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Technical Paper

Force Feedback for Assembly of Aircraft Structures

2010-09-28
2010-01-1872
Variability in composite manufacture and the limitations in positional accuracy of common industrial robots have hampered automation of assembly tasks within aircraft manufacturing. One way to handle geometry variations and robot compliancy is to use force control. Force control technology utilizes a sensor mounted on the robot to feedback force data to the controller system so instead of being position driven, i.e. programmed to achieve a certain position with the tool, the robot can be programmed to achieve a certain force. This paper presents an experimental case where a compliant rib is aligned to multiple surfaces using force feedback and an industrial robot system from ABB. Two types of ribs where used, one full size carbon fiber rib, and one smaller metal replica for evaluation purposes. The alignment sequence consisted of several iterative steps and a search procedure was implemented within the robot control system.
Technical Paper

Applicability of Ionization Current Sensing Technique with Plasma Jet Ignition Using Pre-Chamber Spark Plug in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1632
This article deals with study of ionization current sensing technique's signal characteristics while operating with pre-chamber spark plug to achieve plasma jet ignition in a 6 cylinder 9 liter turbo-charged natural gas engine under EGR and excess air dilution. Unlike the signal with conventional spark plug which can be divided into distinct chemical and thermal ionization peaks, the signal with pre-chamber spark plug shows a much larger first peak and a negligible second peak thereafter. Many studies in past have found the time of second peak coinciding with the time of maximum cylinder pressure and this correlation has been used as an input to combustion control systems but the absence of second peak makes application of this concept difficult with pre-chamber spark plug.
Technical Paper

Flow and Temperature Distribution in an Experimental Engine: LES Studies and Thermographic Imaging

2010-10-25
2010-01-2237
Temperature stratification plays an important role in HCCI combustion. The onsets of auto-ignition and combustion duration are sensitive to the temperature field in the engine cylinder. Numerical simulations of HCCI engine combustion are affected by the use of wall boundary conditions, especially the temperature condition at the cylinder and piston walls. This paper reports on numerical studies and experiments of the temperature field in an optical experimental engine in motored run conditions aiming at improved understanding of the evolution of temperature stratification in the cylinder. The simulations were based on Large-Eddy-Simulation approach which resolves the unsteady energetic large eddy and large scale swirl and tumble structures. Two dimensional temperature experiments were carried out using laser induced phosphorescence with thermographic phosphors seeded to the gas in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Ultra-High Speed Fuel Tracer PLIF Imaging in a Heavy-Duty Optical PPC Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0904
In order to meet the requirements in the stringent emission regulations, more and more research work has been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) or partially premixed compression ignition (PCCI) as they have the potential to produce low NOx and soot emissions without adverse effects on engine efficiency. The mixture formation and charge stratification influence the combustion behavior and emissions for PPC/PCCI, significantly. An ultra-high speed burst-mode laser is used to capture the mixture formation process from the start of injection until several CADs after the start of combustion in a single cycle. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first time that such a high temporal resolution, i.e. 0.2 CAD, PLIF could be accomplished for imaging of the in-cylinder mixing process. The capability of resolving single cycles allows for the influence of cycle-to-cycle variations to be eliminated.
Technical Paper

Interaction between Fuel Jets and Prevailing Combustion During Closely-Coupled Injections in an Optical LD Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0551
Two imaging techniques are used to investigate the interaction between developed combustion from earlier injections and partially oxidized fuel (POF) of a subsequent injection. The latter is visualized by using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High speed imaging captures the natural luminescence (NL) of the prevailing combustion. Three different fuel injection strategies are studied. One strategy consists of two pilot injections, with modest separations after each, followed by single main and post injections. Both of the other two strategies have three pilots followed by single main and post injections. The separations after the second and third pilots are several times shorter than in the reference case (making them closely-coupled). The closely-coupled cases have more linear heat release rates (HRR) which lead to much lower combustion noise levels.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Formaldehyde and Fuel-Tracer LIF Imaging in a High-Speed Diesel Engine With Optically Accessible Realistic Combustion Chamber

