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Technical Paper

Detailed Heat Release Analyses with Regard to Combustion of RME and Oxygenated Fuels in an HSDI Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0627
Experiments on a modern DI Diesel engine were carried out: The engine was fuelled with standard Diesel fuel, RME and a mixture of 85% standard Diesel fuel, 5% RME and 10% higher alcohols under low load conditions (4 bar IMEP). During these experiments, different external EGR levels were applied while the injection timing was chosen in a way to keep the location of 50% heat release constant. Emission analysis results were in accordance with widely known correlations: Increasing EGR rates lowered NOx emissions. This is explained by a decrease of global air-fuel ratio entailing longer ignition delay. Local gas-fuel ratio increases during ignition delay and local combustion temperature is lowered. Exhaust gas analysis indicated further a strong increase of CO, PM and unburned HC emissions at high EGR levels. This resulted in lower combustion efficiency. PM emissions however, decreased above 50% EGR which was also in accordance with previously reported results.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Glow Plug Ignition Engine by Chemiluminescence Images

2007-07-23
2007-01-1884
An experimental study of a glow plug engine combustion process has been performed by applying chemiluminescence imaging. The major intent was to understand what kind of combustion is present in a glow plug engine and how the combustion process behaves in a small volume and at high engine speed. To achieve this, images of natural emitted light were taken and filters were applied for isolating the formaldehyde and hydroxyl species. Images were taken in a model airplane engine, 4.11 cm3, modified for optical access. The pictures were acquired using a high speed camera capable of taking one photo every second or fourth crank angle degree, and consequently visualizing the progress of the combustion process. The images were taken with the same operating condition at two different engine speeds: 9600 and 13400 rpm. A mixture of 65% methanol, 20% nitromethane and 15% lubricant was used as fuel.
Technical Paper

Qualitative Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Particulate Emissions During Transient Operation of a TDI Diesel Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3574
Laser-induced incandescence (LII) is a sensitive diagnostic technique capable of making exhaust particulate-matter measurements during transient operating conditions. This paper presents measurements of LII signals obtained from the exhaust gas of a 1.9-L TDI diesel engine. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) is used in fixed-size mode to obtain simultaneous number concentration measurements in real-time. The transient studies presented include a cranking-start/idle/shutdown sequence, on/off cycling of EGR, and rapid load changes. The results show superior temporal response of LII compared to the SMPS. Additional advantages of LII are that exhaust dilution and cooling are not required, and that the signal amplitude is directly proportional to the carbon volume fraction and its temporal decay is related to the primary particle size.
Technical Paper

Modeling of HCCI Combustion Using Adaptive Chemical Kinetics

2002-03-04
2002-01-0426
In this paper an online method for automatically reducing complex chemical mechanisms for simulations of combustion phenomena has been developed. The method is based on the Quasi Steady State Assumption (QSSA). In contrast to previous reduction schemes where chemical species are selected only when they are in steady state throughout the whole process, the present method allows for species to be selected at each operating point separately generating an adaptive chemical kinetics. The method is used for calculations of a natural gas fueled engine operating under Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) conditions. We discuss criteria for selecting steady state species and the influence of these criteria on the results such as concentration profiles and temperature.
Technical Paper

Heat Release in the End-Gas Prior to Knock in Lean, Rich and Stoichiometric Mixtures With and Without EGR

2002-03-04
2002-01-0239
SI Engine knock is caused by autoignition in the unburnt part of the mixture (end-gas) ahead of the propagating flame. Autoignition of the end-gas occurs when the temperature and pressure exceeds a critical limit when comparatively slow reactions-releasing moderate amounts of heat-transform into ignition and rapid heat release. In this paper the difference in the heat released in the end-gas-by low temperature chemistry-between lean, rich, stochiometric, and stoichiometric mixtures diluted with cooled EGR was examined by measuring the temperature in the end-gas with Dual Broadband Rotational CARS. The measured temperature history was compared with an isentropic temperature calculated from the cylinder pressure trace. The experimentally obtained values for knock onset were compared with results from a two-zone thermodynamic model including detailed chemistry modeling of the end-gas reactions.
Technical Paper

