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Technical Paper

Design Strategies for Meeting ECE R14 Safety Test for Light Commercial Vehicle

2010-10-05
2010-01-2017
The ECE R-14, AIS015 safety standard specifies the requirements of the safety belt anchorages namely, minimum numbers, their locations, static strength to reduce the possibility of their failure during accidental crashes for effective occupant restraint and the test procedures. This standard applies to the anchorages of safety belts for adult occupants of forward facing or rearward facing seats in vehicles of categories M and N. ECE R14 ensures the passenger safety during sudden acceleration/retardation and accidents. Early simulations revealed some structural short falls that demanded cabin improvements in order to fulfill regulation requirements for the seal belt anchorage test. This paper describes the innovative design modifications done to meet the seat belt anchorage test. Good correlation with the test is achieved in terms of deformations. These simulation methods helped in reducing the number of intermediate physical tests during the design process.
Technical Paper

Functional Safety - Progressing Towards Safer Mobility

2013-11-27
2013-01-2841
Increasing complexity in E/E architecture poses several challenges in developing comfortable, clean and safe cars. This mandates robust processes to mitigate potential hazards due to malfunction of electronic systems throughout the product life cycle. With the advent of ISO 26262 [1] which provides guidelines for developing safe cars, the process is getting standardized towards safer mobility. In this paper, the functional safety process is briefly covered and a case study of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment for specific E/E system is presented. An in-house tool developed for functional safety process and management is covered.
Technical Paper

Simulations Based Approach for Vehicle Idle NVH Optimization at Early Stage of Product Development

2011-05-17
2011-01-1591
The noise and vibration performance of diesel fueled automotives is critical for overall customer comfort. The stationary vehicle with engine running idle (Vehicle Idle) is a very common operating condition in city driving cycle. Hence it is most common comfort assessment criteria for diesel vehicles. Simulations and optimization of it in an early stage of product development cycle is priority for all OEMs. In vehicle idle condition, powertrain is the only major source of Noise and Vibrations. The key to First Time Right Idle NVH simulations and optimization remains being able to optimize all Transfer paths, from powertrain mounts to Driver Ear. This Paper talks about the approach established for simulations and optimization of powertrain forces entering in to frame by optimizing powertrain mount hard points and stiffness. Powertrain forces optimized through set process are further used to predict the vehicle passenger compartment noise and steering vibrations.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Noise & Sound Quality Refinement for New Generation Common Rail Engines

2010-06-09
2010-01-1414
Noise & sound quality has gained equal importance as that of emissions and crash safety of the vehicles. With increased engine power to weight ratio, the challenges for NVH engineers has increased multifold. Passenger compartment comfort levels are getting affected largely due to lighter and powerful engines. Same time, there is pressure to reduce overall vehicle weight and cost. This impose constraints to NVH engineer in designing the body structure and sound package to reduce the effect of powertrain forces and airborne noise on passenger compartment. In addition to weight constraints, there is trend emerging to use two & three cylinder engines which need to perform on par with four cylinder engines. This has shown adverse effect on vehicle NVH performance due to wider low frequency unbalance forces.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging a Small Two Cylinder DI Diesel Engine - Experiences in Improving the Power, Low End Torque and Specific Fuel Consumption