2005-09-11
2005-24-008
Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde and a fuel-tracer have been performed in a high-speed diesel engine. N-heptane and isooctane were used as fuel and toluene was used as a tracer. This arrangement made it possible to make simultaneous measurements of toluene by exciting at 266 nm and detecting at 270-320 nm while exciting formaldehyde at 355 nm and detecting at 400-500 nm. The aim of this study is to investigate how traditional fuel tracer and natural-occurring formaldehyde formed in the cool chemistry are transported in the piston bowl. A range of ignition delays were created by running the engine with different amounts of EGR. During this sweep the area where the low-temperature reactions take place were studied. The measurements were performed in a 0.5-l, single-cylinder optical engine running under conditions simulating a cruise-point, i.e., about 2.2 bar imep.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Models' Appearance Impact on Observers' Ergonomic Assessment

2005-06-14
2005-01-2722
The objective of this paper is to investigate whether different appearance modes of the digital human models (DHM or manikins) affect the observers when judging a working posture. A case where the manikin is manually assembling a battery in the boot with help of a lifting device is used in the experiment. 16 different pictures were created and presented for the subjects. All pictures have the same background, but include a unique posture and manikin appearance combination. Four postures and four manikin appearances were used. The subjects were asked to rank the pictures after ergonomic assessment based on posture of the manikin. Subjects taking part in the study were either manufacturing engineering managers, simulation engineers or ergonomists. Results show that the different appearance modes affect the ergonomic judgment. A more realistic looking manikin is rated higher than the very same posture visualized with a less natural appearance.
Technical Paper

On the Use of Force Feedback for Cost Efficient Robotic Drilling

2007-09-17
2007-01-3909
Drilling is one of the most costly and labour-intensive operations in aircraft assembly. Rather than automating with expensive fixtures and precise machinery, our approach is to make use of standard low-cost robot equipment in combination with sensor feedback. The focus is to eliminate the sliding movement of the end-effector during the clamp-up, called the skating effect, and to keep the end-effector orthogonal to the surface, thus avoiding holes that are not perpendicular. To that end, force feedback is used for building up pressure to clamp up an end-effector to the work-piece surface prior to drilling. The system, including the planning of force parameters for each hole to be drilled, was programmed in DELMIA. The drilling was accomplished with the aid of an extension to the ABB Rapid language called ExtRapid, which is an XML-like code that is interpreted by the force feedback controller downstream in the process.
Journal Article

Effects of Post-Injection Strategies on Near-Injector Over-Lean Mixtures and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emission in a Heavy-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1383
Post-injection strategies aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) were investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine operating at a low-load, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high dilution (12.7% intake oxygen) where UHC emissions are problematic. Exhaust gas measurements showed that a carefully selected post injection reduced engine-out load-specific UHC emissions by 20% compared to operation with a single injection in the same load range. High-speed in-cylinder chemiluminescence imaging revealed that without a post injection, most of the chemiluminescence emission occurs close to the bowl wall, with no significant chemiluminescence signal within 27 mm of the injector. Previous studies have shown that over-leaning in this near-injector region after the end of injection causes the local equivalence ratio to fall below the ignitability limit.
Journal Article

Simultaneous PLIF Imaging of OH and PLII Imaging of Soot for Studying the Late-Cycle Soot Oxidation in an Optical Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0723
The effects of injection pressure and swirl ratio on the in-cylinder soot oxidation are studied using simultaneous PLIF imaging of OH and LII imaging of soot in an optical diesel engine. Images are acquired after the end of injection in the recirculation zone between two adjacent diesel jets. Scalars are extracted from the images and compared with trends in engine-out soot emissions. The soot emissions decrease monotonically with increasing injection pressure but show a non-linear dependence on swirl ratio. The total amount of OH in the images is negatively correlated with the soot emissions, as is the spatial proximity between the OH and soot regions. This indicates that OH is an important soot oxidizer and that it needs to be located close to the soot to perform this function. The total amount of soot in the images shows no apparent correlation with the soot emissions, indicating that the amount of soot formed is a poor predictor of the emission trends.
Technical Paper

A Machine Learning Approach to Information Extraction from Cylinder Pressure Sensors

