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Technical Paper

C-Shaped Synchronizer Spring-theoretical Analysis and Validation

2012-09-24
2012-01-2002
This paper presents the analysis and experimental validation of c-spring and its stiffness properties in the gear shift synchronizer system. A synchronizer assembly for a transmission comprises of a synchronizer hub carried by a torque delivery shaft and a cone clutch member carried by a gear and a synchronizer blocking ring. The gear shift sleeve is meshing over the teeth of the clutch hub. The c-spring is positioned in the inner circumference of the rim position of the clutch hub and strut keys will be positioned at the slots on the clutch hub, which are usually 120 degree apart. As the sleeve moves while gear shifting, it pushes down the strut keys which compress the C-spring radially inward; this gives the strut load. The strut keys, which are pushed down by the sleeve, will apply force on the c-spring from radial directions. Since the c-spring is in the shape of an arc it is assumed as a curved beam for the analysis.
Technical Paper

Analytical Method to Determine Press-fit Tolerance between Torque Carrying Members

2012-09-24
2012-01-1996
This paper deals with an analytical method to calculate the press-fit tolerance and fits between gears and shaft for automotive applications. The relative interferences increase sharply in the small diameter range, therefore one must be especially careful when designing small diameter joints. The strength of press-fit depends on the amount of relative interference; extreme interference leads to excessive contact stresses between the gear and shaft eventually leading to failure. Too little interference leads to slippage of gear on the shaft. In the press fit connection a shaft's spline rolling operation and gear internal broaching is eliminated. It is more economical than a conventional spline connection. Press fit connections are used in various transmission between a shaft and a gear. They are used in 6 speed transmission to 9-speed transmission for (German based Vehicle Manufacturer) heavy and light commercial vehicle company.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Intercooler Efficiency as a Technique for Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1133
As the emission targets are getting tighter, efforts are made to improve the emission by all possible means. This work emphasis the potential of intercooler to reduce exhaust gas emissions (CO, HC, NOx and PM). A detailed analysis of experimental results on emissions is presented. The effect of intercooler efficiency on emissions is explained. A multi-utility vehicle equipped with common rail diesel engine was tested in NEDC cycle in chassis dynamometer. Ideally the vehicle emission lab should replicate a flat straight road condition & natural airflow. To obtain the airflow a variable velocity fan is used. The velocity of air emerging from the fan and relative position of the fan with vehicle has a significant role in intercooler efficiency and hence on emissions. This work explains the exercise carried out to correlate the intercooler efficiency and exhaust emissions with fan position and velocity.
Technical Paper

Optimization of IP Duct Vane Articulation for Improved Cabin Airflow Directivity

2019-10-11
2019-28-0132
The air velocity achieved at driver and passenger aim point is one of the key parameters to evaluate the automotive air-conditioning system performance. The design of duct, vent and vanes has a major contribution in the cabin air flow directivity. However, visual appearance of vent and vane receives higher priority in design because of market demand than their performance. More iterations are carried out to finalize the HVAC duct assembly until the target velocity is achieved. The objective of this study is to develop an automated process for vane articulation study along with predicting the optimized velocity at driver and passengers. The automated simulation of vane articulation study is carried out using STAR-CCM+ and SHERPA optimization algorithm which is available in HEEDS tool. The minimum and maximum vane angle are defined as parameters and face level velocity is defined as response.
Technical Paper

Design of Energy Absorbing Plastic Brackets to Meet Rear Crash Regulation ECE R42

2019-10-11
2019-28-0041
Vehicle safety and adherence to rules and regulation is of utmost requirement for any OEM. ECE R42 is one of the most important test criteria for a vehicle to get launched. To prove this, we shall discuss the case of Low speed impact structure construction. In this paper, we are going to demonstrate the novel design of Polymer energy absorption structure to meet the rear bumper low speed impact test and ensure proper absorption of impact energy and avoid any damage to rear lamp of the vehicle. This paper shows a perfect example of sustainability with the help of complete modular construction of the frame structure. The proposed design uses a cost-effective way of assembling the physical part by comparing with benchmarking and within the Mahindra part library. The low speed impact structure is mounted directly to BIW panels without any extra foams. These frame structure are simple in design and rigid in construction by comparing with other OEM products and within all Mahindra vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficiency Improvement in Automatic Transmissions by Lockup Slip Methodology

