapid, large amplitude modulation of the air to fuel ratio creates an exotherm of approximately 300°C in the LNT. AFR modulation results in oxidant and reductant breakthough in a three-way catalyst mounted upstream of the LNT. During lean modulation, oxygen is stored in the LNT. During rich modulation, the reductant reacts catalytically with the stored oxygen in the LNT, generating a substantial exotherm. Rich and lean AFR events are selected commensurate with the number of cylinders in the engine, resulting in each cylinder having exactly the same AFR history. This permits a deterministic programming of spark advance and precise coordination of spark advance with the transient fueling effect. The spark advance is retarded for the rich events and increases stepwise for groups of lean events. This strategy results in minimal disturbances in the engine imep.
Technical Paper

Transient A/F Estimation and Control Using a Neural Network

A new estimator for IC engine A/F ratio is described. A/F ratio is important for engine operation since it determines the quantities of engine emissions, such as HC, CO, NOx, the conversion efficiency of catalyst systems, and the engine combustion stability. The A/F ratio estimator described in this paper is based on a fundamental metric that relies on inducing and detecting crankshaft speed fluctuations caused by modulating the engine's fuel injection pulse widths. Fuel pulse width modulation varies the instantaneous combustion A/F ratio crankshaft velocity. Synchronous measurement of crankshaft velocity provides a metric that, when used with other engine state variables as inputs to a conventional neural network, can accurately estimate A/F ratio. The estimator provides A/F information when a physical sensor is not available.
Technical Paper

Optimal A/F Ratio Estimation Model (Synthetic UEGO) for SI Engine Cold Transient AFR Feedback Control

A new method to estimate instantaneous A/F ratio and use the estimation as a feedback signal to control AFR during cold transients, before the oxygen sensor is functional, has been realized by a on-board PCM for a vehicle with a 4.6L, V8, PFI engine [4, 6]. Different AFRs cause variations in flame propagation, causing fluctuations in the effective torque. When a known AFR disturbance is induced into an engine system, a corresponding crankshaft angular velocity fluctuation can be detected. A variable derived from this physical phenomenon can be used to characterize the problem. The optimal fuel perturbation signal is designed by a relaxation concept, and the system model is determined by employing a dual-direction screening multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The estimated AFR is used by the PCM in a closed loop control to correct the fuel during cold transients.
Technical Paper

Ford Hydrogen Engine Laboratory Testing Facility

For future hydrogen fueled ground vehicle research, Ford Motor Company has installed the first hydrogen fueling station in North America with gaseous and cryogenic hydrogen and two dedicated hydrogen fueled engine laboratory dynamometer test cells. Hydrogen, as a fuel for internal combustion engines (ICE), requires unique approaches to assure safety and accuracy in an engine-testing lab because of hydrogen's molecular size, compressibility, and reactivity. Ford Scientific Research Lab has accumulated useful experiences during the P2000 hydrogen internal combustion engine and vehicle development program. This paper presents the safety measures used in the hydrogen lab, including gas leakage sensing and warning system, hydrogen flame detecting device, cell fresh air ventilation conventions, and hydrogen fueling and purging system.
Technical Paper

Ford P2000 Hydrogen Engine Design and Vehicle Development Program

In late 1997 Ford Motor Company Scientific Research Laboratory started the project to design and develop a practical, low-cost hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicle. This type of vehicle could serve as an interim step to drive the development of the hydrogen infrastructure before the widespread use of fuel cell vehicles. This paper will discuss the design and development approach and results for a dedicated engine optimized for operation on hydrogen, the unique and custom instrumentation necessary when working with hydrogen, the engine dynamometer development program, the unique triple-redundant vehicle safety system, and the final implementation into the Ford P2000 experimental vehicle.