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Technical Paper

Dynamic Moving Mesh CFD Study of Semi-truck Passing a Stationary Vehicle with Hood Open

2007-04-16
2007-01-0111
This paper examines the aerodynamic forces on the open hood of a stationary vehicle when another large vehicle, such as an 18-wheel semi-truck, passes by at high speed. The problem of semi-truck passing a parked car with hood open is solved as a transient two-vehicle aerodynamics problem with a Dynamic Moving Mesh (DMM) capability in commercial CFD software package FLUENT. To assess the computational feasibility, a simplified compact car / semi-truck geometry and CFD meshes are used in the first trial example. At 70 mph semi-truck speed, the CFD results indicate a peak aerodynamic force level of 20N to 30N on the hood of the car, and the direction of the net forces and moments on the hood change multiple times during the passing event.
Technical Paper

CFD-based Robust Optimization of Front-end Cooling Airflow

2007-04-16
2007-01-0105
Development and integration of the cooling system for an automotive vehicle requires a balancing act between several performance and styling objectives. The cooling system needs to provide sufficient air for heat rejection with minimal impact on the aerodynamic drag, styling requirements and other criteria. An optimization of various design parameters is needed to develop a design to meet these objectives in a short amount of time. Increase in the accuracy of the numerical predictions and reduction in the turn-around time has made it possible for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to be used early in the design phase of the vehicle development. This study shows application of the CFD for robust design of the engine cooling system.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Aerodynamics Analysis for Vehicles: Application of External Flow Simulations to Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Thermal Management of a Pickup Truck

2007-04-16
2007-01-0100
During the design process for a vehicle, the CAD surface geometry becomes available at an early stage so that numerical assessment of aerodynamic performance may accompany the design of the vehicle's shape. Accurate prediction requires open grille models with detailed underhood and underbody geometry with a high level of detail on the upper body surface, such as moldings, trim and parting lines. These details are also needed for aeroacoustics simulations to compute wall-pressure fluctuations, and for thermal management simulations to compute underhood cooling, surface temperatures and heat exchanger effectiveness. This paper presents the results of a significant effort to capitalize on the investment required to build a detailed virtual model of a pickup truck in order to simultaneously assess performance factors for aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and thermal management.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Technique Based on Finite Element and Experimental Data for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0466
This paper presents the hybrid technique application in identifying the noise transfer paths and the force transmissibility between the interfaces of the different components in the vehicle. It is the stiffness based formulation and is being applied for the low to mid frequency range for the vibration and structure borne noise. The frequency response functions such as dynamic compliance, mobility, inertance, and acoustic sensitivity, employed in the hybrid method, can either be from the test data or finite element solution or both. The Source-Path-Receiver concept is used. The sources can be from the road surface, engine, transmission, transfer case, prop-shaft, differential, rotating components, chain drives, pumps, etc., and the receiver can be driver/passenger ears, steering column, seats, etc.
Technical Paper

Correlating an Air Motion Number to Combustion Metrics and Initial Flame Kernel Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0653
This study attempts to develop a correlation between an airflow motion number, combustion burn rates, and initial flame kernel development. To accomplish this task, several motion plates were evaluated on a flowbench in order to calculate a motion number that would represent the dynamic motion in the combustion chamber. Afterwards, the plates were tested on a spark ignited engine at several part throttle conditions while gathering cylinder pressure measurements. These cylinder pressure measurements would then yield the combustion burn rates for each plate. In addition to the combustion measurements, the flame kernel growth, velocity and direction of the flame kernel were measured using an AVL Visio-flame. Finally, the data was evaluated and an attempt to correlate the motion number of the plates to the different measurements for describing combustion was made.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process to Investigate Suspension Sensitivity to Brake Judder

2007-04-16
2007-01-0590
Brake judder, which is a low frequency excitation of the suspension and thus, the body structure during low-G braking, is mainly felt at the steering wheel and throughout the vehicle structure. Brake judder is a problem that costs manufacturers millions of dollars in warranty cost and undesirable trade offs. The magnitude of judder response depends not only on the brake torque variation, but also on the suspension design character-istics. This paper discusses the judder simulation process using ADAMS software to investigate the suspension design sensitivity to the first order brake judder performance. The paper recommends “tuning knobs” to suspension designers and vehicle development engineers to resolve issues in the design and development stages. Various suspension design varia-bles including geometry and compliances as well as brake related characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

