Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Functional Safety - Progressing Towards Safer Mobility

2013-11-27
2013-01-2841
Increasing complexity in E/E architecture poses several challenges in developing comfortable, clean and safe cars. This mandates robust processes to mitigate potential hazards due to malfunction of electronic systems throughout the product life cycle. With the advent of ISO 26262 [1] which provides guidelines for developing safe cars, the process is getting standardized towards safer mobility. In this paper, the functional safety process is briefly covered and a case study of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment for specific E/E system is presented. An in-house tool developed for functional safety process and management is covered.
Technical Paper

Investigation on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of alloyed gray cast iron for brake applications

2013-11-27
2013-01-2881
The strength and wear resistance of four alloyed cast irons with elements like Ni. Mo, Cu, Cr and Al have been compared and analyzed. The increased hardness is reducing the wear resistance of the alloy due to graphite flakes. Higher carbon produces more graphite flakes which act as weak points for reducing strength and wear resistance. The wear rate increases for harder cast iron sample with more graphite flakes. Wear rate drastically increases with increase in carbon equivalent. Strength was found to decrease for samples with higher graphite flakes. The wear debris consisted of graphite flakes in platelet like morphology along with iron particles from the matrix. The presence of carbon at the sliding interface also sometimes decreases wear rate.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

2012-09-24
2012-01-1989
Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5 Gear-Manual Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. A Motor is attached to the output shaft of the Transmission which drives in power while the AMT unit is making transition from one gear to another.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Oil Sump for CI Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0135
Recently fuel economy and stringent emission norms are the ever growing concern in automotive global scenario. So, automotive engineers are constantly seeking new cost effective methodologies and techniques to achieve considerable weight reduction and improved performance. Nowadays Automotive OEMs are using Aluminum Oil sump (which is a structured part of an engine and supports considerable amount of transmission housing weight) for better emission, reducing the engine height, engine weight and NVH levels. Our present work reveals the concept of ‘Hybrid oil sump’ which made by sheet metal and aluminum in such a way that weight and cost reduced by 20% and 30 % respectively, without compromising NVH and strength properties. Exactly it deals the iteration part of design to arrive the optimum model, various structural modifications since it carries considerable amount of weight of transmission.
Technical Paper

Agricultural Tractor Hydraulic Lift Arm Assembly Design for Durability and Correlation with Physical Test

2016-02-01
2016-28-0237
A hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to lift the heavy implements during field operations and transportation. As it is a crucial member of the tractor for its usage, so the power train assembly needs a properly designed lift arm, rocker arm assembly with better strength and stiffness. There are a standard like IS12224, IS4468 which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of tractor and the layout of hydraulic three point linkage. Computer aided engineering techniques followed by laboratory testing have been deployed in the earlier stages of the product design & development itself to deliver the first time right products to the customer. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor hydraulic lift arm to meet the above requirements. A Design Verification Plan (DVP) has been developed consisting of 3 load cases.
Technical Paper

Improved Powertrain Mounts Position for Four Cylinder Engine Commercial Vehicle with Four Point Mounting Configuration

2016-02-01
2016-28-0231
In this era of engine downsizing, the powertrains with higher power densities are configured on next generation vehicles. The bare four cylinder engine without balancer shaft has higher surface velocities, sound pressure & power levels and nearly 10 to 15% higher base level vibration/forces over older generations. Adapting such engines on a new vehicle platform with stringent NVH targets is challenging. Powertrain mount modal analysis, 6DOF or 16DOF is a primary tool followed for initial mount positioning and stiffness definition. From our earlier experiences we have the knowledge that most of the 6DOF iterations lead to the mount positions which are less feasible as per vehicle architecture and packaging point of view, and further optimization is needed to arrive at suitable mount position through 6DOF analysis. In a drive to have first time right solution with minimal modifications, the study was conducted to understand the role of mount position & isolation on different vehicles.
Technical Paper

Silent Block Bush Design and Optimization for Pick-Up Truck Leaf Spring

2017-03-28
2017-01-0455
Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
Technical Paper

Prediction of Hub Load on Power Steering Pump Using Dynamic Simulation and Experimental Measurement

2017-03-28
2017-01-0416
New trend in steering system such as EPS is coming up, but still hydraulic power steering system is more prevalent in today’s vehicles. Power steering pump is a vital component of hydraulic power steering system. Failure of steering pump can lead to loss of power assistance. Prediction of hub load on pump shaft is an important design input for pump manufacturer. Higher hub loads than the actual designed load of pump bearing may lead to seizure of pump. Pump manufacturer has safe limits for hub load. Simulations can assist for optimization of belt layout and placement of accessories to reduce the hub load. Lower hub load can have direct effect on improvement of pump durability. This paper deals with dynamic simulation of belt drive system in MSC.ADAMS as well as vehicle level measurement of hub load on power steering pump.
Technical Paper

