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Technical Paper

Gasoline PPC: A Parametric Study of Late Cycle Mixing Conditions using a Predictive Two-zone SRM Modeling Tool

The relatively new combustion concept known as partially premixed combustion (PPC) has high efficiency and low emissions. However, there are still challenges when it comes to fully understanding and implementing PPC. Thus a predictive combustion tool was used to gain further insight into the combustion process in late cycle mixing. The modeling tool is a stochastic reactor model (SRM) based on probability density functions (PDF). The model requires less computational time than a similar study using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A novel approach with a two-zone SRM was used to capture the behavior of the partially premixed or stratified zones prior to ignition. This study focuses on PPC mixing conditions and the use of an efficient analysis approach.
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Simulation of System Brake Efficiency in a Double Compression-Expansion Engine-Concept (DCEE) Based on Experimental Combustion Data

The double compression-expansion engine concepts (DCEE) are split-cycle concepts where the compression, combustion, expansion and gas exchange strokes occur in two or more different cylinders. Previous simulation studies reveal there is a potential to improve brake efficiency with these engine concepts due to improved thermodynamic and mechanical efficiencies. As a continuation of this project this paper studies an alternative layout of the DCEE-concept. The concept studied in this paper has three different cylinders, a compression, a combustion and an expansion cylinder. Overall system indicated and brake efficiency estimations were based on both engine experiments and simulations. The engine experiments were carried out at 10 different operating points and 5 fuelling rates (between 98.2 and 310.4 mg/cycle injection mass) at an engine speed of 1200 rpm. The inlet manifold pressure was varied between 3 and 5 bar.
Technical Paper

Analyzing Factors Affecting Gross Indicated Efficiency When Inlet Temperature Is Changed

Observations from engine experiments indicates that the gross indicated efficiency (GIE) increases when the inlet temperature (Tinlet) is lowered. The change in Tinlet affects several important factors, such as the heat release profile (affecting heat and exhaust losses), working fluid properties, combustion efficiency and heat transfer losses. These factors all individually contributes to the resulting change in GIE. However, due to their strong dependency to temperature it is not possible to quantify the contribution from each of these parameters individually. Therefore, a simulation model in GT-power has been created and calibrated to the performed engine experiments. With simulations the temperature dependency can be separated and it becomes possible to evaluate the contribution to GIE from each factor individually. The simulation results indicate that the specific heats of the working medium are the largest contributor.
Technical Paper

Lift-Off Lengths in an Optical Heavy-Duty Engine Operated at High Load with Low and High Octane Number Fuels

The influence of the ignition quality of diesel-and gasoline-like fuels on the lift-off length of the jet were investigated in an optical heavy duty engine. The engine was operated at a load of 22 bar IMEPg and 1200 rpm. A production type injector with standard holes were used. The lift-off length was recorded with high speed video Different injection pressures and inlet temperatures were used to affect conditions that consequently affect the lift-off length. No matter which fuel used nor injection pressure or inlet temperature, all lift-off lengths showed equal or close to equal lift-off length when stabilized. The higher octane fuel had a longer ignition delay and therefore the fuel penetrate the combustion chamber before auto ignition. This gave a longer lift-off length at the initial stage of combustion before reaching the same stabilized lift-off length. These results indicate that the hot combustion gases are a dominant factor to the lift-off length.