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Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Technical Paper

MonteCarlo Techniques in Thermal Analysis – Design Margins Determination Using Reduced Models and Experimental Data

In the paper several application techniques of MonteCarlo (MC) method applied to thermal analysis of space vehicles are presented. Although these methods are widely used in other engineering domains, their introduction to the thermal one is quite recent and not fully developed in the industrial practice. This paper aims at showing that, even without demanding computation resources (all what presented has been obtained with a single processor PC) MonteCarlo analysis techniques, in a preliminary design phase, can support and integrate engineering judgment of the thermal designer. In particular, it is exploited the applicability of the method to reduced thermal models, with a clear advantage in terms of computation time. An original approach is proposed, and results are shown. The papers shows the applicability of the MC method to the case when experimental data of the uncertain parameters are available, using the bootstrap re-sampling techniques.
Technical Paper

Integrated Vehicle and Driveline Modeling

In the last years automotive industry has shown a growing interest in exploring the field of vehicle dynamic control, improving handling performances and safety of the vehicle, and actuating devices able to optimize the driving torque distribution to the wheels. These techniques are defined as torque vectoring. The potentiality of these systems relies on the strong coupling between longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics established by tires and powertrain. Due to this fact the detailed (and correct) simulation of the dynamic behaviour of the driveline has a strong importance in the development of these control systems, which aim is to optimize the contact forces distribution. The aim of this work is to build an integrated vehicle and powertrain model in order to provide a proper instrument to be used in the development of such systems, able to reproduce the dynamic interaction between vehicle and driveline and its effects on the handling performances.
Technical Paper

Flow Visualization Study of an HVAC Module Operated in Water

Centrifugal blowers serve as the primary source of airflow and aero-acoustic noise in automotive HVAC modules. Flow field measurements inside blowers indicate very complex flow patterns. A detailed flow visualization study was conducted on an actual HVAC fan module operated in water under dynamically similar conditions as those in air with the purpose of studying the complex flow patterns in order to improve the aerodynamic performance of the fan/scroll casing and diffuser components. Fan-scroll/diffuser interaction was also studied as function of fan speed. Conventional and special (shear thickening) dye injection flow visualization techniques were used to study the complex 3-dimensional vortical and unsteady flow patterns that occur in typical HVAC fans. A major advantage of the flow visualization technique using shear-thickening dye is its usefulness in high the Reynolds number flows that are typically encountered inside HVAC modules.
Technical Paper

Prerequisites for Extensive Computer Manikin Analysis – An Example with Hierarchical Task Analysis, File Exchange Protocol and a Relational Database

In this case study, a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis was carried out in the preliminary design phase of the Cupola. Cupola is a European Space Agency (ESA) module for manned space flights for the International Space Station (ISS) as part of a Barter Arrangement between ESA and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Manikin software was used early in the design process before the production of any flight hardware. The manikin analysis was supported by the use of hierarchical task analysis, a file exchange protocol and a relational database. This paper describes methodological aspects of the use of the supporting methods. Results show that hierarchical task analysis, a file exchange protocol and a relational database are prerequisites for successful extensive manikin analysis.
Technical Paper

Speed Limit in City Area and Improvement of Vehicle Front Design for Pedestrian Impact Protection-A Computer Simulation Study

This paper presented a part of results from an ongoing project for pedestrian protection, which is carried out at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. A validated pedestrian mathematical model was used in this study to simulate vehicle-pedestrian impacts. A large number of simulations have been carried out with various parameters. The injury-related parameters concerning head, chest, pelvis and lower extremities were calculated to evaluate the effect of impact speed and vehicle front structure on the risk of pedestrian injuries. The effect of following vehicle parameters was studied: stiffness of bumper, hood edge, hood top, windscreen frame, and shape of vehicle front structures. A parameter study was conducted by modelling vehicle-pedestrian impacts with various sizes of cars, mini vans, and light trucks. This choice represents the trends of new vehicle fleet and their frequency of involvement in real world accidents.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI Modeling: Computer Program Combining Detailed Chemistry and Gas Exchange Processes

A skeletal reaction mechanism (101 species, 479 reactions) for a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons was constructed for application to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine modeling. The mechanism is able to predict shock tube ignition delays and premixed flame propagation velocities for the following components: hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), acetylene (C2H2), propane (C3H8), n-heptane (C7H16) and iso-octane (C8H18). The mechanism is integrated with a simulation code combining both modeling of detailed chemistry and gas exchange processes. This simulation tool was constructed by connecting the SENKIN code of the CHEMKIN library to the AVL BOOST™ engine cycle simulation code. Using a complete engine cycle simulation code instead of a code that only considers the combustion process has a major advantage. The initial conditions at the intake valve closure (IVC) have no longer to be set.
Technical Paper

