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Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Improvements for an Automatic Transmission through Design Retargeting and Manufacturing Variability Reduction

Gear whine in 1st gear for an automatic transmission that has been in production for nearly thirty years was identified as an NVH issue. Due to advances in vehicle level refinement, and reduction of other masking noises, the automatic transmission gear whine became an issue with the customer. Since the transmission was already in production, the improvements had to be within the boundaries of manufacturing feasibility with existing equipment to avoid costly and time consuming investment in new machines. The approach used was one of identifying optimum values of existing gear parameters to provide a reduction in passenger compartment noise. The problem was in a light truck application. Objective noise measurements were recorded for 10 transmissions from more than 50 driven in vehicles. The transmissions were disassembled and the gears inspected.
Technical Paper

Engine Excitation Decomposition Methods and V Engine Results

Engine excitation forces have been studied in the past using one of two methods; a lumped sum or a totally distributed approach. The lumped sum approach gives the well-understood engine inherent unbalance and the totally distributed approach is used in engine CAE models to determine the overall engine response. The approach that will be described in this paper identifies an intermediate level of sophistication. The methodology implemented considers single cylinder forces on the engine block, piston side thrust and main bearing forces, and decomposes them into their order content. The forces are then phased and geometrically distributed appropriately for each cylinder and then each order is analyzed relative to know distributions that are NVH concerns, V-block breathing, block side wall breathing, and block lateral and vertical bending.
Technical Paper

Finite element simulation of drive shaft in truck/SUV frontal crash

Drive shaft modelling effects frontal crash finite element simulation. A 35 mph rigid barrier impact of a body on frame SUV with an one piece drive shaft and a unibody SUV with a two piece drive shaft have been studied and simulated using finite element analyses. In the model, the drive shaft can take significant load in frontal impact crash. Assumptions regarding the drive shaft model can change the predicted engine motion in the simulation. This change influences the rocker @ B-pillar deceleration. Two modelling methods have been investigated in this study considering both joint mechanisms and material failure in dynamic impact. Model parameters for joint behavior and failure should be determined from vehicle design information and component testing. A body on frame SUV FEA model has been used to validate the drive shaft modeling technique by comparing the simulation results with crash test data.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Benefit of Cylinder Deactivation - Sensitivity to Vehicle Application and Operating Constraints

A Variable Displacement Engine (VDE) improves fuel economy by deactivating half the cylinders at light load. The actual fuel economy benefit attained in the vehicle depends on how often cylinders can be deactivated, which is a function of test cycle, engine size, and vehicle weight. In practice, cylinder deactivation will also be constrained by NVH (noise, vibration, and harshness). This paper presents fuel economy projections for VDE in several different engine and vehicle applications. Sensitivity to NVH considerations is quantified by calculating fuel economy with and without cylinder deactivation in various operating modes: idle, low engine speed, 1st and 2nd gear, and warm-up after cold start. The effects of lug limits and calibration hysteresis are also presented.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Powertrain with an Engine-Disconnecting Clutch

Several types of hybrid-electric vehicles have been developed at Ford Research Laboratory. Among the parallel hybrid systems with a single electric motor, two types were studied. In the first type, the electric motor was attached directly to the crankshaft (mild hybrid) [1], to enable the engine start-stop and regeneration functions. In the second type (full hybrid) the electric motor was connected to the engine through the use of a clutch to allow electric launch of the vehicle and pure electric driving at low speeds. The full hybrid powertrain described in this paper uses a more powerful electric motor for enhanced regenerative braking and engine power assist. An engine-disconnecting clutch saves energy during both the electric propulsion and during vehicle braking. When the clutch is disengaged the engine is shut-off, which eliminates the energy otherwise spent on motoring the engine during electric propulsion.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for Feedgas Hydrocarbon Emissions: An Extension to Warm Engine Maps

A feedgas hydrocarbon emissions model that extends the usefulness of fully-warmed steady-state engine maps to the cold transient regime was developed for use within a vehicle simulation program that focuses on the powertrain control system (Virtual Powertrain and Control System, VPACS). The formulation considers three main sources of hydrocarbon. The primary component originates from in-cylinder crevice effects which are correlated with engine coolant temperature. The second component includes the mass of fuel that enters the cylinder but remains unavailable for combustion (liquid phase) and subsequently vaporizes during the exhaust portion of the cycle. The third component includes any fuel that remains from a slow or incomplete burn as predicted by a crank angle resolved combustion model.
Technical Paper

