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Technical Paper

Design Strategies for Meeting ECE R14 Safety Test for Light Commercial Vehicle

2010-10-05
2010-01-2017
The ECE R-14, AIS015 safety standard specifies the requirements of the safety belt anchorages namely, minimum numbers, their locations, static strength to reduce the possibility of their failure during accidental crashes for effective occupant restraint and the test procedures. This standard applies to the anchorages of safety belts for adult occupants of forward facing or rearward facing seats in vehicles of categories M and N. ECE R14 ensures the passenger safety during sudden acceleration/retardation and accidents. Early simulations revealed some structural short falls that demanded cabin improvements in order to fulfill regulation requirements for the seal belt anchorage test. This paper describes the innovative design modifications done to meet the seat belt anchorage test. Good correlation with the test is achieved in terms of deformations. These simulation methods helped in reducing the number of intermediate physical tests during the design process.
Technical Paper

Study of Intake and Exhaust System Acoustic Performance Refinement with the Help of Vibro-Acoustic Analysis Tool

2010-06-09
2010-01-1427
Increase in customer's awareness for better vehicle NVH has prompted automobile industry to address NVH issues more seriously. Among other critical vehicle systems for NVH, Air Intake and Exhaust Systems play an important role in terms of passenger compartment noise, sound quality and vehicle pass-by noise. Hence proper design & development of these systems is imperative to reduce their contribution in overall vehicle NVH. This needs to be achieved within constraints of meeting other functional requirements such as emissions and engine performance. The design parameters one needs to look at while developing the intake and exhaust system are mainly the acoustic transmission loss, structural noise radiations from the surfaces and structural isolation between body and these systems. This paper demonstrates the use of FEM approach for Vibro-Acoustic Analysis as a practical means for design of intake and exhaust system in terms of high transmission loss.
Technical Paper

Gear Shift Fork Stiffness Optimisation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2235
This paper presents a simulation of the stiffness of the shift fork of a manual transmission using contact pattern analysis and optistrut. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A-5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the simulation, co-relation and validation of the optimization of the gear shift fork stiffness. The shift system was modeled in the software to collate the synchronization force, shift system gap etc with the constraint on the shift fork. It is constrained by the synchronizer sleeve and the fork mounting on the gear shift rail. The synchronizer force is then applied on the gear shift fork pads which are translated to the synchronizer sleeve. It has a number of pads which come into contact at different occasion of the synchronization because of the varying stiffness of the fork.
Technical Paper

Silent Block Bush Design and Optimization for Pick-Up Truck Leaf Spring

2017-03-28
2017-01-0455
Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
Technical Paper

Development of a Standalone Application in MATLAB to Generate Brake Performance Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0513
Predicting the brake performance and characteristics is a crucial task in the vehicle development activity. Performance prediction is a challenge because of the involvement of various parts in the brake assembly like booster, master cylinder, calipers, disc and drum brakes. Determination of these characteristics through vehicle level tests requires a lot of time and money. This performance prediction is achieved by theoretical calculations involving vehicle dynamics. The final output must satisfy the regulations. This project involves the creation of a standalone application using MATLAB to predict the various brake performances such as: booster characteristics, adhesion curves, deceleration and pedal effort curves, behavior of brakes during brake and booster failed conditions and braking force diagrams based on the given user inputs. Previously, MS Excel and an application developed in the TK Solver environment was used to predict the brake performance curves.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Disruption of Circadian Rhythms using Blue Light for Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1706
Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the “sleep hormone” is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum have a higher effect on the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photobiology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by neurologists, endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photobiology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
Technical Paper

Steering and Handling Performance Optimization Through Correlation of Objective - Subjective Parameters and Multi-body Dynamics Simulation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2412
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: Automobile Industry has driven through the ages with continuous development with innovative technologies and frugal engineering. Expectation of customer is also increasing through the generations. To meet the customer demand for performance and be best in market, OEM needs to deliver best performance of vehicle with cost effective and short development process. Steering and Handling of vehicle is one of major customer touchpoints and needs to be tuned to achieve various conflicting requirements. The objective of this research is to optimize the steering and handling using correlation between three major methods of evaluation. METHODOLOGY: Methodology for optimization of steering and handling performance using correlation between subjective evaluation, objective measurement and multi-body-dynamic simulation is presented.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis and Elimination of Disc Brake Groan in a Utility Vehicle

