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Technical Paper

Investigation on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of alloyed gray cast iron for brake applications

2013-11-27
2013-01-2881
The strength and wear resistance of four alloyed cast irons with elements like Ni. Mo, Cu, Cr and Al have been compared and analyzed. The increased hardness is reducing the wear resistance of the alloy due to graphite flakes. Higher carbon produces more graphite flakes which act as weak points for reducing strength and wear resistance. The wear rate increases for harder cast iron sample with more graphite flakes. Wear rate drastically increases with increase in carbon equivalent. Strength was found to decrease for samples with higher graphite flakes. The wear debris consisted of graphite flakes in platelet like morphology along with iron particles from the matrix. The presence of carbon at the sliding interface also sometimes decreases wear rate.
Technical Paper

Simulations Based Approach for Vehicle Idle NVH Optimization at Early Stage of Product Development

2011-05-17
2011-01-1591
The noise and vibration performance of diesel fueled automotives is critical for overall customer comfort. The stationary vehicle with engine running idle (Vehicle Idle) is a very common operating condition in city driving cycle. Hence it is most common comfort assessment criteria for diesel vehicles. Simulations and optimization of it in an early stage of product development cycle is priority for all OEMs. In vehicle idle condition, powertrain is the only major source of Noise and Vibrations. The key to First Time Right Idle NVH simulations and optimization remains being able to optimize all Transfer paths, from powertrain mounts to Driver Ear. This Paper talks about the approach established for simulations and optimization of powertrain forces entering in to frame by optimizing powertrain mount hard points and stiffness. Powertrain forces optimized through set process are further used to predict the vehicle passenger compartment noise and steering vibrations.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging a Small Two Cylinder DI Diesel Engine - Experiences in Improving the Power, Low End Torque and Specific Fuel Consumption

2011-09-11
2011-24-0133
Turbocharged common rail direct injection engines offer multiple benefits compared to their naturally aspirated counterparts by allowing for a significant increase in the power and torque output, while simultaneously improving the specific fuel consumption and smoke. They also make it possible for the engine to operate at a leaner air/fuel mixture ratio, thereby reducing particulate matter emission and permitting higher EGR flow rates. In the present work, a two cylinder, naturally aspirated common rail injected engine for use on a load carrier platform has been fitted with a turbocharger for improving the power and torque output, so that the engine can be used in a vehicle with a higher kerb weight. The basic architecture and hardware remain unchanged between the naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions. A fixed geometry, waste gated turbocharger with intercooling is used.
Technical Paper

Emission Optimization Approach to Meet the Current Indian Emission Norm Without EGR Cooling for a Vehicle Equipped with Common Rail Diesel Engine

2014-03-24
2014-01-2022
In India, diesel engine powered vehicles are finding rising demand due to the subsidy offered on diesel. Currently, BS-IV emission norm (equivalent to E-IV in Europe) is in existence. To meet this emission norm, OEM look for improved engine design, use of common rail injection system, advanced after treatment. In the current article, a methodology is demonstrated by which the required emissions on multipurpose vehicle (MPV) powered with 2.2L common rail injection system was met with no need of EGR cooling. This was achieved by identifying the operating points from the BS-IV emission cycle where EGR cooling is beneficial. The next step involves assessing the loss of function due to its removal. The final step involves strategies which can bring the original optimized value of NOx-PM. Removal of EGR cooling avoids the cooling of intake charge and reduces the HC and CO emission. Also, it gets rid of complication in the under bonnet packaging and leads to maintenance free operation.
Technical Paper

Monocoque Vehicle Body-In-White Life Evaluation Using Torsion Endurance Test on Rig

2016-04-05
2016-01-0276
In an automotive product development environment, identifying the premature structural failures is one of the important tasks for Body-In-White (BIW), sub-assemblies and components. The integrated car body structure i.e. monocoque structure, is widely used in passenger cars and SUVs. This structure is subjected to bending and torsional vibrations, due to dynamic loads. Normally the stresses due to bending are relatively small compared to stresses due to torsion in Body-In-White under actual road conditions [1]. This paper focuses on evaluating the life of Body-In-White structures subjected to torsional loading. An accelerated test method was evolved for identifying failure modes of monocoque BIW by applying torsion fatigue. The observation of the crack generation and propagation was made with respect to a number of torsion fatigue cycles.
Technical Paper