2012-04-16
2012-01-0440
As the number of actuators and sensors increases in modern combustion engines, the task of optimizing engine performance becomes increasingly complex. Efficient information processing techniques are therefore important, both for off-line calibration of engine maps, and on-line adjustments based on sensor data. In-cylinder pressure sensors are slowly spreading from laboratory use to production engines, thus making data with high temporal resolution of the combustion process available. The standard way of using the cylinder pressure data for control and diagnostics is to focus on a few important physical features extracted from the pressure trace, such as the combustion phasing CA50, the indicated mean effective pressure IMEP, and the ignition delay. These features give important information on the combustion process, but much information is lost as the information from the high-resolution pressure trace is condensed into a few key parameters.
Technical Paper

Force Controlled Assembly of a Compliant Rib

2011-10-18
2011-01-2734
Automation in aerospace industry is often in the form of dedicated solutions and focused on processes like drilling, riveting etc. The common industrial robot has due to limitations in positional accuracy and stiffness often been unsuitable for aerospace manufacturing. One major cost driver in aircraft manufacturing is manual assembly and the bespoke tooling needed. Assembly tasks frequently involve setting relations between parts rather than a global need for accuracy. This makes assembly a suitable process for the use of force control. With force control a robot equipped with needed software and hardware, searches for desired force rather than for a position. To test the usefulness of force control for aircraft assembly an experimental case aligning a compliant rib to multiple surfaces was designed and executed. The system used consisted of a standard ABB robot and an open controller and the assembly sequence was made up of several steps in order to achieve final position.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the ECN Spray A Using Multidimensional Chemistry Coordinate Mapping: n-Dodecane Diesel Combustion

2012-09-10
2012-01-1660
A three dimensional numerical simulation of the ECN “Spray A” is presented. Both primary and secondary breakup of the spray are included. The fuel is n-Dodecane. The n-Dodecane kinetic mechanism is modeled using a skeletal mechanism that consists of 103 species and 370 reactions [9]. The kinetic mechanism is computationally heavy when coupled with three dimensional numerical simulations. Multidimensional chemistry coordinate mapping (CCM) approach is used to speedup the simulation. CCM involves two-way mapping between CFD cells and a discretized multidimensional thermodynamic space, the so called multidimensional chemistry coordinate space. In the text, the cells in the discretized multidimensional thermodynamic space are called zone to discriminate them from the CFD cells. In this way, the CFD cells which are at the similar thermodynamic state are identified and grouped into a unique zone. The stiff ODEs operates only on the zones containing at least one CFD cell.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Laser-Extinction and Natural Luminosity Measurements for Soot Probing in Diesel Optical Engines

2016-10-17
2016-01-2159
Soot emissions from diesel internal combustion engines are strictly regulated nowadays. Laser extinction measurement (LEM) and natural luminosity (NL) of sooty flames are commonly applied to study soot. LEM measures soot along the laser beam path and it can probe soot regardless of temperature. NL integrates the whole field of view and relies on soot temperature. In this work, a comparison of simultaneously recorded LEM and NL data has been performed in a heavy-duty optical engine. A 685 nm laser beam is used for LEM. The laser was modulated at 63 kHz, which facilitated subtraction of the background NL signal from the raw LEM data. By Beer-Lambert’s law, KL factor can be calculated and used as a metric to describe soot measurements. A compensation of transmitted laser intensity fluctuation and soot deposits on optical windows has been performed in this work.
Technical Paper

Lift-Off Lengths in an Optical Heavy-Duty Engine Operated at High Load with Low and High Octane Number Fuels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0245
The influence of the ignition quality of diesel-and gasoline-like fuels on the lift-off length of the jet were investigated in an optical heavy duty engine. The engine was operated at a load of 22 bar IMEPg and 1200 rpm. A production type injector with standard holes were used. The lift-off length was recorded with high speed video Different injection pressures and inlet temperatures were used to affect conditions that consequently affect the lift-off length. No matter which fuel used nor injection pressure or inlet temperature, all lift-off lengths showed equal or close to equal lift-off length when stabilized. The higher octane fuel had a longer ignition delay and therefore the fuel penetrate the combustion chamber before auto ignition. This gave a longer lift-off length at the initial stage of combustion before reaching the same stabilized lift-off length. These results indicate that the hot combustion gases are a dominant factor to the lift-off length.
Technical Paper

Mechanisms of Post-Injection Soot-Reduction Revealed by Visible and Diffused Back-Illumination Soot Extinction Imaging