Development of a Standalone Application in MATLAB to Generate Brake Performance Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0513
Predicting the brake performance and characteristics is a crucial task in the vehicle development activity. Performance prediction is a challenge because of the involvement of various parts in the brake assembly like booster, master cylinder, calipers, disc and drum brakes. Determination of these characteristics through vehicle level tests requires a lot of time and money. This performance prediction is achieved by theoretical calculations involving vehicle dynamics. The final output must satisfy the regulations. This project involves the creation of a standalone application using MATLAB to predict the various brake performances such as: booster characteristics, adhesion curves, deceleration and pedal effort curves, behavior of brakes during brake and booster failed conditions and braking force diagrams based on the given user inputs. Previously, MS Excel and an application developed in the TK Solver environment was used to predict the brake performance curves.
Technical Paper

Study of Energy Absorbing Front Cabin Mount, Its Stiffness Balance with Chassis and Test Correlation in Frontal Impact of Commercial Vehicle Cabin

2019-04-02
2019-01-1034
During design and development of a cabin for any commercial vehicle, meeting the strength requirements of front impact as per Indian regulation (AIS-029) is a very critical milestone. AIS-029 regulation consists of three destructive tests, i.e. Front Impact Test (Test A), Roof Strength (Test B) and Rear Wall Strength (Test C). Study of energy absorbing front cabin mount, its stiffness balance with chassis and CAE correlation with physical test is demonstrated in this study. [1]
Journal Article

Frontloading Approach for Sound Package Design for Noise Reduction and Weight Optimization Using Statistical Energy Analysis

2017-01-10
2017-26-0222
First time right vehicle performance and time to market, remains all automotive OEMs top priority, to remain competitive. NVH performance of product communicates impression to customer, remains one of the most important and complex attribute to meet, considering performances to be met for 20 Hz -6000 Hz. Frontloading techniques (FEM/BEM/SEA/MBD) for NVH are critical and necessary to achieve first time right NVH performance. Objective of this paper is to present a frontloading approach for automotive sound package optimization (absorber, barrier and damper elements) for SUV vehicle. Current process of designing sound package is mainly based on experience, competitive benchmarking of predecessor products. This process (current process) heavily depend on testing and validation at physical prototype and happens at later stages of program, especially on tooled up body.
Technical Paper

Approach to Estimate Life of Li-Ion Power Battery for Mild Hybrid Application in India

2015-04-14
2015-01-0249
Development of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) is gaining traction across all geographies to help meet increasing fuel economy regulations and as a pathway to offset concerns due to climate change. But HEVs and EVs have so far been a nascent market for India. These technologies have primarily shifted towards Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) for energy storage due to its high energy and power densities. In order to make actual business sense of these technologies, of which, battery is a major cost driver, it is necessary for these batteries to provide similar performance and life expectancy across the operating boundary of the vehicles, as well as provide the requirements at a competitive cost. In other words, the LIBs have to sustain the normal life cycle requirements and withstand wide range of storage temperatures that the conventional gasoline/diesel vehicles have been good at and still ensure good life.
Technical Paper

Design of Light Weight Hydraulic Connecting Rod for Agricultural Tractor

2019-10-11
2019-28-0016
Hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induce extreme range of loads on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Hydraulic connecting rod is critical component of hydraulic power train assembly. Standards like IS12224, IS4468 governs the design of hydraulic power train components which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of the tractor. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design a hydraulic connecting rod to meet the requirements. The hydraulic connecting rod basically functions as a short load transferring link, which is subjected to the operating hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic lifting mechanism. The current circular connecting rod is higher in weight and cost.
Technical Paper

Develop the Methodology Using DOE Approach to Improve Steering Return Ability of a Vehicle through Virtual Simulation

2019-10-11
2019-28-0012
In driving, Steering is the input motion to the vehicle. The driver uses steering input to change the direction of the vehicle. During Parking or U turn bends the Steering is locked and later released to follow the desired path. Steering return ability is defined as the ratio of difference between steering wheel position at lock condition and steering wheel angle after 3 seconds of release to the steering wheel angle at lock condition. Having proper steering return ability characteristics has an important effect on vehicle steering characteristics. In this study, a full vehicle ADAMS model is prepared, and virtual steering return ability have been simulated in ADAMS/CAR for a Pickup truck vehicle. Simulated responses in the steering wheel angle have been validated by comparison with measurements. A Design of Experiment study is setup and Iterations are carried out to find the effect of Hard points and friction parameters.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of an Intercity Bus through Surface Modifications - A Numerical Simulation