Mini High Speed HCCI Engine Fueled with Ether: Load Range, Emission Characteristics and Optical Analysis

2007-08-05
2007-01-3606
Power supply systems play a very important role in everyday life applications. There are mainly two ways of producing energy for low power generation: electrochemical batteries and small engines. In the last few years, many improvements have been carried out in order to obtain lighter batteries with longer durations but unfortunately the energy density of 1 MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. An energy source constituted of an organic fuel with an energy density around 29 MJ/kg and a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5% could surpass batteries. Nowadays, the most efficient combustion process is HCCI combustion which has the ability to combine a high energy conversion efficiency with low emission levels and a very low fuel consumption. The present paper describes an investigation carried out on a modified model airplane engine, on how a pure HCCI combustion behaves in a small volume, Vd = 4.11 cm3, at very high engine speeds (up to 17,500 [rpm]).
Technical Paper

Influence of the Compression Ratio on the Performance and Emissions of a Mini HCCI Engine Fueled Ether with Diethyl

2007-10-29
2007-01-4075
Power supply systems play a very important role in applications of everyday life. Mainly, for low power generation, there are two ways of producing energy: electrochemical batteries and small engines. In the last few years many improvements have been carried out in order to obtain lighter batteries with longer duration but unfortunately the energy density of 1 MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. If the energy source is an organic fuel with an energy density of around 29 MJ/kg and a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5%, this device can surpass the batteries. Nowadays the most efficient combustion process is HCCI combustion which is able to combine high energy conversion efficiency and low emission levels with a very low fuel consumption. In this paper, an investigation has been carried out concerning the effects of the compression ratio on the performance and emissions of a mini, Vd = 4.11 [cm3], HCCI engine fueled with diethyl ether.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Flow Measurements and Heat-Release Analysis in a Cross-Flow Cylinder Head

2002-10-21
2002-01-2840
A specially designed cylinder head, enabling unthrottled operation with a standard cam-phasing mechanism, was tested in an optical single-cylinder engine. The in-cylinder flow was measured with particle image velocimetry (PIV) and the results were compared with heat release and emission measurements. The article also discusses effects of residual gas and effective compression ratio on heat-release and emissions. The special design of the cylinder head, with one inlet and one exhaust valve per camshaft, made it possible to operate the engine unthrottled at part load. Cam phasing led to late inlet valve closing, but also to increased valve overlap. The exhaust valve closing was late in the intake stroke, resulting in high amounts of residual gases. Two different camshafts were used with late inlet valve closing. One of the camshafts had shorter valve open duration on the phased exhaust cam lobe.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Addition For Improved Lean Burn Capability of Slow and Fast Burning Natural Gas Combustion Chambers

2002-10-21
2002-01-2686
One way to extend the lean burn limit of a natural gas engine is by addition of hydrogen to the primary fuel. This paper presents measurements made on a one cylinder 1.6 liter natural gas engine. Two combustion chambers, one slow and one fast burning, were tested with various amounts of hydrogen (0, 5, 10 and 15 %-vol) added to natural gas. Three operating points were investigated for each combustion chamber and each hydrogen content level; idle, part load (5 bar IMEP) and 13 bar IMEP (simulated turbocharging). Air/fuel ratio was varied between stoichiometric and the lean limit. For each operating point, a range of ignition timings were tested to find maximum brake torque (MBT) and/or knock. Heat-release rate calculations were made in order to assess the influence of hydrogen addition on burn rate. Addition of hydrogen showed an increase in burn rate for both combustion chambers, resulting in more stable combustion close to the lean limit.
Technical Paper

The Influence of a Late In-Cylinder Air Injection on In-Cylinder Flow Measured with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)

2001-09-24
2001-01-3492
During development of an air assisted, direct injection combustion system, it was found that an air pulse during the late part of compression stroke significantly shortened the combustion duration and extended the lean limits of the engine. The effect of an injection of pure air through an air assist direct injector was studied with Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV. Results showed that an air pulse during the compression stroke significantly speeded up in-cylinder velocities, which also was showed in the heat release analysis. A system to use low density seeding particles was developed and is presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