Infrastructure Development and its Management for Future Sustainable Mobility

2016-02-01
2016-28-0252
This article delineates the importance of infrastructure and its related aspects on sustainability of transportation on global and local context. Almost 7% of the GDP in India is spent on transportation and 6% of the CO2 emissions in the world is due to transportation. In countries like India, the road transport has significantly grown over other forms of mobility. This articles introduces different forms of transportations that exists today and the importance of sustainability in transportation sector. Sustainable transportation depends on development of infrastructure to enable smart transport solutions involving intelligent transport system, electric mobility, information management, vehicle health monitoring, advanced traffic management system and driver assistance system in a vehicle. The challenges includes existing transport operations, environmental impact and complexity of existing transport network.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Hub Load on Power Steering Pump Using Dynamic Simulation and Experimental Measurement

2017-03-28
2017-01-0416
New trend in steering system such as EPS is coming up, but still hydraulic power steering system is more prevalent in today’s vehicles. Power steering pump is a vital component of hydraulic power steering system. Failure of steering pump can lead to loss of power assistance. Prediction of hub load on pump shaft is an important design input for pump manufacturer. Higher hub loads than the actual designed load of pump bearing may lead to seizure of pump. Pump manufacturer has safe limits for hub load. Simulations can assist for optimization of belt layout and placement of accessories to reduce the hub load. Lower hub load can have direct effect on improvement of pump durability. This paper deals with dynamic simulation of belt drive system in MSC.ADAMS as well as vehicle level measurement of hub load on power steering pump.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Wiping Noises and NVH Design Consideration in a Wiper System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1916
As automobiles become increasingly quieter, the wiper operation noise becomes more noticeable by the customer. This paper deals with the experimental approach and the methodology to investigate the Friction induced wiping noise. Role of design in a wiper system plays a very imperative task in meeting the performance of wipers but at the same time it does not cater to the NVH issues. Some of the important design parameters which affect the NVH properties of the wiper system are highlighted in this paper. For better understanding of the system some of the best in class vehicles for SUV category were tested and compared with our test vehicle. In this study more importance given to analytical part which is more important to investigate and in depth study of the friction induced noise. For analytical study some techniques such as time frequency domain i.e. Wavelet transforms, frequency domain and time domain where extensively used.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Disruption of Circadian Rhythms using Blue Light for Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1706
Melatonin, otherwise popularly known as the “sleep hormone” is known to govern the human circadian rhythms. Current studies indicate that the generation of melatonin is impacted by the ambient light. The natural sleep inducing behavior during night and in darkness, is also due to the same phenomenon. Studies have shown that light of particular wavelengths in the visible spectrum have a higher effect on the amount of melatonin secreted by the human body. Blue light in the wavelengths of around 468 nm is known to inhibit the melatonin secretion, the most. This branch of science known as photobiology is in its nascent stage and is a matter of research pursued by neurologists, endocrinologists and other lighting researchers. Photobiology has several potential applications in the automotive industry, the principal one being driver drowsiness prevention.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sway Prediction in Hydraulic Circuit Failed Condition on 4 Wheeled Vehicle with ‘X’ Split Brake Configuration

2017-01-10
2017-26-0344
A 4 wheeled vehicle with X-split brake configuration, in hydraulic circuit failed condition will have a behavior of induced sway due to braking force variation in the front and rear diagonally. With increasing vehicle speed, engine power & customer expectations, the situation becomes more critical and challenging in designing a brake system which caters in meeting the homologation requirement at an expense of vehicle sway within controllable limits of driver / customer. This paper proposes a novel approach & methodology to overcome the above situation by predicting the effect of brake force distribution variation on the vehicle swaying behavior during circuit failed braking condition. This study will quantify vehicle sway, caused due to imbalance in brake force distribution during a circuit failed braking event on X Split configuration vehicles.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Strain based Fatigue Life Obtained from Uni-Axial and Multi-Axial Loading of an Automotive Twist Beam