2019-10-11
2019-28-0029
Increasing of automatic transmissions in passenger cars is based on pleasure of driving, smooth acceleration and easy operation makes the customer satisfaction. Challenges beyond 2020 is BS VI emission norms in India - a very tough goals on CO2& NOx reduction in Gasoline & Diesel vehicles. But its setback in lower fuel economy. To support & enhance fuel economy in Automatic transmissions as part of drivetrain technologies, this article discusses about the power losses in torque converters and experiments on the actual Automatic transmission (AT) vehicle on-road to understand the real city driving behavior in the aspects of gear utilization & gas pedal utilization throughout the entire traffic conditions. With that data research, slip area and slipping conditions is determined & clutch slip control is enabled at area in torque converter by ensuring that NVH parameters are not affected.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Experimentation of Effective Clog Removal Method in Tractors for Enhanced Condenser Life and Air Conditioning Performance During Reaper Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0015
Tractors in the field are exposed to adverse operating conditions and are surrounded by dust and dirt. The tiny, thin and sharp broken straw and husks surround the system in reaper operation. The tractors which are equipped with air conditioning system tend to show detrimental effects in cooling performance. The compressor trips frequently by excess pressure developed in the system due to condenser clogging and hence cooling performance is reduced considerably. The air conditioning performance reduces due to the clogged condenser located on the top roof compartment of operator’s cabin, which is better design than keeping in front of radiator where clogging happens every hour and customer need to stop the tractor to clean it with specific blower.
Technical Paper

Design for Adaptive Rear Floor Carpet for Changing Shapes and Complex Architecture

2019-10-11
2019-28-0004
With increasing road traffic and pollution, it becomes responsibility for all OEM to increase fuel efficiency and reduce carbon footprint. Most effective way to do so is to reduce weight of the vehicle and more use of ecofriendly recyclable material. With this objective we have come up with Light weight, cost effective sustainable design solution for Injection moulded RQT (Rear quarter trim). It is an interior plastic component mounted in the III row of the vehicle. This is required to ensure inside enhanced aesthetic look of the vehicle and comfort for 3rd row passengers. Conventionally RQT of vehicle with 3rd row seating is made using plastic material (PP TD 20). With the use of plastic moulded RQT there is a significant weight addition of around 6 kg per vehicle along with reduced cabin space, huge investment and development time impact.
Technical Paper

Study of Energy Absorbing Front Cabin Mount, Its Stiffness Balance with Chassis and Test Correlation in Frontal Impact of Commercial Vehicle Cabin

2019-04-02
2019-01-1034
During design and development of a cabin for any commercial vehicle, meeting the strength requirements of front impact as per Indian regulation (AIS-029) is a very critical milestone. AIS-029 regulation consists of three destructive tests, i.e. Front Impact Test (Test A), Roof Strength (Test B) and Rear Wall Strength (Test C). Study of energy absorbing front cabin mount, its stiffness balance with chassis and CAE correlation with physical test is demonstrated in this study. [1]
Technical Paper

Polypropylene Copolymer Material for Automotive Thin Wall Front Bumper with Integrated Grill Application

2018-04-03
2018-01-0153
This paper describes modified polypropylene copolymer (PPCP) material for thin wall front bumper development (2.5 mm) with integrated grill in automotive application. This compounded PPCP material has optimized flow behavior, tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, and thermal properties to meet the functional requirements. This is a ready to mold material used in injection molding process. Front bumper and grill are functional components with slow speed impact requirement to absorb impact in real world. These parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition. Front bumper is also having other critical criteria with respect to vehicle variants such as aesthetic mold-in-color finish as well as painted finish. Grill has air entry performance criteria to ensure cooling efficiency in intercooler compartment.
Technical Paper

