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Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach for Weight Reduction of BIW Panels through Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0389
This paper describes application of Design of Experiments (DOE) technique and optimization for mass reduction of a Sports utility vehicle (SUV) body in white (BIW). Thickness of the body panels is taken as design variable for the study. The BIW global torsion, bending and front end modes are key indicators of the stiffness and mass of the structure. By considering the global modes the structural strength of the vehicle also gets accounted, since the vehicle is subjected to bending and twisting moments during proving ground test. The DOE is setup in a virtual environment and the results for different configurations are obtained through simulations. The results obtained from the DOE exercise are used to check the sensitivity of the panels. The panels are selected for mass reduction based on the analysis of the results. This final configuration is further evaluated for determining the stiffness and strength of the BIW.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Test with CAE of Dynamic Strains on Transmission Housing for 4WD Automotive Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0497
Reducing the vibrations in the powertrain is one of the prime necessities in today's automobiles from NVH and strength perspectives. The necessity of 4×4 powertrain is increasing for better control on normal road and off-road vehicles. This leads to bulky powertrains. The vehicle speeds are increasing, that requires engines to run at higher speeds. Also to save on material costs and improve on fuel economy there is a need for optimizing the mass of the engine/vehicle. The reduced stiffness and higher speeds lead to increased noise and vibrations. One more challenge a powertrain design engineer has to face during design of its transmission housings is the bending / torsional mode vibrations of powertrain assembly. This aggravates other concerns such as shift lever vibrations, shift lever rattle, rise in in-cab noise, generation of boom noise at certain speeds, etc. Hence, reducing vibrations becomes an important and difficult aspect in design of an automobile.
Technical Paper

Studies on Neutral Gear Rattle in Early Stage Design

2013-01-09
2013-26-0109
In today's competitive automobile market, customers have become more sensitive towards NVH behavior of the vehicle than ever. The noise generated by gear rattle is one of the main contributors towards customer's overall NVH perception. This paper adopts a model based design approach towards gear rattle phenomenon to predict the tendency of gear rattle at a very early stage of design. This up-front understanding of gear rattle will potentially reduce the expensive design changes and iterations at later stages. A single unloaded gear pair is modeled in AMESim software, which is then extended to the complete gearbox in neutral condition. The sensitivity of rattle index for different input parameters is studied. Analysis on uncertainty propagation is carried out to find the rattle index distribution for Gaussian variation of input parameters. A novel rattle index based on Jerk is proposed and compared with the existing index.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Durability Analysis of Automotive Lower Control Arm Using Self Transducer Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-1208
A competitive market and shrinking product development cycle have forced automotive companies to move from conventional testing methods to virtual simulation techniques. Virtual durability simulation of any component requires determination of loads acting on the structure when tested on the proving ground. In conventional method wheel force transducers are used to extract loads at wheel center. Extracted wheel center forces are used to derive component loads through multi-body simulation. Another conventional approach is to use force transducers mounted directly on the component joineries where load needs to be extracted. Both the methods are costly and time-consuming. Sometimes it is not feasible to place a load cell in the system to measure hard point loads because of its complexities. In that case, it would be advantageous to use structure itself as a load transducer by strain gauging the component and use those strain values to extract hard point loads in virtual simulation.
Technical Paper

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Automobile Tail Door

2017-03-28
2017-01-0251
Stringent emission norms by government and higher fuel economy targets have urged automotive companies to look beyond conventional methods of optimization to achieve an optimal design with minimum mass, which also meets the desired level of performance targets at the system as well as at vehicle level. In conventional optimization method, experts from each domain work independently to improve the performance based on their domain knowledge which may not lead to optimum design considering the performance parameters of all domain. It is time consuming and tedious process as it is an iterative method. Also, it fails to highlight the conflicting design solutions. With an increase in computational power, automotive companies are now adopting Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach which is capable of handling heterogeneous domains in parallel. It facilitates to understand the limitations of performances of all domains to achieve good balance between them.
Technical Paper

