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Technical Paper

Characterization of Partially Premixed Combustion

2006-10-16
2006-01-3412
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) provides the potential of simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot for diesel engines. This work attempts to characterize the operating range and conditions required for PPC. The characterization is based on the evaluation of emission and in-cylinder measurement data of engine experiments. It is shown that the combination of low compression ratio, high EGR rate and engine operation close to stoichiometric conditions enables simultaneous NOx and soot reduction at loads of 8bar, 12bar, and 15bar IMEP gross. The departure from the conventional NOx-soot trade-off curve has to be paid with a decline in combustion efficiency and a rise in HC and CO emissions. It is shown that the low soot levels of PPC come along with long ignition delay and low combustion temperature. A further result of this work is that higher inlet pressure broadens the operating range of Partially Premixed Combustion.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Real Time NOx Model for Conventional and Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion

2006-10-16
2006-01-3329
A previously presented robust and fast diagnostic NOx model was modified into a predictive model. This was done by using simple yet physically-based models for fuel injection, ignition delay, premixed heat release rate and diffusion combustion heat release rate. The model can be used both for traditional high temperature combustion and for high-EGR low temperature combustion. It was possible to maintain a high accuracy and calculation speed of the NOx model itself. The root mean square of the relative model error is 16 % and the calculation speed is around one second on a PC. Combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, CA50 and the general shape of the heat release rate are well predicted by the combustion model. The model is aimed at real time NOx calculation and optimization in a vehicle on the road.
Technical Paper

Introductory Study of Variable Valve Actuation for Pneumatic Hybridization

2007-04-16
2007-01-0288
Urban traffic involves frequent acceleration and deceleration. During deceleration, the energy previously used to accelerate the vehicle is mainly wasted on heat generated by the friction brakes. If this energy that is wasted in traditional IC engines could be saved, the fuel economy would improve. One solution to this is a pneumatic hybrid using variable valve timing to compress air during deceleration and expand air during acceleration. The compressed air can also be utilized to supercharge the engine in order to get higher load in the first few cycles when accelerating. A Scania D12 single-cylinder diesel engine has been converted for pneumatic hybrid operation and tested in a laboratory setup. Pneumatic valve actuators have been used to make the pneumatic hybrid possible. The actuators have been mounted on top of the cylinder head of the engine. A pressure tank has been connected to one of the inlet ports and one of the inlet valves has been modified to work as a tank valve.
Technical Paper

A State-Space Simplified SCR Catalyst Model for Real Time Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0616
The use of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is becoming increasingly more popular as a way of reducing NOx emissions from heavy duty vehicles while maintaining competitive operating costs. In order to make efficient use of these systems, it's important to have a complete system approach when it comes to calibration of the engine and aftertreatment system. This paper presents a simplified model of a heavy duty SCR catalyst, primarily intended for use in combination with an engine-out emissions model to perform model based offline optimization of the complete system. The traditional way of modelling catalysts using a dense discretization of the catalyst channels and non-linear differential equation solvers to solve the heat and mass balance equations, requires too much computational power in this application. The presented model is also useful in other applications such as model based control.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Operating Range of Partially Premixed Combustion in a Multi Cylinder Heavy Duty Engine with Extensive EGR

2009-04-20
2009-01-1127
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept by which it is possible to get low smoke and NOx emissions simultaneously. PPC requires high EGR levels and injection timings sufficiently early or late to extend the ignition delay so that air and fuel mix extensively prior to combustion. This paper investigates the operating region of single injection diesel PPC in a multi cylinder heavy duty engine resembling a standard build production engine. Limits in emissions and fuel consumption are defined and the highest load that fulfills these requirements is determined. Experiments are carried out at different engine speeds and a comparison of open and closed loop combustion control are made as well as evaluation of an extended EGR-cooling system designed to reduce the EGR temperature. In this study the PPC operating range proved to be limited.
Technical Paper