Polypropylene Copolymer Automotive Canopy Plastic Structure Application

2018-04-03
2018-01-0157
This paper describes modified polypropylene copolymer (PPCP) material for canopy plastic structure in a modular commercial passenger vehicle. This compounded PPCP material has optimized flow behavior, tensile strength, modulus, impact strength, and thermal properties to meet the functional requirements. Material described in this paper is a PPCP compound reinforced with glass fiber and mica filler. The application described in this paper is a canopy plastic structure, which is a structural exterior plastic part. Canopy plastic structure acts as a structural frame to hold vinyl canopy in both sides and tail gate of vehicle. In this paper, PPCP has been explored for canopy plastic structure part against conventional polyamides. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analyzed by using mold flow analysis.
Technical Paper

Alternate Manufacturing Process for Automotive Input Shafts

2017-10-13
2017-01-5013
The input shafts are conventionally developed through Hot forging route. Considering upcoming new technologies the same part was developed through cold forging route which resulting in better Mechanical properties than existing hot forging process. It has added benefit of cost as well as environmental friendly. Generally, the part like Input shaft which having gear teeth, splines etc., will be manufactured through Hot forging process due to degree of deformation, availability of press capacity, diameter variations etc., This process consumes more energy in terms of electricity for heating the bar and also creates pollution to the atmosphere. Automotive input shaft design modified to accommodate cold forging process route to develop the shaft with press capacity of 2500T which gives considerable benefit in terms of mechanical and metallurgical Properties, close dimensional tolerances, less machining time, higher material yield when compared to hot forging and metal cutting operation.
Technical Paper

A 0-D Calculation Template to Define Crush Space Requirement and Body Front End Force Level Requirement in Concept Stage

2017-01-10
2017-26-0009
Today’s automotive world has moved towards an age where safety of a vehicle is given the topmost priority. Many stringent crash norms and testing methodology has been defined in order to evaluate the safety of a vehicle prior to its launch in a particular market. If the vehicle fails to meet any of these criteria then it is debarred from that particular market. With such stringent norms and regulations in place it becomes quite important on the engineer’s part to define the structural requirements and protect the space to meet the same. If the concept level platform definition is done properly it becomes very easy to achieve the crash targets with less cost and weight impact.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis Methodology of Tractor Hydraulic Bell Crank Assembly for Various Agricultural Operations

2017-01-10
2017-26-0235
A tractor is vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds for carrying out various agriculture operations like ploughing, rotavation etc. using implement. Hydraulic system is a key feature which connects these implements with the tractor. It controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induces extreme range of load on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Bell crank assembly is one of the main components of hydraulic system which controls the draft (thus, the loads experienced by tractor) through load sensing mechanism. Often bell crank assembly failures are reported from field due to uneven soil hardness and presence of rocks. This paper studies one of such bell crank assembly failures in the field. The failure was reported after half life cycle of usage during agriculture Operation.
Technical Paper

Tractor Transmission Validation for Synchronizer as Skid at Rig Level

2017-01-10
2017-26-0231
Synchronizer design optimization is being prime need for smooth gear shifting and shifting noise. Especially in tractors, synchronizers are subjected to different kinds of loads under various field applications such as Puddling, Cultivation, Haulage, Construction equipment, etc. Also, transmission housings act as a part of chassis of the tractor and hence subjected to sever bending loads. Thus, design & evaluation of tractor transmission, meeting the customer requirement is quite complex. Current trends in product development are driven by shortening development time, reduced cost and first-time-right principle. These above requirements drive tractor manufacturers to put more efforts on delivering quality, robust and reliable transmission assembly in time. Generally the synchronizer packs were validated at sub system level in test rig and further assembled on to the tractor to validate the same in tractor level it requires more time & high cost.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Mounted Exhaust System Failure Correlation and Methodology Development in CAE