Novel Approach for Model-Based Development - Part II: Developing Virtual Environment and Its Application

2016-04-05
2016-01-0322
With continuous pressure for reducing vehicle development time and cost, without compromising on system reliability, it is imperative to move from Road to Lab to Model (RLM) based development. Every OEM is currently using virtual environment to complete functional checks of systems during development. The method of developing control functions and calibration in virtual environment brings repeatability and reproducibility which typically is challenging in real world testing. This process is cost effective and optimizes the time for development and brings high level of system maturity before testing it in the vehicle. This paper focuses on defining a front-loading approach for setting up of virtual test environment. Development of virtual test environment and its validation with respect to real vehicle data will be discussed, with focus on vehicle plant model and driver model.
Technical Paper

Novel Approaches for Model-Based Development - Part I: Developing a Real-World Driver Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0323
OEMs these days are focusing on front loading the activities to Virtual Test Environment (VTE) based development owing to high development cost and complexity in achieving repeatability during testing phase of vehicle development,. This process not only helps in reducing the cost and time but also helps in increasing the maturity and confidence level of the developed system before actual prototype is built. In the past, extensive research has happened for increasing the fidelity of VTE by improving plant model efficacy which involves powertrain and other vehicle systems. On the other hand, improving the precision of driver model which is one of the most complex nonlinear systems of virtual environment still remains a challenge. It is apparent that various drivers show different behavior in real world for a given drive profile. While modelling a driver for a VTE, the real world driver attributes are seldom considered.
Technical Paper

Generating a Real World Drive Cycle–A Statistical Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0325
Drive cycles have been an integral part of emission tests and virtual simulations for decades. A drive cycle is a representation of running behavior of a typical vehicle, involving the drive pattern, road characteristics and traffic characteristics. Drive cycles are typically used to assess vehicle performance parameters, perform system sizing and perform accelerated testing on a test bed or a virtual test environment, hence reducing the expenses on road tests. This study is an attempt to design a relatively robust process to generate a real world drive cycle. It is based on a Six Sigma design approach which utilizes data acquired from real world road trials. It explicitly describes the process of generating a drive cycle which closely represents the real world road drive scenario. The study also focuses on validation of the process by simulation and statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

Structural Evaluation Technique Based on RWUP for Scooter Using RLDA

2014-04-01
2014-01-0749
Scooter segment growth is tremendously increasing in India. The increased competition challenges automotive manufacturers to deliver the high quality and high reliable product to the market. Higher reliability involves increased durability testing which involves time and cost. Stress testing a part of durability is initially conducted on prototype vehicles for structural design validation and then later on production units to ensure its structural integrity. The obtained data from the tests can be used for future structural design improvements. Scooters with small tires, suspension limitations transfers more loads to structure, challenges engineers to design robust structure without compromising on weight much. It is necessary to look at Real World Usage Pattern (RWUP) and to create a stress life cycle block for simulation of accelerated testing, thereby optimizing the testing time and the development costs.
Technical Paper

A Cost Effective System Test-Bed using Model Based Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0048
The effort involved in automotive software test/calibration at road level is very high and cost involved is also commendable because of the involved proto level samples. Further the on-road test/calibration process is sensitive to external factors like drive pattern and environmental conditions. It is always a challenge for any OEM, to come up with an efficient process, which optimizes development cost, time and reliability of the product. The model based test/calibration process is always a dream for any engineer to work on, as it has big advantage of cost, reproducibility and repeatability of test cases [1]. But the challenge lies in achieving the closeness to reality with limited availability of crucial data for model parameterization. Activity at test bed level bridges the gap between the on-road and model based test/calibration achieving high maturity level at optimal cost/time. Current vehicle has many systems, which work in synergy to create an impact on end customer.
Technical Paper

CAE Prediction and Test Correlation for Tractor Roll-over Protective Structure (ROPS)