A New FEA Method for the Evaluation of a Body Joint

A finite element analysis method has been developed to assess the design of an automobile body joint. The concept of the coefficient of joint stiffness and the force distribution ratio are proposed accordingly. The coefficient of joint stiffness reveals whether a joint is stiff enough compared to its joining components. In addition, these parameters can be used to estimate the potential and the effectiveness for any further improvement of the joint design. The modeling and analysis of the proposed process are robust. The coefficient of joint stiffness could be further developed to serve as the joint design target.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of HCCI Using a Single Cylinder Four-stroke SI Engine with Modified Valve Timing

A standard port fuel injected, unthrottled single cylinder four-stroke SI engine, with a compression ratio of 10.3:1, and using standard gasoline fuel, has been adapted to operate in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode, by modifying the valve timing. It has been found that over a speed range of between 1300 and 2000 rpm, and lambda values of between 0.95 and 1.1, stable operation is achieved without spark ignition. The internal EGR rate was estimated to be about 60%, and emissions of NOX were typically 0.25 g/kWh. Practical implementation of this HCCI concept will require variable valve timing, which will also enable reversion to standard SI operation for maximum power.
Technical Paper

Correlating Stressed Environmental Testing of Structural Composites to Service

A compact in-situ tensile stress fixture was designed for the study of the combined effects of stress and automotive environments on structural glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. With this fixture, a standardized 300 hour laboratory screening test was developed to compare the residual property loss of composite materials due to concurrent exposure to stress and environment. It is of great importance that the data gathered in the laboratory have correlation to on-vehicle (in-service) performance, and that both lab and real world data be taken with a test system (in-situ test fixtures) capable of providing accurate and consistent results under either test condition.
Technical Paper

Intra-Parcel Collision Model for Diesel Spray Simulations

Multidimensional models that are used for engine computations must include spray sub-models when the fuel is injected into the cylinder in liquid form. One of these spray sub-models is the droplet interaction model, which is separated into two parts: first, calculation of a collision rate between drops, and second, calculation of the outcome once a collision has occurred. This paper focuses on the problem of calculating the collision rate between drops accurately. Computing the collision rate between drops or particles when they are non-uniformly distributed and sharp gradients are present in their distribution is a challenging task. Traditionally the collisions between parcels of drops have been computed using the same spatial grid as is used for the Eulerian gas-phase calculations. Recently it has been proposed to use a secondary grid for the collision rate calculation that is independent of the gas-phase grid, as is done in the NTC collision algorithm.
Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
Technical Paper

Ford 2011 6.7L Power Stroke® Diesel Engine Combustion System Development

A new diesel engine, called the 6.7L Power Stroke® V-8 Turbo Diesel, and code named "Scorpion," was designed and developed by Ford Motor Company for the full-size pickup truck and light commercial vehicle markets. The combustion system includes the piston bowl, swirl level, number of nozzle holes, fuel spray angle, nozzle tip protrusion, nozzle hydraulic flow, and nozzle-hole taper. While all of these parameters could be explored through extensive hardware testing, 3-D CFD studies were utilized to quickly screen two bowl concepts and assess their sensitivities to a few of the other parameters. The two most promising bowl concepts were built into single-cylinder engines for optimization of the rest of the combustion system parameters. 1-D CFD models were used to set boundary conditions at intake valve closure for 3-D CFD which was used for the closed-cycle portion of the simulation.
Technical Paper

Definitions and Methods for Worst Case Materials in Formability Simulations

Two types of approaches for material definitions and methods for worst case scenarios are explored. The first is from the material specification supplied by the OEM or the alloy producer for the material, which has basic material properties and no specific FLC. The potential exists that any material within the specification can be delivered to the stamping plants. The second is if the material is to be supplied within a narrowed band of material specification with a known FLC. For both cases, there is considerable pressure from product design to use the most formable material possible. However, if a material is delivered outside the FEA testing limits, the results can be catastrophic. A specification is proposed to take advantage of the formability capability to enhance product performance while minimizing stamping plant risk.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Methods for Determining Sheared Edge Formability