HCCI Heat Release Data for Combustion Simulation, Based on Results from a Turbocharged Multi Cylinder Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1490
When simulating homogenous charge compression ignition or HCCI using one-dimensional models it is important to have the right combustion parameters. When operating in HCCI the heat release parameters will have a high influence on the simulation result due to the rapid combustion rate, especially if the engine is turbocharged. In this paper an extensive testing data base is used for showing the combustion data from a turbocharged engine operating in HCCI mode. The experimental data cover a wide range, which span from 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm and engine loads between 100 kPa up to over 600 kPa indicated mean effective pressure in this engine speed range. The combustion data presented are: used combustion timing, combustion duration and heat release rate. The combustion timing follows the load and a trend line is presented that is used for engine simulation. The combustion duration in time is fairly constant at different load and engine speeds for the chosen combustion timings here.
Technical Paper

A Study of In-Cylinder Fuel Spray Formation and its Influence on Exhaust Emissions Using an Optical Diesel Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1498
Increasingly stringent emission legislation as well as increased demand on fuel efficiency calls for further research and development in the diesel engine field. Spray formation, evaporation and ignition delay are important factors that influence the combustion and emission formation processes in a diesel engine. Increased understanding of the mixture formation process is valuable in the development of low emission, high efficiency diesel engines. In this paper spray formation and ignition under real engine conditions have been studied in an optical engine capable of running close to full load for a real HD diesel engine. Powerful external lights were used to provide the required light intensity for high speed camera images in the combustion chamber prior to ignition. A specially developed software was used for spray edge detection and tracking. The software provides crank angle resolved spray penetration data.
Technical Paper

Partially Premixed Combustion at High Load using Gasoline and Ethanol, a Comparison with Diesel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0944
This paper is the follow up of a previous work and its target is to demonstrate that the best fuel for a Compression Ignition engine has to be with high Octane Number. An advanced injection strategy was designed in order to run Gasoline in a CI engine. At high load it consisted in injecting 54 % of the fuel very early in the pilot and the remaining around TDC; the second injection is used as ignition trigger and an appropriate amount of cool EGR has to be used in order to avoid pre-ignition of the pilot. Substantially lower NOx, soot and specific fuel consumption were achieved at 16.56 bar gross IMEP as compared to Diesel. The pressure rise rate did not constitute any problem thanks to the stratification created by the main injection and a partial overlap between start of the combustion and main injection. Ethanol gave excellent results too; with this fuel the maximum load was limited at 14.80 bar gross IMEP because of hardware issues.
Technical Paper

Characterisation and Model Based Optimization of a Complete Diesel Engine/SCR System

2009-04-20
2009-01-0896
In order to make efficient use of a Diesel engine equipped with an SCR system, it's important to have a complete system approach when it comes to calibration of the engine and the aftertreatment system. This paper presents a complete model of a heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a vanadia based SCR system. The diesel engine uses common rail fuel injection, a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and cooled EGR. The engine model consists of a quasi steady gas exchange model combined with a two-zone zero dimensional combustion model. The combustion model is a predictive heat release model. Using the calculated zone temperatures, the corresponding NOx concentration is given by the original Zeldovich mechanism. The SCR catalyst model is of the state space type. The basic model structure is a series of continuously stirred tank reactors and the catalyst walls are discretized to describe mass transport inside the porous structure.
Technical Paper

Modelling Diesel Engine Combustion and NOx Formation for Model Based Control and Simulation of Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-0687
Emissions standards are becoming increasingly harder to reach without the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems such as Selective Catalytic Reduction and particulate filters. In order to make efficient use of these systems it is important to have accurate models of engine-out emissions. Such models are also useful for optimizing and controlling next-generation engines without aftertreatment using for example exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Engines are getting more advanced using systems such as common rail fuel injection, variable geometry turbochargers (VGT) and EGR. With these new technologies and active control of the injection timing, more sophisticated models than simple stationary emission maps must be used to get adequate results. This paper is focused on the calculation of engine-out NOx and engine parameters such as cylinder pressure, temperature and gas flows.
Technical Paper

