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Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach for Design of Engine Crankcase Through Stress Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0500
The cylinder block for the power train has always been a classic example of concurrent engineering in which disciplines like NVH, Durability, thermal management and lubrication system layout contribute interactively for concept design. Since the concept design is based on engineering judgment and is an estimated design, the design iterations for optimization are inevitable. This paper aims at outlining a systematic approach for design of crankcase for fatigue which would eliminate design iterations for durability. This allows a larger scope for design improvement at the concept stage as the design specifications are not matured at this stage. A process of stress optimization is adopted which gives accurate dimensional input to design. The approach is illustrated with a case study where an existing crankcase was optimized for fatigue and significant weight reduction was achieved.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Test with CAE of Dynamic Strains on Transmission Housing for 4WD Automotive Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0497
Reducing the vibrations in the powertrain is one of the prime necessities in today's automobiles from NVH and strength perspectives. The necessity of 4×4 powertrain is increasing for better control on normal road and off-road vehicles. This leads to bulky powertrains. The vehicle speeds are increasing, that requires engines to run at higher speeds. Also to save on material costs and improve on fuel economy there is a need for optimizing the mass of the engine/vehicle. The reduced stiffness and higher speeds lead to increased noise and vibrations. One more challenge a powertrain design engineer has to face during design of its transmission housings is the bending / torsional mode vibrations of powertrain assembly. This aggravates other concerns such as shift lever vibrations, shift lever rattle, rise in in-cab noise, generation of boom noise at certain speeds, etc. Hence, reducing vibrations becomes an important and difficult aspect in design of an automobile.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

2012-09-24
2012-01-1989
Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5 Gear-Manual Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. A Motor is attached to the output shaft of the Transmission which drives in power while the AMT unit is making transition from one gear to another.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Intercooler Efficiency as a Technique for Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1133
As the emission targets are getting tighter, efforts are made to improve the emission by all possible means. This work emphasis the potential of intercooler to reduce exhaust gas emissions (CO, HC, NOx and PM). A detailed analysis of experimental results on emissions is presented. The effect of intercooler efficiency on emissions is explained. A multi-utility vehicle equipped with common rail diesel engine was tested in NEDC cycle in chassis dynamometer. Ideally the vehicle emission lab should replicate a flat straight road condition & natural airflow. To obtain the airflow a variable velocity fan is used. The velocity of air emerging from the fan and relative position of the fan with vehicle has a significant role in intercooler efficiency and hence on emissions. This work explains the exercise carried out to correlate the intercooler efficiency and exhaust emissions with fan position and velocity.
Technical Paper

A Development of Booming Index of Diesel SUV by using Artificial Neural Network

2012-06-13
2012-01-1542
In today's competitive scenario, understanding mental modal map of individual customer perception plays a major role to create the brand image of vehicle. Among them “comfortable sound” is one of the important criteria for customer satisfaction, especially in case of diesel vehicle, where in-cab sound quality plays a crucial factor. Often customer perception concerning comfort in automotive industry relies on subjective comfort evaluation method. Converting the customer perception into objective measurements and to correlate them is often tough task for NVH engineers. It is because of human sensation behavior differs from persons to person, mental map, geographical location and domain knowledge. In addition acoustic & comfort relevant aspects are often subjectively evaluated based on jury trials conducted on the prototype vehicle and class competitive benchmark vehicles to get the feel & confidence of product for different gateways.
Technical Paper

Simulations Based Approach for Vehicle Idle NVH Optimization at Early Stage of Product Development

2011-05-17
2011-01-1591
The noise and vibration performance of diesel fueled automotives is critical for overall customer comfort. The stationary vehicle with engine running idle (Vehicle Idle) is a very common operating condition in city driving cycle. Hence it is most common comfort assessment criteria for diesel vehicles. Simulations and optimization of it in an early stage of product development cycle is priority for all OEMs. In vehicle idle condition, powertrain is the only major source of Noise and Vibrations. The key to First Time Right Idle NVH simulations and optimization remains being able to optimize all Transfer paths, from powertrain mounts to Driver Ear. This Paper talks about the approach established for simulations and optimization of powertrain forces entering in to frame by optimizing powertrain mount hard points and stiffness. Powertrain forces optimized through set process are further used to predict the vehicle passenger compartment noise and steering vibrations.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Noise & Sound Quality Refinement for New Generation Common Rail Engines

2010-06-09
2010-01-1414
Noise & sound quality has gained equal importance as that of emissions and crash safety of the vehicles. With increased engine power to weight ratio, the challenges for NVH engineers has increased multifold. Passenger compartment comfort levels are getting affected largely due to lighter and powerful engines. Same time, there is pressure to reduce overall vehicle weight and cost. This impose constraints to NVH engineer in designing the body structure and sound package to reduce the effect of powertrain forces and airborne noise on passenger compartment. In addition to weight constraints, there is trend emerging to use two & three cylinder engines which need to perform on par with four cylinder engines. This has shown adverse effect on vehicle NVH performance due to wider low frequency unbalance forces.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

