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Technical Paper

Ford P2000 Hydrogen Engine Dynamometer Development

As part of the P2000 hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicle program, an engine dynamometer research project was conducted in order to systematically investigate the unique hydrogen related combustion characteristics cited in the literature. These characteristics include pre-ignition, NOx emissions formation and control, volumetric efficiency of gaseous fuel injection and related power density, thermal efficiency, and combustion control. To undertake this study, several dedicated, hydrogen-fueled spark ignition engines (compression ratios: 10, 12.5, 14.5 and 15.3:1) were designed and built. Engine dynamometer development testing was conducted at the Ford Research Laboratory and the University of California at Riverside. This engine dynamometer work also provided the mapping data and control strategy needed to develop the engine in the P2000 vehicle.
Technical Paper

Optimal A/F Ratio Estimation Model (Synthetic UEGO) for SI Engine Cold Transient AFR Feedback Control

A new method to estimate instantaneous A/F ratio and use the estimation as a feedback signal to control AFR during cold transients, before the oxygen sensor is functional, has been realized by a on-board PCM for a vehicle with a 4.6L, V8, PFI engine [4, 6]. Different AFRs cause variations in flame propagation, causing fluctuations in the effective torque. When a known AFR disturbance is induced into an engine system, a corresponding crankshaft angular velocity fluctuation can be detected. A variable derived from this physical phenomenon can be used to characterize the problem. The optimal fuel perturbation signal is designed by a relaxation concept, and the system model is determined by employing a dual-direction screening multivariate stepwise regression analysis. The estimated AFR is used by the PCM in a closed loop control to correct the fuel during cold transients.
Technical Paper

Ford Hydrogen Engine Powered P2000 Vehicle

The first known, North American OEM vehicle powered exclusively by a hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) has been developed and tested. This production viable, low cost, low emission vehicle is viewed as a short term driver for the hydrogen fueling infrastructure ultimately required for fuel cell vehicles. This vehicle features a highly optimized hydrogen IC engine, a triple redundant hydrogen safety system, and a dedicated gaseous hydrogen fuel system. The vehicle and its test results are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Ford Hydrogen Engine Laboratory Testing Facility

For future hydrogen fueled ground vehicle research, Ford Motor Company has installed the first hydrogen fueling station in North America with gaseous and cryogenic hydrogen and two dedicated hydrogen fueled engine laboratory dynamometer test cells. Hydrogen, as a fuel for internal combustion engines (ICE), requires unique approaches to assure safety and accuracy in an engine-testing lab because of hydrogen's molecular size, compressibility, and reactivity. Ford Scientific Research Lab has accumulated useful experiences during the P2000 hydrogen internal combustion engine and vehicle development program. This paper presents the safety measures used in the hydrogen lab, including gas leakage sensing and warning system, hydrogen flame detecting device, cell fresh air ventilation conventions, and hydrogen fueling and purging system.
Technical Paper

Ford P2000 Hydrogen Engine Design and Vehicle Development Program

In late 1997 Ford Motor Company Scientific Research Laboratory started the project to design and develop a practical, low-cost hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicle. This type of vehicle could serve as an interim step to drive the development of the hydrogen infrastructure before the widespread use of fuel cell vehicles. This paper will discuss the design and development approach and results for a dedicated engine optimized for operation on hydrogen, the unique and custom instrumentation necessary when working with hydrogen, the engine dynamometer development program, the unique triple-redundant vehicle safety system, and the final implementation into the Ford P2000 experimental vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of the Ford Split Port Induction Concept

The search for fuel efficient engines that also offer good performance and fuel economy at moderate cost prompted the development of the Split Port Induction (SPI) concept at Ford Motor Company. Ford has upgraded two families of 2-valve engines, the 2.0L CVH 14 and the 3.8L and 4.2L Essex V6's, with the Split Port Induction concept. SPI offers an improved WOT torque curve, better part load dilution tolerance for fuel economy and superior idle combustion stability. This is accomplished by dividing the intake port into two passages and inserting an intake manifold runner control (IMRC) valve into the secondary passage. The opening of this valve determines the level of in-cylinder charge turbulence and volumetric efficiency according to engine operating conditions. The development of the concept and the improvements resulting from its application to these engines will be described and discussed.