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Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

1996-04-01
91A100
The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Technical Paper

Integration and Validation of Sheet Metal Forming Simulation Computer Programs Into the Design Process

1996-04-01
91A121
In order to improve the design of drawn parts and to reduce the number of trial and error tests, Renault has undertaken the development and the validation of various finite element procedures and codes. This paper describes the function of each software and its level of integration into the design process. One of them is already an operational tool used be planners whilst the others are still in the validation phase. Selected examples show typical applications of the computer programs on automotive parts.
Technical Paper

Development of a Multi-Dimensional Parallel Solver for Full-Scale DPF Modeling in OpenFOAM®

2009-06-15
2009-01-1965
A new fast and efficient parallel numerical solver for reacting and compressible flows through porous media has been developed in the OpenFOAM® (Open Field Operation and Manipulation) CFD Toolbox. With respect to the macroscopic model for porous media originally available in OpenFOAM®, a different mathematical approach has been followed: the new implemented solver makes use of the physical normal components resulting from the velocity expansion in the unit orthogonal vector basis to compute the Darcy pressure drop across the porous medium. Also, an additional sink term to account for the increased flow friction over the porous wall has been included into the momentum equation. In the new solver, the pressure correction equation is still able to achieve a faster convergency at very low permeability of the medium, also when it is associated with grid non-orthogonality.
Technical Paper

Reduced Kinetic Mechanisms for Diesel Spray Combustion Simulations

2013-09-08
2013-24-0014
Detailed chemistry represents a fundamental pre-requisite for a realistic simulation of combustion process in Diesel engines to properly reproduce ignition delay and flame structure (lift-off and soot precursors) in a wide range of operating conditions. In this work, the authors developed reduced mechanisms for n-dodecane starting from the comprehensive kinetic mechanism developed at Politecnico di Milano, well validated and tested in a wide range of operating conditions [1]. An algorithm combining Sensitivity and Flux Analysis was employed for the present skeletal reduction. The size of the mechanisms can be limited to less than 100 species and incorporates the most important details of low-temperature kinetics for a proper prediction of the ignition delay. Furthermore, the high-temperature chemistry is also properly described both in terms of reactivity and species formation, including unsaturated compounds such as acetylene, whose concentration controls soot formation.
Technical Paper

Application and Evaluation of the Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) Model on CFD Diesel Spray Simulations

2011-06-09
2011-37-0029
During the last fifteen years, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become one of the most important tools to both understand and improve the diesel spray development in Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Most of the approaches and models used pure Eulerian or Lagrangian descriptions to simulate the spray behavior. However, each one of them has both advantages and disadvantages in different regions of the spray, it can be the dense zone or the downstream dilute zone. One of the most promising techniques, which has been in development since ten years ago, is the Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) model. This is an integrated model for capturing the whole spray evolution, including primary break-up and secondary atomization. In this paper, the ELSA numerical modeling of diesel sprays implementation in Star-CD (2010) is studied, and simulated in comparison with the diesel spray which has been experimentally studied in our institute, CMT-Motores Térmicos.
Technical Paper

A Physical 0D Combustion Model Using Tabulated Chemistry with Presumed Probability Density Function Approach for Multi-Injection Diesel Engines

2010-05-05
2010-01-1493
This paper presents a new 0D phenomenological approach to predict the combustion process in diesel engines operated under various running conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a physical approach in order to improve the prediction of in-cylinder pressure and heat release. The main contribution of this study is the modeling of the premixed part of the diesel combustion with a further extension of the model for multi-injection strategies. In phenomenological diesel combustion models, the premixed combustion phase is usually modeled by the propagation of a turbulent flame front. However, experimental studies have shown that this phase of diesel combustion is actually a rapid combustion of part of the fuel injected and mixed with the surrounding gas. This mixture burns quasi instantaneously when favorable thermodynamic conditions are locally reached. A chemical process then controls this combustion.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of 3D Generic Cells to the Acoustic Modelling of Exhaust Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1526
The acoustic simulation of internal combustion engine exhaust systems is an important aspect to meet customer expectations and legislation targets. One dimensional gas dynamic simulation tools are used for the calculation of the exhaust orifice noise in the early stages of the engine development process. This includes the prediction of the acoustic performance of individual components in the exhaust line. One common element used in exhaust systems to increase the acoustic damping is the plug flow muffler. This study looks at the prediction of acoustic performance of various plug mufflers at different flow velocities. These include a single plug muffler, a double plug muffler and an eccentric plug muffler with different porosities for the perforated sections. To this purpose a generic 3D cell approach was developed and applied.
Technical Paper

System Approach for NOx Reduction: Double LNT Diesel After-Treatment Architecture