2018-04-03
2018-01-0232
Small closely-coupled post injections of fuel in diesel engines are known to reduce engine-out soot emissions, but the relative roles of various underlying in-cylinder mechanisms have not been established. Furthermore, the efficacy of soot reduction is not universal, and depends in unclear ways on operating conditions and injection schedule, among other factors. Consequently, designing engine hardware and operating strategies to fully realize the potential of post-injections is limited by this lack of understanding. Following previous work, several different post-injection schedules are investigated using a single-cylinder 2.34 L heavy-duty optical engine equipped with a Delphi DFI 1.5 light-duty injector. In this configuration, adding a closely-coupled post injection with sufficiently short injection duration can increase the load without increasing soot emissions.
Journal Article

Diesel Spray Ignition Detection and Spatial/Temporal Correction

2012-04-16
2012-01-1239
Methods for detection of the spatial position and timing of diesel ignition with improved accuracy are demonstrated in an optically accessible constant-volume chamber at engine-like pressure and temperature conditions. High-speed pressure measurement using multiple transducers, followed by triangulation correction for the speed of the pressure wave, permits identification of the autoignition spatial location and timing. Simultaneously, high-speed Schlieren and broadband chemiluminescence imaging provides validation of the pressure-based triangulation technique. The combined optical imaging and corrected pressure measurement techniques offer improved understanding of diesel ignition phenomenon. Schlieren imaging shows the onset of low-temperature (first-stage) heat release prior to high-temperature (second-stage) ignition. High-temperature ignition is marked by more rapid pressure rise and broadband chemiluminescence.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Correlation Between Engine-Out Particulates and Local Φ in the Lift-Off Region of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Using Raman Spectroscopy

2009-04-20
2009-01-1357
The local equivalence ratio, Φ, was measured in fuel jets using laser-induced spontaneous Raman scattering in an optical heavy duty diesel engine. The measurements were performed at 1200 rpm and quarter load (6 bar IMEP). The objective was to study factors influencing soot formation, such as gas entrainment and lift-off position, and to find correlations with engine-out particulate matter (PM) levels. The effects of nozzle hole size, injection pressure, inlet oxygen concentration, and ambient density at TDC were studied. The position of the lift–off region was determined from OH chemiluminescence images of the flame. The liquid penetration length was measured with Mie scattering to ensure that the Raman measurement was performed in the gaseous part of the spray. The local Φ value was successfully measured inside a fuel jet. A surprisingly low correlation coefficient between engine-out PM and the local Φ in the reaction zone were observed.
Journal Article

Analysis of Errors in Heat Release Calculations Due to Distortion of the In-Cylinder Volume Trace from Mechanical Deformation in Optical Diesel Engines

2012-09-10
2012-01-1604
Optical engines of Bowditch design may suffer from distortion of the in-cylinder volume trace due to mechanical deformation from inertial, pressure and thermal forces. Errors in heat release calculation associated with such deformation were investigated in detail. The deformations were quantified by measuring the squish height during operation using high speed video. Deformations of all-metal engines were also estimated for comparison. The volume change caused by deformations did not change the calculated load significantly but caused errors in the heat release calculations both for optical and all metal engines. The errors at a given operating condition are smaller for all-metal engines but the importance is not necessarily smaller, since these engines normally are operated at higher loads. The errors can be eliminated by a corrected in-cylinder volume equation and a subtraction of heat release from a motored case.
Journal Article

Air-Entrainment in Wall-Jets Using SLIPI in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1718
Mixing in wall-jets was investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine with several injector configurations and injection pressures. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was employed in non-reacting conditions in order to quantitatively measure local equivalence ratios in colliding wall-jets. A novel laser diagnostic technique, Structured Laser Illumination Planar Imaging (SLIPI), was successfully implemented in an optical engine and permits to differentiate LIF signal from multiply scattered light. It was used to quantitatively measure local equivalence ratio in colliding wall-jets under non-reacting conditions. Mixing phenomena in wall-jets were analyzed by comparing the equivalence ratio in the free part of the jet with that in the recirculation zone where two wall-jets collide. These results were then compared to φ predictions for free-jets. It was found that under the conditions tested, increased injection pressure did not increase mixing in the wall-jets.
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