Pressure Amplitude Influence on Pulsating Exhaust Flow Energy Utilization

2018-04-03
2018-01-0972
A turbocharged Diesel engine for heavy-duty on-road vehicle applications employs a compact exhaust manifold to satisfy transient torque and packaging requirements. The small exhaust manifold volume increases the unsteadiness of the flow to the turbine. The turbine therefore operates over a wider flow range, which is not optimal as radial turbines have narrow peak efficiency zone. This lower efficiency is compensated to some extent by the higher energy content of the unsteady exhaust flow compared to steady flow conditions. This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between exhaust energy utilization and available energy at the turbine inlet at different degrees of unsteady flow. A special exhaust manifold has been constructed which enables the internal volume of the manifold to be increased. The larger volume reduces the exhaust pulse amplitude and brings the operating condition for the turbine closer to steady-flow.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of the Effect of Pilot Quantity, Combustion Phasing and EGR on Efficiencies of a Gasoline PPC Light-Duty Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0084
In this paper, a parametric analysis on the main engine calibration parameters applied on gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is performed. Theoretically, the PPC concept permits to improve both the engine efficiencies and the NOx-soot trade-off simultaneously compared to the conventional diesel combustion. This work is based on the design of experiments (DoE), statistical approach, and investigates on the engine calibration parameters that might affect the efficiencies and the emissions of a gasoline PPC. The full factorial DoE analysis based on three levels and three factors (33 factorial design) is performed at three engine operating conditions of the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC). The pilot quantity (Qpil), the crank angle position when 50% of the total heat is released (CA50), and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) factors are considered. The goal is to identify an engine calibration with high efficiency and low emissions.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Based Cylinder Charge Estimation in Diesel Engines with Dual Independent Variable Valve Timing

2018-04-03
2018-01-0862
With stricter emission legislations and demands on low fuel consumption, new engine technologies are continuously investigated. At the same time the accuracy in the over all engine control and diagnosis and hence also the required estimation accuracy is tightened. Central for the internal combustion control is the trapped cylinder charge and composition Traditionally cylinder charge is estimated using mean intake manifold pressure and engine speed in a two dimensional lookup table. With the introduction of variable valve timing, two additional degrees of freedom are introduced that makes this approach very time consuming and therefore expensive. Especially if the cam phasers are given large enough authority to offer powerful thermal management possibilities. The paper presents a physical model for estimating in-cylinder trapped mass and residual gas fraction utilizing cylinder pressure measurements, and intake and exhaust valve lift profiles.
Technical Paper

Agglomeration and Nucleation of Non-Volatile Particles in a Particle Grouping Exhaust Pipe of a Euro VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0044
The possibility of non-volatile particle agglomeration in engine exhaust was experimentally examined in a Euro VI heavy duty engine using a variable cross section agglomeration pipe, insulated and double walled for minimal thermophoresis. The agglomeration pipe was located between the turbocharger and the exhaust treatment devices. Sampling was made across the pipe and along the centre-line of the agglomeration pipe. The performance of the agglomeration pipe was compared with an equivalent insulated straight pipe. The non-volatile total particle number and size distribution were investigated. Particle number measurements were conducted according to the guidelines from the Particle Measurement Programme. The Engine was fuelled with commercially available low sulphur S10 diesel.
Technical Paper

Thermal Reduction of NOx in a Double Compression Expansion Engine by Injection of AAS 25 and AUS 32 in the Exhaust Gases

2019-01-15
2019-01-0045
The double compression expansion engine (DCEE) is a promising concept for high engine efficiency while fulfilling the most stringent European and US emission legislation. The complete thermodynamic cycle of the engine is split among several cylinders. Combustion of fuel occurs in the combustion cylinder and in the expansion cylinder the exhaust gases are over expanded to obtain high efficiency. A high-pressure tank is installed between these two cylinders for after-treatment purposes. One proposal is to utilize thermal reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the high-pressure tank as exhaust temperatures can be sufficiently high (above 700 °C) for the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) reactions to occur. The exhaust gas residence time at these elevated exhaust temperatures is also long enough for the chemical reactions, as the volume of the high-pressure tank is substantially larger than the volume of the combustion cylinders.
Technical Paper