2011-09-11
2011-24-0133
Turbocharged common rail direct injection engines offer multiple benefits compared to their naturally aspirated counterparts by allowing for a significant increase in the power and torque output, while simultaneously improving the specific fuel consumption and smoke. They also make it possible for the engine to operate at a leaner air/fuel mixture ratio, thereby reducing particulate matter emission and permitting higher EGR flow rates. In the present work, a two cylinder, naturally aspirated common rail injected engine for use on a load carrier platform has been fitted with a turbocharger for improving the power and torque output, so that the engine can be used in a vehicle with a higher kerb weight. The basic architecture and hardware remain unchanged between the naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions. A fixed geometry, waste gated turbocharger with intercooling is used.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Oil Sump for CI Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0135
Recently fuel economy and stringent emission norms are the ever growing concern in automotive global scenario. So, automotive engineers are constantly seeking new cost effective methodologies and techniques to achieve considerable weight reduction and improved performance. Nowadays Automotive OEMs are using Aluminum Oil sump (which is a structured part of an engine and supports considerable amount of transmission housing weight) for better emission, reducing the engine height, engine weight and NVH levels. Our present work reveals the concept of ‘Hybrid oil sump’ which made by sheet metal and aluminum in such a way that weight and cost reduced by 20% and 30 % respectively, without compromising NVH and strength properties. Exactly it deals the iteration part of design to arrive the optimum model, various structural modifications since it carries considerable amount of weight of transmission.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach for Weight Reduction of BIW Panels through Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0389
This paper describes application of Design of Experiments (DOE) technique and optimization for mass reduction of a Sports utility vehicle (SUV) body in white (BIW). Thickness of the body panels is taken as design variable for the study. The BIW global torsion, bending and front end modes are key indicators of the stiffness and mass of the structure. By considering the global modes the structural strength of the vehicle also gets accounted, since the vehicle is subjected to bending and twisting moments during proving ground test. The DOE is setup in a virtual environment and the results for different configurations are obtained through simulations. The results obtained from the DOE exercise are used to check the sensitivity of the panels. The panels are selected for mass reduction based on the analysis of the results. This final configuration is further evaluated for determining the stiffness and strength of the BIW.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Test with CAE of Dynamic Strains on Transmission Housing for 4WD Automotive Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0497
Reducing the vibrations in the powertrain is one of the prime necessities in today's automobiles from NVH and strength perspectives. The necessity of 4×4 powertrain is increasing for better control on normal road and off-road vehicles. This leads to bulky powertrains. The vehicle speeds are increasing, that requires engines to run at higher speeds. Also to save on material costs and improve on fuel economy there is a need for optimizing the mass of the engine/vehicle. The reduced stiffness and higher speeds lead to increased noise and vibrations. One more challenge a powertrain design engineer has to face during design of its transmission housings is the bending / torsional mode vibrations of powertrain assembly. This aggravates other concerns such as shift lever vibrations, shift lever rattle, rise in in-cab noise, generation of boom noise at certain speeds, etc. Hence, reducing vibrations becomes an important and difficult aspect in design of an automobile.
Technical Paper

Monocoque Vehicle Body-In-White Life Evaluation Using Torsion Endurance Test on Rig

2016-04-05
2016-01-0276
In an automotive product development environment, identifying the premature structural failures is one of the important tasks for Body-In-White (BIW), sub-assemblies and components. The integrated car body structure i.e. monocoque structure, is widely used in passenger cars and SUVs. This structure is subjected to bending and torsional vibrations, due to dynamic loads. Normally the stresses due to bending are relatively small compared to stresses due to torsion in Body-In-White under actual road conditions [1]. This paper focuses on evaluating the life of Body-In-White structures subjected to torsional loading. An accelerated test method was evolved for identifying failure modes of monocoque BIW by applying torsion fatigue. The observation of the crack generation and propagation was made with respect to a number of torsion fatigue cycles.
Technical Paper

Silent Block Bush Design and Optimization for Pick-Up Truck Leaf Spring

2017-03-28
2017-01-0455
Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber. Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative. In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS).
Technical Paper

Prediction of Hub Load on Power Steering Pump Using Dynamic Simulation and Experimental Measurement

2017-03-28
2017-01-0416
New trend in steering system such as EPS is coming up, but still hydraulic power steering system is more prevalent in today’s vehicles. Power steering pump is a vital component of hydraulic power steering system. Failure of steering pump can lead to loss of power assistance. Prediction of hub load on pump shaft is an important design input for pump manufacturer. Higher hub loads than the actual designed load of pump bearing may lead to seizure of pump. Pump manufacturer has safe limits for hub load. Simulations can assist for optimization of belt layout and placement of accessories to reduce the hub load. Lower hub load can have direct effect on improvement of pump durability. This paper deals with dynamic simulation of belt drive system in MSC.ADAMS as well as vehicle level measurement of hub load on power steering pump.
Technical Paper