2014-04-01
2014-01-0043
Brake groan noise is resolved without any major change in the design of brake system and vehicle sub-system components in the development phase of a utility vehicle. The groan noise is observed during the end of the stopping of the vehicle under moderate braking. The concerned NVH issue is perceived as unacceptable noise in the passenger compartment. Groan induced vibration is subjectively felt on steering and seat frame. A typical process is established to successfully reproduce the groan which helped in precisely evaluating the effect of modifications proposed. The temperature range of the disc which has the highest probability to produce the groan noise is found out experimentally. The transfer path analysis is carried out to find the path contributions from suspension. Acoustic transfer functions from considered paths are measured with the suspension removed from vehicle.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Hydraulic Brake Load Sensing Valve

2017-01-10
2017-26-0362
Hydraulic Load sensing brake valves are used in vehicles from a long time in the market. They proportionate the rear brake line pressure according to the rear axle load in order to avoid the rear wheel lock during braking. During the actual test of the Hydraulic load sensing valve on a subject vehicle, there was drop in performance against its expected peak brake performance. In the current work a detailed analysis is made to understand the sensitivity of the load sensing valve & its effect on the vehicle performance. The parameters affecting the valve sensitivity along with vehicle level factors affecting the performance are analysed during the work.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sway Prediction in Hydraulic Circuit Failed Condition on 4 Wheeled Vehicle with ‘X’ Split Brake Configuration

2017-01-10
2017-26-0344
A 4 wheeled vehicle with X-split brake configuration, in hydraulic circuit failed condition will have a behavior of induced sway due to braking force variation in the front and rear diagonally. With increasing vehicle speed, engine power & customer expectations, the situation becomes more critical and challenging in designing a brake system which caters in meeting the homologation requirement at an expense of vehicle sway within controllable limits of driver / customer. This paper proposes a novel approach & methodology to overcome the above situation by predicting the effect of brake force distribution variation on the vehicle swaying behavior during circuit failed braking condition. This study will quantify vehicle sway, caused due to imbalance in brake force distribution during a circuit failed braking event on X Split configuration vehicles.
Technical Paper

CFD Driven Compact and Cost Effective Design of Canopy

2017-01-10
2017-26-0254
Canopy design is governed by CPCB regulations. The regulations explicitly tells about noise levels. It’s very important to have the proper ventilation of canopy to ensure the proper working at all climatic conditions. Mostly it is installed at commercial locations & hence the ownership cost matters. Reducing the footprint without affecting the power output is challenging. It implies the need of the CFD simulation to predict the cooling performance of the canopy. The baseline canopy is tested to estimate the performance parameters. It is modelled in CFD with all the minute details. All the parts including engine, alternator, fan, fuel tank are modelled. MRF(Moving Reference Frame) model used to simulate fan performance. The cooling systems like radiator & oil cooler is modelled as porous region. The total flow across canopy & the air velocity across critical regions is used to define the performance.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis Methodology of Tractor Hydraulic Bell Crank Assembly for Various Agricultural Operations

2017-01-10
2017-26-0235
A tractor is vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds for carrying out various agriculture operations like ploughing, rotavation etc. using implement. Hydraulic system is a key feature which connects these implements with the tractor. It controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induces extreme range of load on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Bell crank assembly is one of the main components of hydraulic system which controls the draft (thus, the loads experienced by tractor) through load sensing mechanism. Often bell crank assembly failures are reported from field due to uneven soil hardness and presence of rocks. This paper studies one of such bell crank assembly failures in the field. The failure was reported after half life cycle of usage during agriculture Operation.
Technical Paper

Driveshaft Maximum Torque Estimation via Linear Model, Failure Analysis and Bench Test Simulation, an Alternative Approach

2016-02-01
2016-28-0171
Primary function of a drive half shaft is to transfer torque from transaxle to the wheels in East West configuration powertrain vehicles. Conventional practice is to consider either 1st gear max torque or the Wheel slip torque, whichever being the maximum as design torque. However vehicle dynamics and Powertrain characteristics have a major influence on the Driveshaft torque and the torques experienced can thus go beyond the design torque. This questions the design endurance limit for the driveshaft based on conventional design. One such situation is the torque experienced by the driveshaft during vehicle coasting condition with gear downshift. The torque experienced in such a scenario can go beyond the maximum design torque leading to failure as was observed in Vehicle level validation test.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Temperature and Velocity Uniformity of Exhaust Gases in Heavy Commercial Vehicle Exhaust System having SCR After Treatment Technology