Imposing tensile stress on an edge of a sheet metal blank is a common condition in many sheet metal forming operations, making edge formability a very important factor to consider. Because edge formability varies greatly among different materials, cutting methods (and their control parameters), it is very important to have access to an experimental technique that would allow for quick and reliable evaluation of edge formability for a given case. In this paper, two existing techniques are compared: the hole expansion test and the tensile test. It is shown that the hole expansion test might not be adequate for many cases, and is prone to overestimating the limiting strain, because the burr on the sheared edge is typically smaller than what is observed in production. The tensile test represents an effective alternative to the hole expansion test. Advantages and disadvantages of each case are discussed.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Vibration Studies of As-Installed Power Steering Pumps

Pump whine as well as other NVH issues related to power steering system can become customer concerns at the vehicle level. In order to avoid that, proposed treatment of the pump structure and its installation on the engine should be performed. This is particularly important because most vane pumps have a wide range of excitation that can reach 1000 Hz (30th order @ 6000 rpm). This requires maximizing the ‘as installed’ frequencies of the pump to avoid coincidence with the engine and other FEAD harmonics.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Analysis Tool for Fixture Design Integrity Verification and Optimization

Machining fixtures are used to locate and constrain a workpiece during a machining operation. To ensure that the workpiece is manufactured according to specified dimensions and tolerances, it must be appropriately located and clamped. Minimizing workpiece and fixture tooling deflections due to clamping and cutting forces in machining is critical to the machining accuracy. An ideal fixture design maximizes locating accuracy and workpiece stability, while minimizing displacements. The purpose of this research is to develop a method for modeling workpiece boundary conditions and applied loads during a machining process, analyze modular fixture tool contact area deformation and optimize support locations, using finite element analysis (FEA). The workpiece boundary conditions are defined by locators and clamps. The locators are placed in a 3-2-1 fixture configuration, constraining all degrees of freedom of the workpiece and are modeled using linear spring-gap elements.
Technical Paper

On the Effectiveness of the Spatial Transmissibility to Drive the NVH Design of Cylinder Head Covers

Many suppliers and OEMs adopted the concept of transmissibility ratio as a method of choice to evaluate the NVH performance of cylinder head cam covers. The was defined as the transfer function between the cam cover and the cylinder head average vibrations. The was shown to be independent of the engine speed and declared to be a characteristic intrinsic to the cam cover system. This paper examines the correlation between the predictions and the measured cam covers sound power. For this purpose, a comprehensive study was conducted using several cam covers with different materials, designs and isolation systems. The results indicated a moderate correlation between the and the sound power for the isolated covers only. Analysis of the measured cam cover and cylinder head vibrations shows the potential cause for this weak correlation and demonstrates the need for improving the definition in order to accurately guide the cam cover NVH design.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Analysis for Axle Differential Cases

The recent trends of increasing driveline torque and use of traction control devices call for increasingly higher durability capacity from driveline components. Bench and vehicle durability tests are often used to validate designs, but they are not cost-effective and take months to complete. Traditional finite element analysis (FEA) procedures have been used effectively in the re-design of driveline components to reduce stress, and occasionally, to predict fatigue life. But in the case of certain rotating components, such as the Axle Differential Case, where the component sees large stress/strain fluctuations within the course of one complete rotation, even under constant input torque, historical fatigue analysis (when conducted) yields very conservative results. The axle differential case tends to be one of the weakest links in the rear axle assembly. Therefore, there is a crucial need for analytical methods to more accurately predict fatigue life to reduce testing time and cost.
Technical Paper

Effect of Polyurethane Foam on the Energy Management of Structural Components

The effect of polyurethane structural foam on strength, stiffness, and energy absorption of foam filled structural components is investigated to formulate design directions that may be used in weight reduction and engineering functions of vehicle systems. An experimental/testing approach is first utilized using Taguchi’s DOE to identify design variables [foam density, gage, and material type], that are needed to determine the weight/performance ratio of structural hat-section components. An analytical CAE approach is then used to analyze the hat-section components using non-linear, large deformation finite element analysis. An accepted level of confidence in the CAE analytical tools is then established based on comparison of results between the two approaches.