Experimental Approach to Eliminate Mirror Blur

2013-05-13
2013-01-1918
In today's automobile market, fuel economy is a powerful parameter which gives an edge over competition. Light weight materials play a major role in achieving this. Mirrors tend to underperform in terms of NVH when they are considered for weight optimization. Being light in weight mirrors get easily excited as the energy gets transferred through the structures causing vibration due to their poor damping characteristics. Mirror vibration is a grave concern which affects the vehicle safety. Blur is an effect of vibration which has higher energy levels in vertical and longitudinal direction. It resembles resonance, wherein the vision is zero at certain engine rpm. This paper depicts the approach for mirror blur elimination in the vehicle (prosper segment vehicles), which consider cost as the primary concern. Since the vehicle was nearing SOP design changes was not possible. Certain parameters were attempted without affecting the design as explained in this paper.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Elimination of Howling Noise in Compact Utility Vehicle

2017-07-10
2017-28-1922
NVH is becoming one of the major factor for customer selection of vehicle along with parameters like fuel economy and drivability. One of the major NVH challenges is to have a vehicle with aggressive drivability and at the same time with acceptable noise and vibration levels. This paper focuses on the compact utility vehicle where the howling noise is occurring at higher rpm of the engine. The vehicle is powered by three cylinder turbocharged diesel engine. The noise levels were higher above 2500 rpm due to the presence of structural resonance. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and Transfer path analysis (TPA) analysis was done on entire vehicle and powertrain to find out the major reason for howling noise at higher engine rpm. It is observed that the major contribution for noise at higher rpm is due to modal coupling between powertrain, half shaft and vehicle sub frame.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sway Prediction in Hydraulic Circuit Failed Condition on 4 Wheeled Vehicle with ‘X’ Split Brake Configuration

2017-01-10
2017-26-0344
A 4 wheeled vehicle with X-split brake configuration, in hydraulic circuit failed condition will have a behavior of induced sway due to braking force variation in the front and rear diagonally. With increasing vehicle speed, engine power & customer expectations, the situation becomes more critical and challenging in designing a brake system which caters in meeting the homologation requirement at an expense of vehicle sway within controllable limits of driver / customer. This paper proposes a novel approach & methodology to overcome the above situation by predicting the effect of brake force distribution variation on the vehicle swaying behavior during circuit failed braking condition. This study will quantify vehicle sway, caused due to imbalance in brake force distribution during a circuit failed braking event on X Split configuration vehicles.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Strain based Fatigue Life Obtained from Uni-Axial and Multi-Axial Loading of an Automotive Twist Beam

2017-01-10
2017-26-0312
Twist beam is a type of suspension system that is based on an H or C shaped member typically used as a rear suspension system in small and medium sized cars. The front of the H member is connected to the body through rubber bushings and the rear portion carries the stub axle assembly. Suspension systems are usually subjected to multi-axial loads in service viz. vertical, longitudinal and lateral in the descending order of magnitude. Lab tests primarily include the roll durability of the twist beam wherein both the trailing arms are in out of phase and a lateral load test. Other tests involve testing the twist beam at the vehicle level either in multi-channel road simulators or driving the vehicle on the test tracks. This is highly time consuming and requires a full vehicle and longer product development time. Limited information is available in the fatigue life comparison of multi-axial loading vs pure roll or lateral load tests.
Technical Paper

Case Study: An Accelerated Methodology for Simulating Thermal Stress in Automotive Headlamps