Future Fuels for DISI Engines: A Review on Oxygenated, Liquid Biofuels

2019-01-15
2019-01-0036
Global warming and climate change have led to a greater interest in the implementation of biofuels in internal combustion engines. In spark ignited engines, biofuels have been shown to improve efficiency and knock resistance while decreasing emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particles. This study investigates the effect of biofuels on SI engine combustion through a graphical compilation of previously reported results. Experimental data from 88 articles were used to evaluate the trends of the addition of different biofuels in gasoline. Graphs illustrating engine performance, combustion phasing and emissions are presented in conjunction with data on the physiochemical properties of each biofuel component to understand the observed trends. Internal combustion engines have the ability to handle a wide variety of fuels resulting in a broad range of biofuel candidates.
Technical Paper

Study on Heat Losses during Flame Impingement in a Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Surface Temperature Measurements

2019-04-02
2019-01-0556
In-cylinder heat losses in diesel engines decrease engine efficiency significantly and account for approximately 14-19% [1, 2, 3] of the injected fuel energy. A great part of the heat losses during diesel combustion presumably arises from the flame impingement onto the piston. Therefore, the present study investigates the heat losses during flame impingement onto the piston bowl wall experimentally. The measurements were performed on a full metal heavy-duty diesel engine with a small optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The surface temperature at the impingement point of the flame was determined by evaluating a phosphor’s temperature dependent emission decay. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed videos are associated to the surface temperature measurements in each cycle. Thus, surface temperature readings could be linked to specific impingement and combustion events.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions with a Wide-Range EGR in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0761
A large number of measurement techniques have been developed or adapted from other fields to measure various parameters of engine particulates. With the strict limits given by regulations on pollutant emissions, many advanced combustion strategies have been developed towards cleaner combustion. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely applied to suppress nitrogen oxide (NOx) and reduce soot emissions. On the other hand, gasoline starts to be utilized in compression ignition engines due to great potential in soot reduction and high engine efficiency. New engine trends raise the need for good sensitivity and suitable accuracy of the PM measurement techniques to detect particulates with smaller size and low particulate mass emissions. In this work, we present a comparison between different measurement techniques for particulate matter (PM) emissions in a compression ignition engine running on gasoline fuel. A wide-range of EGR was used with lambda varied from 3 down to 1.
Technical Paper

Simulation of System Brake Efficiency in a Double Compression-Expansion Engine-Concept (DCEE) Based on Experimental Combustion Data

2019-01-15
2019-01-0073
The double compression-expansion engine concepts (DCEE) are split-cycle concepts where the compression, combustion, expansion and gas exchange strokes occur in two or more different cylinders. Previous simulation studies reveal there is a potential to improve brake efficiency with these engine concepts due to improved thermodynamic and mechanical efficiencies. As a continuation of this project this paper studies an alternative layout of the DCEE-concept. The concept studied in this paper has three different cylinders, a compression, a combustion and an expansion cylinder. Overall system indicated and brake efficiency estimations were based on both engine experiments and simulations. The engine experiments were carried out at 10 different operating points and 5 fuelling rates (between 98.2 and 310.4 mg/cycle injection mass) at an engine speed of 1200 rpm. The inlet manifold pressure was varied between 3 and 5 bar.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Exhaust Valve Flow 1-D Modelling During Blowdown Conditions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0058
To conduct system level studies on internal combustion engines reduced order models are required in order to keep the computational load below reasonable limits. By its nature a reduced order model is a simplification of reality and may introduce modeling errors. However what is of interest is the size of the error and if it is possible to reduce the error by some method. A popular system level study is gas exchange and in this paper the focus is on the exhaust valve. Generally the valve is modeled as an ideal nozzle where the flow losses are captured by reducing the flow area. As the valve moves slowly compared to the flow the process is assumed to be quasi-steady, i.e. interpolation between steady-flow measurements can be used to describe the dynamic process during valve opening. These measurements are generally done at low pressure drops, as the influence of pressure ratio is assumed to be negligible.
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