2013-10-14
2013-01-2605
Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5-MT Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. Thus, it offers an uninterrupted torque path from the engine to vehicle which allows for a seamless gearshift. This seminal paper provides an introduction to the technology together.
Technical Paper

Experimental Approach to Eliminate Mirror Blur

2013-05-13
2013-01-1918
In today's automobile market, fuel economy is a powerful parameter which gives an edge over competition. Light weight materials play a major role in achieving this. Mirrors tend to underperform in terms of NVH when they are considered for weight optimization. Being light in weight mirrors get easily excited as the energy gets transferred through the structures causing vibration due to their poor damping characteristics. Mirror vibration is a grave concern which affects the vehicle safety. Blur is an effect of vibration which has higher energy levels in vertical and longitudinal direction. It resembles resonance, wherein the vision is zero at certain engine rpm. This paper depicts the approach for mirror blur elimination in the vehicle (prosper segment vehicles), which consider cost as the primary concern. Since the vehicle was nearing SOP design changes was not possible. Certain parameters were attempted without affecting the design as explained in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Secondary De-Aeration Circuit for an Engine Cooling System with Atmospheric Recovery Bottle to Improve De-Aeration

2014-09-30
2014-01-2342
In any engine cooling system, de-aeration capability of the system plays a very critical role to avoid over heating of an engine. In general, with recovery bottle engine cooling system there is one vent hose from radiator pressure cap to the recovery bottle and coolant in the bottle is exposed to atmospheric pressure. From this vent hose air bubbles will move to recovery bottle from the engine and radiator when pressure in the system exceeds pressure cap setting. With this arrangement, de-aeration from the engine will happen when thermostat opens only and till that time air bubbles will be in the engine only and in this time there will be chance of overheating at some critical conditions because of air pockets in to the engine water jacket and the entrained air in the cooling circuit. Also, secondly 100 % initial filling cannot be achieved.
Technical Paper

Optimization of EGR Mixer to Minimize Thermal Hot Spot on Plastic Duct & Soot Deposition on Throttle Valve Using CFD Simulation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0286
In recent time, with inception of BS VI emission regulation with more focus on fuel economy and emission, many engine parts which were conventionally made from metal are getting replaced with plastic components for reducing weight to attain better fuel economy. EGR is commonly used technique to reduce emissions in diesel engine along with after treatment devices. EGR reduces peak combustion temperature inside the combustion chamber thereby reducing NOx. EGR is bypassed from the exhaust manifold, cooled down in EGR cooler and mixed with intake air at upstream of the intake manifold. Throttle valve is used for controlling the charged air flow to cylinders for different vehicle operating conditions. With compact engine layout EGR mixer are often located near to throttle valve thereby increasing the possibility of soot deposition on throttle valve.
Technical Paper

Advanced Mathematical Modelling for Glass Surface Optimization with PSO

2019-10-11
2019-28-0104
In automotive door engineering, fitting the side door glass surface from styling into the cylinder or torus is the basic requirement. Optimization is required to do this, which requires a solver which could be efficacious for best surface fitting. This paper propounds a methodology which could be used for fitting a side door glass surface from styling into the cylinder or torus. The method will significantly help in developing the required surface and can successfully eliminate the cumbersome manual calibrations. The mathematical model mentioned is a novel approach based on “Particle Swarm Optimization” (“PSO” will be used to represent in the paper) towards surface optimization technique. VB script is used to make it applicable in CATIA but could be easily applied in any other programming language like python, java etc. Usually the surface fitting problems deals with the initial guess of the required surface and then its further optimization.
Technical Paper

Instrumentation Technique Used for Design Optimization of Front Axle Support Bracket in Agricultural Tractor

2019-01-09
2019-26-0083
Agriculture tractor industry is highly competitive in the current market scenario with global majors competing in various markets. A tractor having an optimum design is of prime importance to keep the cost low while providing higher value to the customers. Technology advances in instrumentation methodology and data acquisition helps not only in providing the right inputs for the design of a component/system but also very much useful for design/system optimization. Front Axle Support of an agricultural tractor is one of the structural member which is connected to the Chassis which is called skid of the tractor to which the Front Axle is mounted through Pillow block (Plummer block) arrangement to facilitate axle oscillation about the tractor longitudinal center line. Front ballast weights are mounted on a bracket which is intern mounted to the front axle support to maintain the required front reaction in various agricultural operations.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of an Intercity Bus through Surface Modifications - A Numerical Simulation