Load Control Using Late Intake Valve Closing in a Cross Flow Cylinder Head

2001-09-24
2001-01-3554
A newly developed cross flow cylinder head has been used for comparison between throttled and unthrottled operation using late intake valve closing. Pressure measurements have been used for calculations of indicated load and heat-release. Emission measurements has also been made. A model was used for estimating the amount of residual gases resulting from the different load strategies. Unthrottled operation using late intake valve closing resulted in lower pumping losses, but also in increased amounts of residual gases, using this cylinder head. This is due to the special design, with one intake valve and one exhaust valve per camshaft. Late intake valve closing was achieved by phasing one of the camshafts, resulting in late exhaust valve closing as well. With very late phasing - i.e. low load - the effective compression ratio was reduced. This, in combination with high amount of residual gases, resulted in a very unstable combustion.
Technical Paper

Reacting Boundary Layers in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1032
An experimental and computational study of the near-wall combustion in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted by applying laser based diagnostic techniques in combination with numerical modeling. Our major intent was to characterize the combustion in the velocity- and thermal boundary layers. The progress of the combustion was studied by using fuel tracer LIF, the result of which was compared with LDA measurements of the velocity boundary layer along with numerical simulations of the reacting boundary layer. Time resolved images of the PLIF signal were taken and ensemble averaged images were calculated. In the fuel tracer LIF experiments, acetone was seeded into the fuel as a tracer. It is clear from the experiments that a proper set of backgrounds and laser profiles are necessary to resolve the near-wall concentration profiles, even at a qualitative level.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Study of the Potential of NOx Reduction by Fuel Rate Shaping in a DI Diesel Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2935
In this paper, a theoretical study is presented where fuel rate shaping is analyzed in combination with EGR as a method for reducing NOx formation. The analytical tools used include an empirically based model to convert fuel rate to heat release rate, and a zero dimensional multizone combustion model to calculate combustion products, local flame temperatures and NOx emissions at a given heat release rate. The multizone model, which has been presented earlier, includes flame radiation and convective heat losses. Several geometrical shapes of the fuel rate are tested for different combustion timings and EGR rates. It is found that the fuel rate giving the lowest NOx formation varies with the injection timing. In order to lower the NOx emissions at normal and advanced injection timings, the fuel rate should have a rather long duration, and start at its maximum level followed by a slow decay.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on the Heat Transfer in an SI Engine: Thermal Boundary Layer Investigation using CARS Temperature Measurements and Heat Flux Measurements

2000-10-16
2000-01-2831
It is generally accepted that knocking combustion influences the heat transfer in SI engines. However, the effects of heat transfer on the onset of knock is still not clear due to lack of experimental data of the thermal boundary layer close to the combustion chamber wall. This paper presents measurements of the temperature in the thermal boundary layer under knocking and non-knocking conditions. The temperature was measured using dual-broadband rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of the cylinder pressure, at three different locations, and the heat flux to the wall were carried out. Optical access to the region near the combustion chamber wall was achieved by using a horseshoe-shaped combustion chamber with windows installed in the rectangular part of the chamber. This arrangement made CARS temperature measurements close to the wall possible and results are presented in the range 0.1-5 mm from the wall.
Technical Paper

The Influence of EGR on Heat Release Rate and NO Formation in a DI Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1807
Exhaust Gas Recirculation, EGR, is one of the most effective means of reducing NOx emissions from diesel engines and is likely to be used in order to meet future emissions standards. Exhaust gases can either be used to replace some of the air that enters the engine or can be added to the intake flow. The former case has been studied in this paper. One advantage of air replacement is that the exhaust mass flow is reduced in addition to the decreased NOx formation. The objective of this study has been to take a closer look at the factors affecting NOx emissions at different EGR rates. This is done by combining heat release analysis, based on measured pressure traces and NO formation in a multi zone combustion model. The model used is an improved version of an earlier presented model [1]. One feature in the new model is the possibility to separate the NO formation during the premixed combustion from NO formed during the diffusive combustion.
Technical Paper