2019-10-11
2019-28-0045
The maximum power produced by the Engine is utilized in overcoming the Aerodynamic resistance while the remaining has been used to overcome rolling and climbing resistance. Increasing emission and performance demands paves way for advanced technologies to improve fuel efficiency. One such way of increasing the fuel efficiency is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Buses emerged as the common choice of transport for people in India. By improving the aerodynamic drag of the Buses, the diesel consumption of a vehicle can be reduced by nearly about 10% without any upgradation of the existing engine. Though 60 to 70 % of pressure loads act on the frontal surface area of the buses, the most common techniques of reducing the drag in buses includes streamlining of the surfaces, minimizing underbody losses, reduced frontal area, pressure difference between the front & rear area and minimizing of flow separation & wake regions.
Technical Paper

Design of Energy Absorbing Plastic Brackets to Meet Rear Crash Regulation ECE R42

2019-10-11
2019-28-0041
Vehicle safety and adherence to rules and regulation is of utmost requirement for any OEM. ECE R42 is one of the most important test criteria for a vehicle to get launched. To prove this, we shall discuss the case of Low speed impact structure construction. In this paper, we are going to demonstrate the novel design of Polymer energy absorption structure to meet the rear bumper low speed impact test and ensure proper absorption of impact energy and avoid any damage to rear lamp of the vehicle. This paper shows a perfect example of sustainability with the help of complete modular construction of the frame structure. The proposed design uses a cost-effective way of assembling the physical part by comparing with benchmarking and within the Mahindra part library. The low speed impact structure is mounted directly to BIW panels without any extra foams. These frame structure are simple in design and rigid in construction by comparing with other OEM products and within all Mahindra vehicles.
Technical Paper

Parametric Modelling & High-Fidelity Algorithms for Vehicle Weight Estimation for Optimized Concept Vehicle Architecture

2019-10-11
2019-28-0036
The concept definition phase of typical vehicle development focuses on the architecture definition and optimization based on different constraints/requirements. With the focus on Sustainability, the architecture optimization process must include “Light-weighting” as an optimization criterion. With only concept vehicle architecture available, the vehicle weight estimation becomes judgmental & inaccurate. This paper aims to address this deficiency with a new analytical approach for vehicle weight estimation. The new approach for vehicle weight estimation is a “bottom-up” approach using parametric models for each system weight with the inputs being the relevant vehicle specifications driving the system engineering. For size/shape-driven (rather than functional) systems, the models are content-based & segment-based. The parametric models are then iterated for multiple architecture concepts & specifications and the optimum concept (meeting all functional & business constraints) is chosen.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficiency Improvement in Automatic Transmissions by Lockup Slip Methodology

2019-10-11
2019-28-0029
Increasing of automatic transmissions in passenger cars is based on pleasure of driving, smooth acceleration and easy operation makes the customer satisfaction. Challenges beyond 2020 is BS VI emission norms in India - a very tough goals on CO2& NOx reduction in Gasoline & Diesel vehicles. But its setback in lower fuel economy. To support & enhance fuel economy in Automatic transmissions as part of drivetrain technologies, this article discusses about the power losses in torque converters and experiments on the actual Automatic transmission (AT) vehicle on-road to understand the real city driving behavior in the aspects of gear utilization & gas pedal utilization throughout the entire traffic conditions. With that data research, slip area and slipping conditions is determined & clutch slip control is enabled at area in torque converter by ensuring that NVH parameters are not affected.
Technical Paper

Design of Lightweight Composites for Vehicle Front End Energy Management of Bumper Beam

2019-10-11
2019-28-0085
Application of advance composites in place of the various conventional materials such as steel can give significant weight and performance advantages. The application of composites is now finding it’s way in the automotive industry due to the growing requirement of the lightweight solutions and high strength to weight ratio. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their application in automotive structural components. The study presented here is focused on the explicit dynamic analysis of a bumper beam and advance composites are used for the study. Different configurations and designs of the bumper are considered to be able to make a comparative study of the stress and deformation levels. The analysis was done in coherence to the Euro NCAP tests and the offset frontal impact analysis was done. The boundary conditions were aligned with the real time impact conditions for proper prediction of the results.
Technical Paper

Natural and Artificial Weathering of Automotive Leather, Leatherette and Textile

2019-10-11
2019-28-0091
This paper presents the natural and artificial weathering behavior of different soft skin materials such as leather, leatherette and textiles used for automotive seat cover applications. The objective of this study was to understand the physical and aesthetical changes occurring at these flexible materials under sun UV light and heat exposure. The natural weathering study under glass exposure was carried out as per ASTM G 24 at natural weathering site location and artificial weathering as per SAE J2412 at lab. The material was observed for surface changes such as color, texture, crack and physical changes like flexibility and hardness during the exposure. The sample exposed at natural weathering data for every 15 days were recorded, and artificial weathering for every 100 hours were recorded.
X