Heat Release in the End-Gas Prior to Knock in Lean, Rich and Stoichiometric Mixtures With and Without EGR

SI Engine knock is caused by autoignition in the unburnt part of the mixture (end-gas) ahead of the propagating flame. Autoignition of the end-gas occurs when the temperature and pressure exceeds a critical limit when comparatively slow reactions-releasing moderate amounts of heat-transform into ignition and rapid heat release. In this paper the difference in the heat released in the end-gas-by low temperature chemistry-between lean, rich, stochiometric, and stoichiometric mixtures diluted with cooled EGR was examined by measuring the temperature in the end-gas with Dual Broadband Rotational CARS. The measured temperature history was compared with an isentropic temperature calculated from the cylinder pressure trace. The experimentally obtained values for knock onset were compared with results from a two-zone thermodynamic model including detailed chemistry modeling of the end-gas reactions.
Technical Paper

Application of Transient Temperature vs. Equivalence Ratio Emission Maps to Engine Simulations

In order to acquire knowledge about temperature vs. equivalence ratio, T-ϕ, conditions in which emissions are formed and destroyed, T-ϕ parametric maps were constructed for: 1 Soot and soot precursors (C2H2) 2 Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) 3 Unburnt intermediates (CH2O, H2 and CO) 4 Important radicals (HO2 and OH) Each map was obtained by plotting data from a large number of simulations for various T-ϕ combinations in a zero-dimensional, 0D, closed Perfectly Stirred Reactor, PSR. Initially, the influences of elapsed reaction time, pressure and EGR level were examined, varying one parameter at a time. Then, since both the elapsed time and pressure change in an engine cycle, the maps were constructed according to engine pressure traces obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, simulations. Since the pressure is changing in elapsed time intervals the maps are called transient.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Soot Emissions from a Direct Injection Diesel Engine using Water-in-Diesel Emulsion and Microemulsion Fuels

The emissions from a direct injection diesel engine measured according to the ECE R49 13-mode cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation are compared for diesel fuel without water addition, and for water-in-diesel as emulsion and microemulsion. The effect of water addition on the soot emissions was remarkably strong for both the emulsion and microemulsion fuels. The average weighted soot emission values for the 13-mode cycle were 0.0024 and 0.0023 g/kWh for the two most interesting emulsion and microemulsion fuels tested, respectively; 5-fold lower than the US 2007 emission limit.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Diesel Engine - an Experimental Study

Combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether, DME, have been investigated experimentally, in a heavy duty single cylinder engine equipped with an adapted common rail fuel injection system, and the effects of varying injection timing, rail pressure and exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion and emission parameters. The results show that DME combustion does not produce soot and with the use of exhaust gas recirculation NOX emissions can also be reduced to very low levels. However, high injection pressure and/or a DME adopted combustion system is required to improve the mixing process and thus reduce the combustion duration and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

The EGR Effects on Combustion Regimes in Compression Ignited Engines

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of exhaust gases on different combustion modes in DI, Direct Injection, compression ignited engines in terms of combustion efficiency and emission formations. The conventional parametric Φ -T (Equivalence Ratio-Temperature) emission map analysis has been extended by constructing the transient maps for different species characterizing the combustion and emission formation processes. The results of the analysis prove the efficiency of different combustion modes when EGR loads and injection scenarios.
Technical Paper

An Innovative 4WD Controlled Powertrain for High Performance Vehicle

The potentialities shown by controlled differentials is making the automotive industry to explore this field. While VDC systems can only guarantee a safe behaviour at limit, a controlled differential can also increase the handling performance. The system derives from a RWD driveline with a semi-active differential, to which has been added a controlled wet clutch that directly connects the engine to the front axle. This device allows to distribute the drive torque between the two axles. It can be easily understood that in this device the torque distribution doesn't depend only from the central clutch action, but also from the engaged gear. Because of this particular layout this system can't work in the whole gear because thermal problems due to kinematical reasons. So the central clutch controller has to consider the gear position too.
Technical Paper

It's in the Eye of the Beholder: Who Should be the User of Computer Manikin Tools?