2019-10-11
2019-28-0045
The maximum power produced by the Engine is utilized in overcoming the Aerodynamic resistance while the remaining has been used to overcome rolling and climbing resistance. Increasing emission and performance demands paves way for advanced technologies to improve fuel efficiency. One such way of increasing the fuel efficiency is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Buses emerged as the common choice of transport for people in India. By improving the aerodynamic drag of the Buses, the diesel consumption of a vehicle can be reduced by nearly about 10% without any upgradation of the existing engine. Though 60 to 70 % of pressure loads act on the frontal surface area of the buses, the most common techniques of reducing the drag in buses includes streamlining of the surfaces, minimizing underbody losses, reduced frontal area, pressure difference between the front & rear area and minimizing of flow separation & wake regions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficiency Improvement in Automatic Transmissions by Lockup Slip Methodology

2019-10-11
2019-28-0029
Increasing of automatic transmissions in passenger cars is based on pleasure of driving, smooth acceleration and easy operation makes the customer satisfaction. Challenges beyond 2020 is BS VI emission norms in India - a very tough goals on CO2& NOx reduction in Gasoline & Diesel vehicles. But its setback in lower fuel economy. To support & enhance fuel economy in Automatic transmissions as part of drivetrain technologies, this article discusses about the power losses in torque converters and experiments on the actual Automatic transmission (AT) vehicle on-road to understand the real city driving behavior in the aspects of gear utilization & gas pedal utilization throughout the entire traffic conditions. With that data research, slip area and slipping conditions is determined & clutch slip control is enabled at area in torque converter by ensuring that NVH parameters are not affected.
Technical Paper

Design of Light Weight Hydraulic Connecting Rod for Agricultural Tractor

2019-10-11
2019-28-0016
Hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induce extreme range of loads on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Hydraulic connecting rod is critical component of hydraulic power train assembly. Standards like IS12224, IS4468 governs the design of hydraulic power train components which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of the tractor. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design a hydraulic connecting rod to meet the requirements. The hydraulic connecting rod basically functions as a short load transferring link, which is subjected to the operating hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic lifting mechanism. The current circular connecting rod is higher in weight and cost.
Technical Paper

Design of Light Weight Spoiler for Efficient Aerodynamic Performance of a Vehicle

2019-10-11
2019-28-0003
The spoiler is functional as well as aesthetic part fitted on the vehicles to improve the vehicle aerodynamic performance and better aesthetic appeal. The improvement of aerodynamics performance of the vehicle at higher speeds is achieved by reducing the overall vehicle coefficient of drag. This helps in better handling and improved fuel efficiency of the vehicle thus contributing to development of greener vehicle. In this project, our main focus is to reduce overall vehicle coefficient of drag, Design a light weight spoiler and improve the vehicle aesthetic appearance.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Experimentation of Effective Clog Removal Method in Tractors for Enhanced Condenser Life and Air Conditioning Performance During Reaper Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0015
Tractors in the field are exposed to adverse operating conditions and are surrounded by dust and dirt. The tiny, thin and sharp broken straw and husks surround the system in reaper operation. The tractors which are equipped with air conditioning system tend to show detrimental effects in cooling performance. The compressor trips frequently by excess pressure developed in the system due to condenser clogging and hence cooling performance is reduced considerably. The air conditioning performance reduces due to the clogged condenser located on the top roof compartment of operator’s cabin, which is better design than keeping in front of radiator where clogging happens every hour and customer need to stop the tractor to clean it with specific blower.
Technical Paper

Design for Adaptive Rear Floor Carpet for Changing Shapes and Complex Architecture

2019-10-11
2019-28-0004
With increasing road traffic and pollution, it becomes responsibility for all OEM to increase fuel efficiency and reduce carbon footprint. Most effective way to do so is to reduce weight of the vehicle and more use of ecofriendly recyclable material. With this objective we have come up with Light weight, cost effective sustainable design solution for Injection moulded RQT (Rear quarter trim). It is an interior plastic component mounted in the III row of the vehicle. This is required to ensure inside enhanced aesthetic look of the vehicle and comfort for 3rd row passengers. Conventionally RQT of vehicle with 3rd row seating is made using plastic material (PP TD 20). With the use of plastic moulded RQT there is a significant weight addition of around 6 kg per vehicle along with reduced cabin space, huge investment and development time impact.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Elimination of Howling Noise in Compact Utility Vehicle

2017-07-10
2017-28-1922
NVH is becoming one of the major factor for customer selection of vehicle along with parameters like fuel economy and drivability. One of the major NVH challenges is to have a vehicle with aggressive drivability and at the same time with acceptable noise and vibration levels. This paper focuses on the compact utility vehicle where the howling noise is occurring at higher rpm of the engine. The vehicle is powered by three cylinder turbocharged diesel engine. The noise levels were higher above 2500 rpm due to the presence of structural resonance. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and Transfer path analysis (TPA) analysis was done on entire vehicle and powertrain to find out the major reason for howling noise at higher engine rpm. It is observed that the major contribution for noise at higher rpm is due to modal coupling between powertrain, half shaft and vehicle sub frame.
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