2017-01-10
2017-26-0312
Twist beam is a type of suspension system that is based on an H or C shaped member typically used as a rear suspension system in small and medium sized cars. The front of the H member is connected to the body through rubber bushings and the rear portion carries the stub axle assembly. Suspension systems are usually subjected to multi-axial loads in service viz. vertical, longitudinal and lateral in the descending order of magnitude. Lab tests primarily include the roll durability of the twist beam wherein both the trailing arms are in out of phase and a lateral load test. Other tests involve testing the twist beam at the vehicle level either in multi-channel road simulators or driving the vehicle on the test tracks. This is highly time consuming and requires a full vehicle and longer product development time. Limited information is available in the fatigue life comparison of multi-axial loading vs pure roll or lateral load tests.
Technical Paper

Case Study: An Accelerated Methodology for Simulating Thermal Stress in Automotive Headlamps

2017-01-10
2017-26-0322
In any industry, early detection and mitigation of a failure in component is vital for feasible design changes or development iterations or saving money. So it becomes pivotal to capture the failure mode in an accelerated way. This theory poses many challenges in devising the methodology to validate the failure mode. In real world, vehicle head lamp is exposed to all possible kinds of harsh environments such as variable daily ambient, rain, dust and engine compartment temperature …etc. This brings rapid thermal stress onto headlamp resulting into warpage cracks. At vehicle level on particular model, this failure is typically observed after 20,000-25,000 kms in a span of 3-4 months of running. Any corrective action to revalidate the design change or improvement will need similar timelines in regular way to test, which is quite high in product development cycle.
Technical Paper

Tractor Transmission Validation for Synchronizer as Skid at Rig Level

2017-01-10
2017-26-0231
Synchronizer design optimization is being prime need for smooth gear shifting and shifting noise. Especially in tractors, synchronizers are subjected to different kinds of loads under various field applications such as Puddling, Cultivation, Haulage, Construction equipment, etc. Also, transmission housings act as a part of chassis of the tractor and hence subjected to sever bending loads. Thus, design & evaluation of tractor transmission, meeting the customer requirement is quite complex. Current trends in product development are driven by shortening development time, reduced cost and first-time-right principle. These above requirements drive tractor manufacturers to put more efforts on delivering quality, robust and reliable transmission assembly in time. Generally the synchronizer packs were validated at sub system level in test rig and further assembled on to the tractor to validate the same in tractor level it requires more time & high cost.
Technical Paper

Analytical Design and Development for Automobile Powertrain Mounts Using Low Fidelity Calculators

2016-02-01
2016-28-0185
The excitation to a vehicle is from two sources, road excitation and powertrain excitation. Vehicle Suspension is designed to isolate the road excitation coming to passenger cabin. Powertrain mounts play a vital role in isolating the engine excitation. The current study focuses on developing an analytical approach using Low-Fidelity computer programs to design the Powertrain Mount layout and stiffness during the initial stage of product development. Three programs have been developed as a part of this study that satisfy the packaging needs, NVH requirements and static load bearing requirements. The applications are capable of providing the Kinetic Energy Distribution and Static Analysis (Powertrain Enveloping and Mount Durability) for 3-point and 4-point mounting systems and the ideal mount positions and stiffness for 3-point mounting systems.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Regeneration Interval of a Diesel Particulate Filter and Their Influence on BSV Emission Application

2016-02-01
2016-28-0017
With the implementation of stringent PM emission norms in various countries for diesel vehicles, the legislation demands a PM mass limit as low as 4.5mg/km in the NEDC cycle, starting from Euro5. This makes the usage of Diesel particulate filters (DPF) mandatory. The same is going to be mandated for upcoming BSV emission norms in India. Thus it becomes imperative to know the functional aspects of a DPF and their impacts. Basically there are two major functions of a DPF- Soot mass estimation and Soot burning or Regeneration. This paper highlights usage of DPF in Indian context from the perspective of one of the major aspects of DPF regeneration-Regeneration Interval, which is basically governed by vehicle/engine out smoke. Regeneration interval also has direct or indirect influence on life of engine of a vehicle and average fuel economy of a vehicle which will also be touched upon herein.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Temperature and Velocity Uniformity of Exhaust Gases in Heavy Commercial Vehicle Exhaust System having SCR After Treatment Technology