The Application of Ceramic and Catalytic Coatings to Reduce the Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1833
An experimental and theoretical study of the effect of thermal barriers and catalytic coatings in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted. The main intent of the study was to investigate if a thermal barrier or catalytic coating of the wall would support the oxidation of the near-wall unburned hydrocarbons. In addition, the effect of these coatings on thermal efficiency due to changed heat transfer characteristics was investigated. The experimental setup was based on a partially coated combustion chamber. The upper part of the cylinder liner, the piston top including the top land, the valves and the cylinder head were all coated. As a thermal barrier, a coating based on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 was used. The catalytic coating was based on plasma-sprayed ZrO2 doped with Platinum. The two coatings tested were of varying thickness' of 0.15, 0.25 and 0.6 mm. The compression ratio was set to 16.75:1.
Technical Paper

Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) with Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Pilot Fuel

2000-06-19
2000-01-1835
In an attempt to extend the upper load limit for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), supercharging in combination with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) have been applied. Two different boost pressures were used, 1.1 bar and 1.5 bar. High EGR rates were used in order to reduce the combustion rate. The highest obtained IMEP was 16 bar. This was achieved with the higher boost pressure, at close to stoichiometric conditions and with approximately 50 % EGR. Natural gas was used as the main fuel. In the case with the higher boost pressure, iso-octane was used as pilot fuel, to improve the ignition properties of the mixture. This made it possible to use a lower compression ratio and thereby reducing the maximum cylinder pressure. The tests were performed on a single cylinder engine operated at low speed (1000 rpm). The test engine was equipped with a modified cylinder head, having a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) mechanism.
Technical Paper

Employing an Ionization Sensor for Combustion Diagnostics in a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0992
An ionization sensor has been used to study the combustion process in a six-cylinder lean burn, truck-sized engine fueled with natural gas and optimized for low emissions of nitric oxides. The final goal of the investigations is to study the prospects of using the ionization sensor for finding the optimal operating position with respect to low NOx emission and stable engine operation. The results indicate that unstable combustion can be detected by analyzing the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the detector current amplitude. Close relationships between this measure and the CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure have been found during an air-fuel ratio scan with fixed ignition advance.
Technical Paper

Laser-Rayleigh Imaging of DME Sprays in an Optically Accessible DI Diesel Truck Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0915
Laser-Rayleigh imaging has been employed to measure the relative fuel concentration in the gaseous jet region of DME sprays. The measurements were performed in an optically accessible diesel truck engine equipped with a common rail injection system. A one-hole nozzle was used to guarantee that the recorded pressure history was associated with the heat release in the imaged spray. To compensate for the low compression ratio in the modified engine the inlet air was preheated. Spray development was studied for two levels of preheating, from the start of injection to the point where all fuel was consumed. The results indicate that there is a strong correlation between the amount of unburned fuel present in the cylinder and the rate of heat release at a given time. The combustion can not be described as purely premixed or purely mixing-controlled at any time, but always has an element of both. After all fuel appears to have vanished there is still an extended period of heat release.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection and Mean Swirl Effects on Combustion and Soot Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0912
High-speed video imaging in a swirl-supported (Rs = 1.7), direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine operated with moderate-to-high EGR rates reveals a distinct correlation between the spatial distribution of luminous soot and mean flow vorticity in the horizontal plane. The temporal behavior of the experimental images, as well as the results of multi-dimensional numerical simulations, show that this soot-vorticity correlation is caused by the presence of a greater amount of soot on the windward side of the jet. The simulations indicate that while flow swirl can influence pre-ignition mixing processes as well as post-combustion soot oxidation processes, interactions between the swirl and the heat release can also influence mixing processes. Without swirl, combustion-generated gas flows influence mixing on both sides of the jet equally. In the presence of swirl, the heat release occurs on the leeward side of the fuel sprays.
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