2017-01-10
2017-26-0322
In any industry, early detection and mitigation of a failure in component is vital for feasible design changes or development iterations or saving money. So it becomes pivotal to capture the failure mode in an accelerated way. This theory poses many challenges in devising the methodology to validate the failure mode. In real world, vehicle head lamp is exposed to all possible kinds of harsh environments such as variable daily ambient, rain, dust and engine compartment temperature …etc. This brings rapid thermal stress onto headlamp resulting into warpage cracks. At vehicle level on particular model, this failure is typically observed after 20,000-25,000 kms in a span of 3-4 months of running. Any corrective action to revalidate the design change or improvement will need similar timelines in regular way to test, which is quite high in product development cycle.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Mirror Induced Wind Noise Using CFD-FEM Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0221
Wind noise is becoming important for automotive development due to significant reductions in road and engine noise. This aerodynamic noise is dominant at highway speeds and contributes towards higher frequency noise (>250Hz). In automotive industry accurate prediction and control of noise sources results in improved customer satisfaction. The aerodynamic noise prediction and vehicle component design optimization is generally executed through very expensive wind tunnel testing. Even with the recent advances in the computational power, predicting the flow induced noise sources is still a challenging and computationally expensive problem. A typical case of fluid-solid interaction at higher speeds results into broadband noise and it is inherently an unsteady phenomenon. To capture such a broad range of frequency, Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) has been proven to be the most practical and fairly accurate technique as sighted in literature.
Technical Paper

Tractor Transmission Validation for Synchronizer as Skid at Rig Level

2017-01-10
2017-26-0231
Synchronizer design optimization is being prime need for smooth gear shifting and shifting noise. Especially in tractors, synchronizers are subjected to different kinds of loads under various field applications such as Puddling, Cultivation, Haulage, Construction equipment, etc. Also, transmission housings act as a part of chassis of the tractor and hence subjected to sever bending loads. Thus, design & evaluation of tractor transmission, meeting the customer requirement is quite complex. Current trends in product development are driven by shortening development time, reduced cost and first-time-right principle. These above requirements drive tractor manufacturers to put more efforts on delivering quality, robust and reliable transmission assembly in time. Generally the synchronizer packs were validated at sub system level in test rig and further assembled on to the tractor to validate the same in tractor level it requires more time & high cost.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Regeneration Interval of a Diesel Particulate Filter and Their Influence on BSV Emission Application

2016-02-01
2016-28-0017
With the implementation of stringent PM emission norms in various countries for diesel vehicles, the legislation demands a PM mass limit as low as 4.5mg/km in the NEDC cycle, starting from Euro5. This makes the usage of Diesel particulate filters (DPF) mandatory. The same is going to be mandated for upcoming BSV emission norms in India. Thus it becomes imperative to know the functional aspects of a DPF and their impacts. Basically there are two major functions of a DPF- Soot mass estimation and Soot burning or Regeneration. This paper highlights usage of DPF in Indian context from the perspective of one of the major aspects of DPF regeneration-Regeneration Interval, which is basically governed by vehicle/engine out smoke. Regeneration interval also has direct or indirect influence on life of engine of a vehicle and average fuel economy of a vehicle which will also be touched upon herein.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Temperature and Velocity Uniformity of Exhaust Gases in Heavy Commercial Vehicle Exhaust System having SCR After Treatment Technology

2016-02-01
2016-28-0112
For meeting upcoming BS IV & BS V emission norms in Heavy Commercial Vehicles, most of the manufacturers are taking SCR after treatment route. Though SCR system is more complex and involves higher cost impact, an optimized SCR system can bring down the payback period to about one year due to improved fuel economy. For development of an SCR after treatment system, selection of a correct SCR catalyst and its position in the system is very important. NOX conversion efficiency of catalyst depends on exhaust gas temperature at the catalyst and the velocity distribution over the face of the catalyst. Generally catalysts are evaluated for the conversion efficiency in engine test bed. In a drive to have a first-time-right solution, a CFD analysis was carried out considering the low and high flow rate conditions. CFD simulation models and the corresponding results were used as a predictive tool in the exhaust system development process.
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