2016-02-01
2016-28-0112
For meeting upcoming BS IV & BS V emission norms in Heavy Commercial Vehicles, most of the manufacturers are taking SCR after treatment route. Though SCR system is more complex and involves higher cost impact, an optimized SCR system can bring down the payback period to about one year due to improved fuel economy. For development of an SCR after treatment system, selection of a correct SCR catalyst and its position in the system is very important. NOX conversion efficiency of catalyst depends on exhaust gas temperature at the catalyst and the velocity distribution over the face of the catalyst. Generally catalysts are evaluated for the conversion efficiency in engine test bed. In a drive to have a first-time-right solution, a CFD analysis was carried out considering the low and high flow rate conditions. CFD simulation models and the corresponding results were used as a predictive tool in the exhaust system development process.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Intercooler Efficiency as a Technique for Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1133
As the emission targets are getting tighter, efforts are made to improve the emission by all possible means. This work emphasis the potential of intercooler to reduce exhaust gas emissions (CO, HC, NOx and PM). A detailed analysis of experimental results on emissions is presented. The effect of intercooler efficiency on emissions is explained. A multi-utility vehicle equipped with common rail diesel engine was tested in NEDC cycle in chassis dynamometer. Ideally the vehicle emission lab should replicate a flat straight road condition & natural airflow. To obtain the airflow a variable velocity fan is used. The velocity of air emerging from the fan and relative position of the fan with vehicle has a significant role in intercooler efficiency and hence on emissions. This work explains the exercise carried out to correlate the intercooler efficiency and exhaust emissions with fan position and velocity.
Technical Paper

FE Driven Pedestrian Friendly Front End Design and Its Correlation with Physical Test

2015-01-14
2015-26-0212
In the current competitive automobile market, with growing knowledge and concern for occupant and vulnerable road user safety, design & engineering of passenger cars in stipulated time is a challenge. As front styling is a crucial factor, early involvement of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) through front loading helps reduce the product development time considerably with a pedestrian friendly engineered design. The present paper explains how initial inputs are given to styling & engineering teams during early stages of product development where availability of Computer Aided Design (CAD) data is minimal. Critical load paths were identified and shape of the front end was modified accordingly. Various locations of hinge mechanism were evaluated to reduce the severity of injury in the head impact zone. Sufficient gaps between the exterior surfaces and interior hard points were worked upon to reduce the impact values.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Bharat (Trem) Stage IV Solutionsfor TractorEngines

2015-01-14
2015-26-0092
India's high Air Pollution level is the focus of discussions as we grow. Plans to combat this menace and implement the latest Technologies are gathering pace. The increasingly stringent emission legislations provide a continuous challenge for the non-road market. Tractor manufacturers are evaluating the need for cost-effective technology to meet upcoming stringent emissions targets. Simply following global approach may not work for Indian market considering the customer usage pattern & perceptions. With an anticipation of upcoming emission norms being based on US-EPA TIER-4 final up to 75 Hp, major technology up gradation is expected for farm equipment sold in India. The enormous diversification of engines within the different power classes as well as the operation specific requirements regarding various duty cycles, robustness and durability, requires specific solutions to meet these legal limits.
Journal Article

Development of Hydrogen Fuelled Low NOx Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Exhaust after Treatment

2017-01-10
2017-26-0074
Air pollution caused by vehicular tail pipe emissions has become a matter of grave concern in major cities of the world. Hydrogen, a carbon free fuel is a clean burning fuel with only concern being oxides of nitrogen (NOx) formed. The present study focuses on the development of a hydrogen powered multi-cylinder engine with low NOx emissions. The NOx emissions were reduced using a combination of an in-cylinder control strategy viz. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and an after treatment method using hydrogen as a NOx reductant. In the present study, the low speed torque of the hydrogen engine was improved by 38.46% from 65 Nm to 90 Nm @ 1200 rpm by operating at an equivalence of 0.64. The higher equivalence ratio operation compared to the conventional low equivalence ratio operation lead to an increase in the torque generated but increased NOx as well.
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