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of computer manikin users' background and knowledge for the results of a computer manikin simulation. Subjects taking part in the study were either production engineers or ergonomists. A manual task that presented production and ergonomics problems was used. The task was simulated prior to the subjects' sessions, using the computer manikin software Jack. During the sessions, the animated simulation was shown to the test subject. Results show that there are differences in how production engineers and ergonomists interpret results from a manikin simulation. Depending on the user's background, certain aspects that are difficult to visualise with the computer manikin were interpreted differently, regarding e.g. detected problems and holistic perspectives.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Engine Model, including Compression Brake for, Powertrain Control

A diesel engine model, designed for studying events during automated gear shifting in a heavy duty truck is presented. It will be used for developing and evaluating powertrain control strategies. The deceleration in engine speed to the new synchronous speed, during an upshift, is of special intereset. The straightforward approach is to cut fuel and wait for the engine to slow down due to friction and pumping losses. In many cases, this approach is too slow, and the engine compression brake needs to be activated. The engine model, assuming quasi-steady, bidirectional thermodynamic flow with constant specific heat capacities, is implemented using Modelica. A simple model of the hydraulic circuit that governs the activation of the compression brake mode is incorporated in the model. Problems related to the simulation of the engine brake systems are discussed. They are handled by empirical correction factors. Measurements from rapid engine speed decelerations are used for verification.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ethanol Content in Gasoline on Speciated Emissions from a Direct Injection Stratified Charge SI Engine

The influence of ethanol content in gasoline on speciated emissions from a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) SI engine is assessed. The engine tested is a commercial DISC one that has a wall guided combustion system. The emissions were analyzed using both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and conventional emission measurement equipment. Seven fuels were compared in the study. The first range of fuels was of alkylate type, designed to have 0, 5, 10 and 15 % ethanol in gasoline without changing the evaporation curve. European emissions certification fuel was tested, with and without 5 % ethanol, and finally a specially blended high volatility gasoline was also tested. The measurements were conducted at part-load, where the combustion is in stratified mode. The engine used a series engine control unit (ECU) that regulated the fuel injection, ignition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
Technical Paper

Self-Ignition and Early Combustion Process of n-Heptane Sprays Under Diluted Air Conditions: Numerical Studies Based on Detailed Chemistry

This paper reports the numerical studies of self-ignition and early combustion process of n-heptane sprays under various diluted air conditions. The numerical simulations employ a detailed chemistry approach, coupled directly with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A “subgrid” Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model has been developed to account for the turbulence-chemistry-interaction. This model has been implemented into the KIVA3V CFD code. A detailed chemical mechanism of reduced size (65 species and 273 elementary reactions) for the n-heptane fuel has been derived and applied to the simulations of spray combustion. The studies focus on sprays injected into a high-pressure constant-volume chamber. Firstly, the validation of the current numerical model has been carried out for the case in which the injection and initial conditions are similar to those used in the “classical” Aachen experiments (50bar and 800K).
Technical Paper

Proactive Human Factors Engineering Analysis in Space Station Design Using the Computer Manikin Jack

In this case study, a human factors analysis was carried out in the preliminary design phase of the Cupola, a European Space Agency (ESA) module for manned space flights for the International Space Station (ISS). The manikin software Jack® was used early in the design process before any flight hardware production. All Cupola astronaut tasks were evaluated in a virtual environment of the Cupola. Methodological aspects concerning the analysis are described, e.g. file processing, use of coordinate systems and the use of a prior task analysis. Results show that the thorough manikin analysis supported with the hierarchical task analysis results, was an important help in the design process.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Split Injections at Low Load in an HDDI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Piezo Injector

In order to investigate the effects of split injection on emission formation and engine performance, experiments were carried out using a heavy duty single cylinder diesel engine. Split injections with varied dwell time and start of injection were investigated and compared with single injection cases. In order to isolate the effect of the selected parameters, other variables were kept constant. In this investigation no EGR was used. The engine was equipped with a common rail injection system with a piezo-electric injector. To interpret the observed phenomena, engine CFD simulations using the KIVA-3V code were also made. The results show that reductions in NOx emissions and brake specific fuel consumption were achieved for short dwell times whereas they both were increased when the dwell time was prolonged. No EGR was used so the soot levels were already very low in the cases of single injections.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Attenuation Characteristics of I.C. Engine Silencers by 1-D and Multi-D Simulation Models

This paper describes the development, application and comparison of two different non-linear numerical codes, respectively based on a 1D and 3D schematization of the geometrical domain, for the prediction of the acoustic behavior of common silencing devices for i.c. engine pulse noise abatement. A white noise approach has been adopted and applied to predict the attenuation curves of silencers in the frequency domain, while a non-reflecting boundary condition was used to represent an anechoic termination. Expansion chambers, Helmholtz and column resonators, Herschel-Quincke tubes have been simulated by both the 1D and the 3D codes and the results compared to the available linear acoustic analytical solutions. Finally, a hybrid approach, in which the CFD code has been integrated with the 1D model, is described and applied to the simulation of a single cylinder engine. The computed results are compared to the measured pressure waves and emitted sound pressure level spectra.