2015-04-14
2015-01-1476
Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are safety devices which provide a safe environment for the tractor operator during an accidental rollover. The ROPS must pass either a dynamic or static testing sequence or both in accordance with SAE J2194. These tests examine the performance of ROPS to withstand a sequence of loadings and to see if the clearance zone around the operator station remains intact in the event of an overturn. In order to shorten the time and reduce the cost of new product development, non-linear finite element (FE) analysis is practiced routinely in ROPS design and development. By correlating the simulation with the results obtained from testing a prototype validates the CAE model and its assumptions. The FE analysis follows SAE procedure J2194 for testing the performance of ROPS. The Abaqus version 6.12 finite element software is used in the analysis, which includes the geometric, contact and material nonlinear options.
Technical Paper

Detent Profile Optimization to Improve Shift Quality of Manual Transmissions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1135
The customer of today is sensitive towards shift quality. The demand is for a crisp and precise gear shift with low shift effort. The impulses from synchronizers make shifts feel notchy. After synchronization the blocker ring releases the sleeve. The sleeve then hits the teeth of the clutch body ring. The second impulse causes a phenomenon called double bump. This can be felt at the hand and makes a shift feel notchy or sluggish. An ideal way to overcome this is to optimize the detent profile. This paper explains in detail the various factors that contribute to the perceived shift feel. Various methods to optimize the forces on the knob by changing the detent profile are discussed. Gear Shift Quality Assessment (referred as GSQA henceforth) is a tool to acquire the required shift feel data. Using this tool shift efforts and kinematics of a 5 speed manual transmission are plotted for illustration. The calculations required to optimize the detent profile are explained in detail.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Tire Pressure on Ride Dynamics of a Passenger Car

2019-04-02
2019-01-0622
Ride is essentially the outcome of coupled dynamics of various involved sub-systems which make it too complex to deal analytically. Tires, amongst these, are known to be highly nonlinear compliant systems. Selection of tires specifications such as rated tyre pressure, etc. are generally decided through subjective assessment. While experts agree that tyre pressure affects the attributes such as ride to a noticeable degree, the quantification of the change often remains missing. In the current work, vibration levels of various sub-systems relevant to ride in an SUV are measured for three different tyre pressures at different speeds over the three randomly generated roads. For the purpose, artificial road profiles of classes A, B and C are synthesized from the spectrum of road classes defined in ISO 8608:2016 and reproduced on a four-poster test rig.
Technical Paper

Front Loading In-Vehicle Traffic Light Visibility Requirements for Driver as per Indian Road Standards

2017-07-10
2017-28-1932
Traffic awareness of the driver is one of the prime focus in terms of pedestrian and road safety. Driver experience plays a significant role and driving requires careful attention to changing environments both within and outside the vehicle. Any lapse in driver attention from the primary task of driving could potentially lead to an accident. It is observed that, lack of attention on the ongoing traffic and ignorant about the traffic information such as traffic lights, road signs, traffic rules and regulations are major cause for the vehicle crash. Traffic signals & signage are the most appropriate choice of traffic control for the intersection, it is important to ensure that driver can see the information far away from the intersection so that he/she can stop safely upon viewing the yellow and red display. Then, upon viewing the signal operations and conditions the motorist can stop his/her vehicle successfully before entering the intersection.
Technical Paper

Novel, Compact and Light Weight Plenum Assembly for Automobiles

2017-07-10
2017-28-1924
Plenum is the part located between the front windshield and the bonnet of an automobile . It is primarily used as an air inlet to the HVAC during fresh air mode operation. It’s secondary functions include water drainage, aesthetic cover to hide the gap between windshield to bonnet, concealing wiper motors and mechanisms etc. The plenum consists mainly two sub parts viz. upper plenum and lower plenum. Conventional plenum design which is found in majority of global OEMs employ a plastic upper plenum and a metal lower plenum which spans across the entire width of engine compartment. This conventional lower plenum is bulky, consumes more packaging space and has more weight. In this paper, we propose a novel design for the plenum lower to overcome above mentioned limitations of the conventional design. This novel design employs a dry and wet box concept for its working and is made up of complete plastic material.
Technical Paper