2016-02-01
2016-28-0112
For meeting upcoming BS IV & BS V emission norms in Heavy Commercial Vehicles, most of the manufacturers are taking SCR after treatment route. Though SCR system is more complex and involves higher cost impact, an optimized SCR system can bring down the payback period to about one year due to improved fuel economy. For development of an SCR after treatment system, selection of a correct SCR catalyst and its position in the system is very important. NOX conversion efficiency of catalyst depends on exhaust gas temperature at the catalyst and the velocity distribution over the face of the catalyst. Generally catalysts are evaluated for the conversion efficiency in engine test bed. In a drive to have a first-time-right solution, a CFD analysis was carried out considering the low and high flow rate conditions. CFD simulation models and the corresponding results were used as a predictive tool in the exhaust system development process.
Journal Article

Development of Hydrogen Fuelled Low NOx Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Exhaust after Treatment

2017-01-10
2017-26-0074
Air pollution caused by vehicular tail pipe emissions has become a matter of grave concern in major cities of the world. Hydrogen, a carbon free fuel is a clean burning fuel with only concern being oxides of nitrogen (NOx) formed. The present study focuses on the development of a hydrogen powered multi-cylinder engine with low NOx emissions. The NOx emissions were reduced using a combination of an in-cylinder control strategy viz. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and an after treatment method using hydrogen as a NOx reductant. In the present study, the low speed torque of the hydrogen engine was improved by 38.46% from 65 Nm to 90 Nm @ 1200 rpm by operating at an equivalence of 0.64. The higher equivalence ratio operation compared to the conventional low equivalence ratio operation lead to an increase in the torque generated but increased NOx as well.
Technical Paper

Duty Cycle Fatigue Simulation for Differential Casing

2012-04-16
2012-01-0813
In the current scenario of growing demand for lightweight designs for improving fuel economy and reduced cost, the focus is on optimum design solutions. This calls for improved and accurate prediction capabilities in terms of life or cycles the design can sustain in real world usage profile. Conventionally, the differential casings are simulated and designed for worst loads experienced and the approach used is infinite life design for these loads. But, this would lead to overdesign and increase weight. To counter this problem the methodology for fatigue analysis for the derived duty cycle of differential casing is developed. The critical regions can be identified based on life and the solutions can be worked out without major design changes. This paper briefs the nonlinear static load cases required for deriving the block cycle loading and incorporating these as a duty cycle in fatigue solver.
Technical Paper

Green Drive - A Holistic Approach Towards Fuel Efficient Driving

2017-01-10
2017-26-0078
In the past few decades, improvement on fuel efficient technologies have progressed rapidly, whereas little emphasis is being made on how the vehicle should be driven. Driving habits significantly influences fuel consumption and poor driving habits leads to increased fuel consumption. In this paper a new system called “Green Drive” is being presented wherein driving habits are closely monitored, evaluated and details are systematically presented to the user. Green Drive system monitors key driving parameters like speed, gear selection, acceleration, unwanted engine idling periods, aggressive braking and clutch override and presents an ecoscore on the infotainment system which is reflection of users driving behavior. The system also offers guidance on the scope for improving driving habits to achieve better ecoscore and hence reduced fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

C-Shaped Synchronizer Spring-theoretical Analysis and Validation

2012-09-24
2012-01-2002
This paper presents the analysis and experimental validation of c-spring and its stiffness properties in the gear shift synchronizer system. A synchronizer assembly for a transmission comprises of a synchronizer hub carried by a torque delivery shaft and a cone clutch member carried by a gear and a synchronizer blocking ring. The gear shift sleeve is meshing over the teeth of the clutch hub. The c-spring is positioned in the inner circumference of the rim position of the clutch hub and strut keys will be positioned at the slots on the clutch hub, which are usually 120 degree apart. As the sleeve moves while gear shifting, it pushes down the strut keys which compress the C-spring radially inward; this gives the strut load. The strut keys, which are pushed down by the sleeve, will apply force on the c-spring from radial directions. Since the c-spring is in the shape of an arc it is assumed as a curved beam for the analysis.
Technical Paper

Concept Phase Powertrain Development for NVH Using the Optimization Technique

2015-06-15
2015-01-2294
One of the primary excitation sources in a passenger car comes from the powertrain [1]. Refinement of powertrain induced noise is the most critical tasks during a vehicle refinement. Due to ever increasing demand for reduced design and development cycle, most critical decisions have to be made at the concept stage. Powertrain radiated noise is one of the most important performance factor that must be evaluated during the concept stage. Solution time for calculating the radiated noise using the existing acoustic solvers is very high and requires very expensive resources like software and hardware. Arriving the optimal design with conventional method is very tedious job. A new method has been adopted for identifying the critical areas and coming up with the optimal design modifications within a short span of time. Powertrain radiated noise has been calculated with the help of acoustic solver.
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