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Technical Paper

Post-Treatment of Reclaimed Waste Water Based on an Electrochemical Advanced Oxidation Process

The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. Lynntech, Inc., working with NASA-JSC, is developing an electrochemical UV reactor which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process, in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used, in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation, to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort, the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Space-Compatible Biomass Pretreatment Methods

In bioregenerative life support systems, crop residues represent a source of biochemical energy for production of chemicals, pulp products and secondary foods. Hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates in biomass produces edible glucose as well as various 5-carbon sugars usable by microorganisms. However, the biomass must be pretreated before hydrolysis to remove minerals useful as plant nutrients, break down lignin, and improve access of the enzymes to the carbohydrates. Some pre-treatments also hydrolyze part or all of the hemicellulose, leaving purified cellulose. For use in space, pretreatments must be safe, rapid and as complete as practicable. This paper will present a process comparison of three “space-compatible” pretreatment methods for lignocellu-losic crop residues from bioregenerative life support systems. Ozonation, alkaline hydrogen peroxide, and strong alkali treatment use only regenerable materials and mild processing conditions.