2017-01-10
2017-26-0267
Exhaust system is one of the complex automotive systems in terms of performance and strength prediction due to combination of transient mechanical and thermal loads acting on it simultaneously. Traditionally, most of automotive vehicles have exhaust systems with hot end mounted on engine and cold end mounted on chassis or BIW through hangers. A new powertrain mounted exhaust system was developed in-house. This exhaust system underwent validation and evaluation during development phase. Durability concerns were observed on exhaust system in Track test and gear shift durability test. This paper focuses on identifying the root cause of these concerns based on the failures observed during evaluation in Accelerated Durability (ADT) and gear shift durability (GSD) tests. Based on the architecture and packaging space challenges in vehicle, engine is mounted on two mounts and a roll restrictor. Muffler, which has higher inertia, is mounted at higher offset with respect to engine rolling axis.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Regeneration Interval of a Diesel Particulate Filter and Their Influence on BSV Emission Application

2016-02-01
2016-28-0017
With the implementation of stringent PM emission norms in various countries for diesel vehicles, the legislation demands a PM mass limit as low as 4.5mg/km in the NEDC cycle, starting from Euro5. This makes the usage of Diesel particulate filters (DPF) mandatory. The same is going to be mandated for upcoming BSV emission norms in India. Thus it becomes imperative to know the functional aspects of a DPF and their impacts. Basically there are two major functions of a DPF- Soot mass estimation and Soot burning or Regeneration. This paper highlights usage of DPF in Indian context from the perspective of one of the major aspects of DPF regeneration-Regeneration Interval, which is basically governed by vehicle/engine out smoke. Regeneration interval also has direct or indirect influence on life of engine of a vehicle and average fuel economy of a vehicle which will also be touched upon herein.
Technical Paper

Agricultural Tractor Hydraulic Lift Arm Assembly Design for Durability and Correlation with Physical Test

2016-02-01
2016-28-0237
A hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to lift the heavy implements during field operations and transportation. As it is a crucial member of the tractor for its usage, so the power train assembly needs a properly designed lift arm, rocker arm assembly with better strength and stiffness. There are a standard like IS12224, IS4468 which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of tractor and the layout of hydraulic three point linkage. Computer aided engineering techniques followed by laboratory testing have been deployed in the earlier stages of the product design & development itself to deliver the first time right products to the customer. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design an agricultural tractor hydraulic lift arm to meet the above requirements. A Design Verification Plan (DVP) has been developed consisting of 3 load cases.
Journal Article

Comparing Various Multi-Disciplinary Optimization Approaches for Performance Enhancement and Weight Reduction of a Vehicle Chassis Frame

2016-04-05
2016-01-0305
Designing a vehicle chassis involves meeting numerous performance requirements related to various domains such as Durability, Crashworthiness and Noise-Vibration-Harshness (NVH) as well as reducing the overall weight of chassis. In conventional Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) process, experts from each domain work independently to improve the design based on their own domain knowledge which may result in sub-optimal or even non-acceptable designs for other domains. In addition, this may lead to increase in weight of chassis and also result in stretching the overall product development time and cost. Use of Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach to tackle these kind of problems is well documented in industry. However, how to effectively formulate an MDO study and how different MDO formulations affect results has not been touched upon in depth.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Temperature and Velocity Uniformity of Exhaust Gases in Heavy Commercial Vehicle Exhaust System having SCR After Treatment Technology

2016-02-01
2016-28-0112
For meeting upcoming BS IV & BS V emission norms in Heavy Commercial Vehicles, most of the manufacturers are taking SCR after treatment route. Though SCR system is more complex and involves higher cost impact, an optimized SCR system can bring down the payback period to about one year due to improved fuel economy. For development of an SCR after treatment system, selection of a correct SCR catalyst and its position in the system is very important. NOX conversion efficiency of catalyst depends on exhaust gas temperature at the catalyst and the velocity distribution over the face of the catalyst. Generally catalysts are evaluated for the conversion efficiency in engine test bed. In a drive to have a first-time-right solution, a CFD analysis was carried out considering the low and high flow rate conditions. CFD simulation models and the corresponding results were used as a predictive tool in the exhaust system development process.
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