Development of Common Rail Engine for LCV BS III and a Step Towards BS IV Emission Compliance

2011-01-19
2011-26-0032
This work discusses about the emission development of a 4 cylinder inline 3.3 liter CRDe to meet BS III emission norms applicable to 3.5 Ton and above category and upgradable to BS IV emission by suitable after treatment. This engine is developed from a 3.2l mechanical pump engine. During development the focus was on the usage of higher swept volume, selection of engine hardware like piston bowl, turbocharger, injectors and optimization of the injection parameters. A cost-effective solution for meeting the BS III norms in the LCV category without application of EGR and exhaust after treatment even though there is 15% increase of the power rating and 10% increase in Peak torque of the engine. Injection parameters like injection timing, injection quantity and pilot injection were optimized to meet the emission target.
Technical Paper

Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) of Hydroformed Engine Cradle Design for SUV Application

2011-01-19
2011-26-0109
In the new product design, meeting customer requirements, process alignment, timely execution and successful implementation plays a critical role. Six sigma methodology is a disciplined, standardized methodology supported by analytical tools to meet the quality and functional targets. An engine cradle or sub-frame is the principal load carrying member in a monocoque vehicle construction. It is extensively used to (i) provide structural support and retention of power train, suspension control arms, stabilizer bar, and steering rack mounting features (ii) to isolate the high frequency vibrations of engine and suspension from the remaining structures (iii) to absorb and transmit the impact forces during frontal crash. This paper attempts to explain (i) the various DFSS-DMADV techniques used during the engine cradle design and development (ii) correlation between the cradle stiffness simulation and test measurement values (iii) cradle NVH test results.
Technical Paper

Intake System Design Approach for Turbocharged MPFI SI Engine

2011-01-19
2011-26-0088
The automotive industry is currently facing the challenge of significantly stringent requirements regarding CO₂ emission and fuel economy coming from both legislations and customer demand. Advanced engine technologies play a vital role for downsizing of gasoline engine. The development of key design technologies for high efficiency gasoline engines is required for the improvement of competitive power in the global automobile industry. This paper focused on effect of geometry of intake manifold of gas exchange process and consequently the performance of the engine. Specially, the optimal design technologies for the intake manifold and intake port shape must be established for high performance, increasingly stringent fuel economy and emission regulations. Space in vehicle or packaging constraints and cost are also important factors while consideration of the design.
Technical Paper

Correlation between Virtual and Physical Test for Offset Deformable Barrier Crash for SUV

2011-01-19
2011-26-0091
In the present age automotive manufacturers are putting their effort to reduce product cycle time and product cost. This has been possible with the help of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). CAE is playing vital role in design and develop of new products as well as up gradation of existing one to meet new safety regulations and customer requirements. It has become increasingly accepted that use of well-developed, CAE models present the best approach for upfront prediction of vehicle behaviour. The ability to simply predict trends is no longer acceptable. Meaningful results can be derived, and projections made, from the CAE model, only if the CAE results are correlated against physical tests. Correlation between Simulation and Physical test is key, to build confidence on product development with virtual validation. This paper discusses the correlation between the CAE and Physical Test for offset deformable barrier crash for 4 Wheel Drive (4WD) Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) vehicle.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Passenger Airbag Module to Meet Interior Fittings Compliance Requirements of ECE R21

2011-01-19
2011-26-0098
Airbags play a vital role in occupant protection during a crash event. Apart from the crash test the airbags have to additionally meet the requirements of the ECE R 12 headform impact test with Driver's Airbag (DAB) located in the steering wheel being deployed and the ECE R21 headform impact test for Passenger Airbag (PAB) in undeployed condition. Improper location of the PAB module below the Instrument Panel, the design of the air bag housing and the Instrument Panel are some of the factors that could lead to non compliance of the components of the uninflated PAB. The paper deals with the investigation conducted for compliance of the PAB to ECE R 21 with the uninflated air bag in meeting the requirements of 80 g at 19.3 km/h by proper location, changes to the design of the PAB cover, air bag housing brackets, etc.
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