Designing Suspensions to Achieve Desirable Impact Harshness and Impact Shake Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0585
Impact Harshness and Impact Shake are two related aspects of ride performance. Vehicle designs often need to meet the conflicting requirements between these two performance areas. The fundamental dynamics and general effect of vehicle and suspension design parameters need to be understood to reduce the cost and time associated with early vehicle development and ensure built-in quality. This study investigates the influence of the parameters in suspension and tire wheel systems on each of the performance metrics. Attempts are made to rank-order the relative sensitivity of each parameter on each of the metrics and propose approaches to improve ride quality.
Technical Paper

Balance between Reliability and Robustness in Engine Cooling System Optimal Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-0594
This paper explores the trade-off between reliability-based design and robustness for an automotive under-hood thermal system using the iSIGHT-FD environment. The interaction between the engine cooling system and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is described. The engine cooling system performance is modeled using Flowmaster and a metamodel is developed in iSIGHT. The actual HVAC system performance is characterized using test bench data. A design of experiment procedure determines the dominant factors and the statistics of the HVAC performance is obtained using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The MCS results are used to build an overall system response metamodel in order to reduce the computational effort. A multi-objective optimization in iSIGHT maximizes the system mean performance and simultaneously minimizes its standard deviation subject to probabilistic constraints.
Technical Paper

Reliability Analysis of Dynamometer Loading Parameters during Vehicle Cell Testing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0600
In automotive testing, a chassis dynamometer is typically used, during cell testing, to evaluate vehicle performance by simulating actual driving conditions. The use of indoor cell testing has the advantage of running controlled tests where the cell temperature and humidity and solar loads can be well controlled. Driving conditions such as vehicle speed, wind speed and grade can be also controlled. Thus, repeated tests can be conducted with minimum test variations. The tractive effort required at the wheels of a vehicle for a given set of operating parameters is determined by taking into account a set of variables which affect vehicle performance. The forces considered in determination of the tractive effort include the constant friction force, variable friction force due to mechanical and tire friction, forces due to inertia and forces due to aerodynamic and wind effects. In addition, forces due to gravity are considered when road grades are simulated.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0598
This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analyses of Fastened Joints in Automotive Engineering

2007-04-16
2007-01-1204
In this paper, the methodology of finite element analyses of fastened joints in automotive engineering applications is described in detail. The analyses cover a) the possibility of slippage of the spacer with the design/actual clamp load, and under critical operating loads; b) the strength of the fastener and other structural components comprising the joint under the maximum clamp load. The types of fastened joints, the mechanical characteristics of the joints, the relationship of clamp load to torque, the design and maximum clamp loads, the finite element model meshing and assembly, the non-linearity due to contact, the determination of gaps and stack-up, and the nonlinear material simulation and loading procedures are described. An analysis example of a fastened joint on chassis is also illustrated.
Technical Paper

Strength Prediction and Correlation of Tow Hook Systems using Finite Element Analyses

2007-04-16
2007-01-1206
In this paper, tow hook systems and their functional objectives are briefly introduced. General analysis considerations in strength prediction of a tow hook system are described. These considerations contain nonlinear, clamping and material property simulations. Connections and loading simulation of a tow hook system model are discussed in details. A correlation example of a tow hook system is illustrated. This study shows that detailed modeling of a tow hook system is a fundamental requirement for accurate strength prediction and good correlation between finite element analysis and testing.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Mean Value Engine Model for Integrated Engine and Control System Simulation

2007-04-16
2007-01-1304
This paper describes the development of a mean value model for a turbocharged diesel engine. The objective is to develop a fast-running engine model with sufficient accuracy over a wide range of operating conditions for efficient evaluation of control algorithms and control strategies. The mean value engine model was derived from a detailed 1D engine model, using the Design of Experiments (DOE) and hybrid Radial Basis Functions (RBF) to approximate the simulation results of the detailed model for cylinder quantities (e.g., the engine volumetric efficiency, the indicated efficiency, and the energy fraction of the exhaust gas). Furthermore, the intake and exhaust systems (especially intake and exhaust manifolds) were completely simplified by lumping flow components together. In addition, to compare with hybrid RBF, neural networks were also used to approximate the simulation results of the detailed engine model.
Technical Paper