2011-04-12
2011-01-1300
This paper presents an after-treatment architecture combining a close coupled NOx trap and an under floor NOx trap. Instead of simply increasing the volume of the catalyst, we propose to broaden the active temperature window by splitting the LNT along the exhaust line. In order to design this architecture, a complete 1D model of NOx trap has been developed. Validated with respect to experimental data, this model has been useful to define the two volumes of LNT, making significant savings on the test bench exploitation. However, one of the main difficulties to operate the proposed architecture is the NOx purge and sulfur poisoning management. In order to optimize the NOx and sulfur purge launches, we have developed a control strategy based on an embedded reduced LNT model. These strategies have been validated on different driving cycles, by the means of simulation and of vehicle tests using rapid prototyping tools.
Journal Article

Computational Fluid Dynamics Calculations of Turbocharger's Bearing Losses

2010-05-05
2010-01-1537
Fuel consumption in internal combustion engines and their associated CO2 emissions have become one of the major issues facing car manufacturers everyday for various reasons: the Kyoto protocol, the upcoming European regulation concerning CO2 emissions requiring emissions of less than 130g CO2/km before 2012, and customer demand. One of the most efficient solutions to reduce fuel consumption is to downsize the engine and increase its specific power and torque by using turbochargers. The engine and the turbocharger have to be chosen carefully and be finely tuned. It is essential to understand and characterise the turbocharger's behaviour precisely and on its whole operating range, especially at low engine speeds. The characteristics at low speed are not provided by manufacturers of turbochargers because compressor maps cannot be achieve on usual test bench.
Journal Article

Theoretical and Experimental Ride Comfort Assessment of a Subject Seated into a Car

2010-04-12
2010-01-0777
A comprehensive research is presented aiming at assessing the ride comfort of subjects seated into road or off-road vehicles. Although many papers and books have appeared in the literature, many issues on ride comfort are still to be understood, in particular, the paper investigates the mutual effects of the posture and the vibration caused mostly from road unevenness. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, a mathematical model of a seated subject is validated by means of actual measurements on human subjects riding on a car. Such measurements refer to the accelerations acting at the subject/seat interface (vertical acceleration at the seat cushion and horizontal acceleration at the seat back). A proper dummy is used to derive the seat stiffness and damping.
Journal Article

A Method for Vibration and Harshness Analysis Based on Indoor Testing of Automotive Suspension Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0639
The paper presents a method for the indoor testing of road vehicle suspension systems. A suspension is positioned on a rotating drum which is located in the Laboratory for the Safety of Transport at Politecnico di Milano. Special six-axis load cells have been designed and used for measuring the forces/moments acting at each suspension-chassis joints. The forces/moments, wheel accelerations, displacements are measured up to 100 Hz. Two different types of test can be performed. The tire/wheel unbalance effect on the suspension system behavior (Vibration and Harshness, VH) has been analyzed by testing the suspension system from zero to the vehicle maximum speed on a flat surface and by monitoring the forces transmitted to the chassis. In the second kind of test, the suspension system has been excited as the wheel passes over different cleats fixed on the drum.
Technical Paper

Development of Fully-Automatic Parallel Algorithms for Mesh Handling in the OpenFOAM®-2.2.x Technology

2013-09-08
2013-24-0027
The current development to set up an automatic procedure for automatic mesh generation and automatic mesh motion for internal combustion engine simulation in OpenFOAM®-2.2.x is here described. In order to automatically generate high-quality meshes of cylinder geometries, some technical issues need to be addressed: 1) automatic mesh generation should be able to control anisotropy and directionality of the grid; 2) during piston and valve motion, cells and faces must be introduced and removed without varying the overall area and volume of the cells, to avoid conservation errors. In particular, interpolation between discrete fields is frequent in computational physics: the use of adaptive and non-conformal meshes necessitates the interpolation of fields between different mesh regions. Interpolation problems also arise in areas such as model coupling, model initialization and visualisation.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1142
The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

Hybrid URANS/LES Turbulence Modeling for Spray Simulation: A Computational Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-0270
Turbulence modeling for fuel spray simulation plays a prominent role in the understanding of the flow behavior in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Currently, a lot of research work is actively spent on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence modeling as a replacement option of standard Reynolds averaged approaches in the Eulerian-Lagrangian spray modeling framework, due to its capability to accurately describe flow-induced spray variability and to the lower dependence of the results on the specific turbulence model and/or modeling coefficients. The introduction of LES poses, however, additional questions related to the implementation/adaptation of spray-related turbulence sources and to the rise of conflicting numerics and grid requirements between the Lagrangian and Eulerian parts of the simulated flow.
Technical Paper

Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0: Challenges and Opportunities for Designing New Vehicle Components for Automated and/or Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0504
The paper deals with the “wise sensorization” of vehicle components. In the upcoming full digitalization of mobility, vehicle components are getting more and more sensorized. The problem is why, what, when and where vehicle components can be sensorized. The paper attempts a preliminary problem statement for the sensorization of vehicle components. A theoretical basic investigation is introduced, setting the main concepts on which extended sensorization is advisable or not. The paradigms of Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0 are addressed, namely sensors are proposed to be used both for monitoring the manufacturing process and for monitoring the service life of the component. In general, sensors are proposed to be used for multiple purposes. Two examples of sensorized components are briefly presented. One refers to a sensorized electric motor, the other one refers to a sensorized wheel.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Acoustic Synthesis Method: Improving Acquisition Time by Using P-U Probes

2005-05-16
2005-01-2444
In order to reach OEMs acoustic treatment targets (improving performance while minimizing the weight and cost impact), we have developed an original hybrid approach called “Vehicle Acoustic synthesis method”[1] to simulate - and therefore to optimize - noise treatments for both insulation and absorption, and to calculate the resulting Sound Pressure Level (SPL) at ear points for the middle and high frequency range. To calculate the SPL, we identify equivalent volume velocity sources from intensity measurements, and combine them to acoustic transfer functions (panel/ear) measured or computed with ray tracing codes using the reciprocity principle. Compared to our first approach [1], this paper shows a new measurement technique using pressure-particle velocity probes [2]. This technique allows to reduce acquisition time by a factor four, and makes therefore possible a synthesis method on a complete car within two weeks.
Technical Paper

CFD Modelling of Gasoline Sprays

2005-09-11
2005-24-086
A comprehensive model for sprays emerging from high pressure swirl injectors for GDI engine application has been developed. The primary and secondary atomization mechanism as well as the evaporation process both in standard and superheated conditions are taken into account. The spray modelling after the injection is based on the Liquid Instability Sheet Atomization (LISA) approach, modified to correctly predict the liquid sheet thickness at the breakup length. The effect of different values of the superheat degree on evaporation and impact on the spray distribution and fuel-air mixing is analyzed. Comparisons with experimental data show good agreements under atmospheric conditions and with different superheated degrees, while some discrepancies occur under higher ambient pressures.
Technical Paper

Integrated Vehicle and Driveline Modeling

2007-04-16
2007-01-1583
In the last years automotive industry has shown a growing interest in exploring the field of vehicle dynamic control, improving handling performances and safety of the vehicle, and actuating devices able to optimize the driving torque distribution to the wheels. These techniques are defined as torque vectoring. The potentiality of these systems relies on the strong coupling between longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics established by tires and powertrain. Due to this fact the detailed (and correct) simulation of the dynamic behaviour of the driveline has a strong importance in the development of these control systems, which aim is to optimize the contact forces distribution. The aim of this work is to build an integrated vehicle and powertrain model in order to provide a proper instrument to be used in the development of such systems, able to reproduce the dynamic interaction between vehicle and driveline and its effects on the handling performances.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of S.I. Combustion Models for Emissions Prediction

2006-04-03
2006-01-1108
The s.i. combustion process and its corresponding pollutant formation are investigated by means of a quasiD approach and a CFD model. This work has been motivated by the need to better understand the reliability of such models and to assess their accuracies with respect to the prediction of engine performances and emissions. An extended dissertation about the fundamental mechanisms governing the pollutant formation in the turbulent premixed combustion which characterizes the s.i. engines is given. The conclusion of such analysis is the definition of a new reduced chemical scheme, based on the application of partial-equilibrium and steady-state assumptions for the radicals and the solution of a transport equation for each specie which is kinetically controlled. For this purpose the CFD code OpenFOAM [1, 2, 3] and the thermo-fluid dynamic code GASDYN [4, 5] have been applied and enhanced.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Attenuation Characteristics of I.C. Engine Silencers by 1-D and Multi-D Simulation Models

2006-04-03
2006-01-1541
This paper describes the development, application and comparison of two different non-linear numerical codes, respectively based on a 1D and 3D schematization of the geometrical domain, for the prediction of the acoustic behavior of common silencing devices for i.c. engine pulse noise abatement. A white noise approach has been adopted and applied to predict the attenuation curves of silencers in the frequency domain, while a non-reflecting boundary condition was used to represent an anechoic termination. Expansion chambers, Helmholtz and column resonators, Herschel-Quincke tubes have been simulated by both the 1D and the 3D codes and the results compared to the available linear acoustic analytical solutions. Finally, a hybrid approach, in which the CFD code has been integrated with the 1D model, is described and applied to the simulation of a single cylinder engine. The computed results are compared to the measured pressure waves and emitted sound pressure level spectra.
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