Spindle-Based Engine Mount Load Analysis - Prediction and Correlation

2007-04-16
2007-01-1203
Engine mount loads are mostly measured from load cells or calculated from measured engine accelerations. This paper introduces an innovative new method to calculate engine mount loads from measured spindle loads. The method starts from calculating suspension attachment loads to body or chassis frame, then calculating engine center of gravity accelerations, and finally calculating engine mount loads from engine inertia forces. This spindle-based engine mount load analysis method is validated by a vehicle with measurements by wheel force transducers and engine load cells. The correlation includes load time history, peak-to-peak load range, and pseudo-damage values. The correlations show good comparisons between measured and predicted in all the categories, especially for the high load components. It is recommended to implement this method in early vehicle design phases.
Technical Paper

Shock Absorber Force and Velocity Sensitivity to Its Damping Characteristics

2007-04-16
2007-01-1349
In this study, a full vehicle with durability tire model established with ADAMS is applied to simulate the dynamic behavior of the vehicle under severe rough road proving ground events, where the shock force-velocity characteristics are modeled as nonlinear curves and multi-stage representations, respectively. The shock forces and velocities at each corner are resolved and through full factorial DOE, the shock forces and velocities response surface models are established to analyze the sensitivities of shock force and velocity to the shock damping characteristics.
Technical Paper

Future Truck Steering Effort Optimization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1155
In an endeavor to improve upon historically subjective and hardware-based steering tuning development, a team was formed to find an optimal and objective solution using Design For Six Sigma (DFSS). The goal was to determine the best valve assembly design within a hydraulic power-steering assist system to yield improved steering effort and feel robustness for all vehicle models in a future truck program. The methodology utilized was not only multifaceted with several Design of Experiments (DOEs), but also took advantage of a CAE-based approach leveraging modeling capabilities in ADAMS for simulating full-vehicle, On-Center Handling behavior. The team investigated thirteen control factors to determine which minimized a realistic, compounded noise strategy while also considering the ideal steering effort function (SEF) desired by the customer. In the end, it was found that response-dependent variability dominated the physics of our valve assembly design concept.
Technical Paper

Transmission Mount Assembly Modelling for Load Simulation and Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1348
Transmission mounts are usually tested as an assembly and typically only translational stiffnesses are provided. The torsional stiffness of the assembly is traditionally estimated based on experience in load simulation and analysis. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the torsional stiffness of the transmission mount assembly by using the test data. The effects of the torsional stiffness on the simulation results are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Laminar Flow Whistle on a Vehicle Side Mirror

2007-04-16
2007-01-1549
In the development of several outside mirror designs for vehicles, a high frequency noise (whistling) phenomenon was experienced. First impression was that this might be due to another source on the vehicle (such as water management channels) or a cavity noise; however, upon further investigation the source was found to be the mirror housing. This “laminar whistle” is related to the separation of a laminar boundary layer near the trailing edges of the mirror housing. When there is a free stream impingement on the mirror housing, the boundary layer starts out as laminar, but as the boundary layer travels from the impingement point, distance, speed, and roughness combine to trigger the transition turbulent. However, when the transition is not complete, pressure fluctuations can cause rapidly changing flow patterns that sound like a whistle to the observer. Because the laminar boundary layer has very little energy, it does not allow the flow to stay attached on curved surfaces.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Techniques to Forecast Consumer Satisfaction for Vehicle Ride

2007-04-16
2007-01-1537
This paper presents a comparison of methods for the identification of a reduced set of useful variables using a multidimensional system. The Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and a standard statistical technique are used reduce the dimensionality of vehicle ride based on consumer satisfaction ratings. The Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and cluster analysis are applied to vehicle ride. The research considers 67 vehicle data sets for the 6 vehicle ride parameters. This paper applies the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System to forecast consumer satisfaction and provides a comparison of results with those obtained from a standard statistical approach to the problem.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Managing Vehicle Mass throughout the Development Process and Vehicle Lifecycle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1721
Managing (minimizing and optimizing) the total mass of a vehicle is recognized as a critical task during the development of a new vehicle, as well as throughout its production lifecycle. This paper summarizes a literature review of, and investigation into, the strategies, methods and best practices for achieving low total mass in new vehicle programs, and/or mass reductions in existing production vehicle programs. Empirical and quantitative data and examples from the automotive manufacturers and suppliers are also provided in support of the material presented.
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