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Technical Paper

Systematic Approach to Design Hand Controlled Parking Brake System for Passenger Car

2015-01-14
2015-26-0078
This paper is an attempt to compile a systematic approach which can be easily incorporated in the product development system used in the design and development of parking brake systems for passenger cars having rear drum brakes, which in turn can effectively reduce the lead time and give improved performance. The vehicle GVW, percentage gradient and maximum effort limits (as per IS 11852 - Part 3), tire and drum brake specifications were taken as front loading. This data is used for target setting of functional and engineering parameters, such as lever pull effort, lever ratio and angular travel of lever. Design calculations were performed to obtain theoretical values of critical parameters like lever effort and travel. The comparison between target and theoretical values give the initial confidence to the system engineer. Further, the outcome was taken to conceptualize the hard points of lever on vehicle for ergonomics.
Technical Paper

Novel Approaches for Model-Based Development - Part I: Developing a Real-World Driver Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0323
OEMs these days are focusing on front loading the activities to Virtual Test Environment (VTE) based development owing to high development cost and complexity in achieving repeatability during testing phase of vehicle development,. This process not only helps in reducing the cost and time but also helps in increasing the maturity and confidence level of the developed system before actual prototype is built. In the past, extensive research has happened for increasing the fidelity of VTE by improving plant model efficacy which involves powertrain and other vehicle systems. On the other hand, improving the precision of driver model which is one of the most complex nonlinear systems of virtual environment still remains a challenge. It is apparent that various drivers show different behavior in real world for a given drive profile. While modelling a driver for a VTE, the real world driver attributes are seldom considered.
Technical Paper

Novel Approach for Model-Based Development - Part II: Developing Virtual Environment and Its Application

2016-04-05
2016-01-0322
With continuous pressure for reducing vehicle development time and cost, without compromising on system reliability, it is imperative to move from Road to Lab to Model (RLM) based development. Every OEM is currently using virtual environment to complete functional checks of systems during development. The method of developing control functions and calibration in virtual environment brings repeatability and reproducibility which typically is challenging in real world testing. This process is cost effective and optimizes the time for development and brings high level of system maturity before testing it in the vehicle. This paper focuses on defining a front-loading approach for setting up of virtual test environment. Development of virtual test environment and its validation with respect to real vehicle data will be discussed, with focus on vehicle plant model and driver model.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Olfactory Stimuli Influences on Hand-Eye Co-ordinated Tasks in Operators Fatigued by Circadian Effects

2016-04-05
2016-01-0141
Several studies in the field of hedonics using subjective responses to gauge the nature and influence of odors have attempted to explain the complex psychological and chemical processes. Work on the effect of odors in alleviating driver fatigue is limited. The potential to improve road safety through non-pharmacological means such as stimulating odors is the impetus behind this paper. This is especially relevant in developing countries today with burgeoning economies such as India. Longer road trips by commercial transport vehicles with increasingly fatigued drivers and risk of accidents are being fuelled by distant producer - consumer connections. This work describes a two stage comparative study on the effects of different odors typically obtainable in India. The stages involve administration of odorants orthonsally and retronasally after the onset of circadian fatigue in test subjects. This is followed by a small cognitive exercise to evaluate hand-eye coordination.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Seatbelt Anchorage Mount Locations for Occupant Injury Reduction in Frontal Crash

2016-02-01
2016-28-0251
In the event of a frontal car crash, occupant sitting in a car meets various types of injuries like Head injury, Chest compression, Neck injury etc. These injuries may lead to the death of an occupant if exceeded beyond biomechanical limits. Seat belt is a primary restraint system, which when worn controls the motion of occupant sitting inside the car during the event of a car crash. An Anchorage location of three point seat belt system has significant effect on occupant injuries during the crash event. By changing the mount locations of a seat belt anchor points i.e. D-ring, Anchor & Buckle, performance of seatbelt system can be enhanced further thereby reducing occupant injuries to certain extent. As per regulation AIS015, locations of safety belt anchorage points should be within prescribed zone.
Technical Paper

Cost and Weight Efficient Differential Housing for Off-Road Vehicles

2016-02-01
2016-28-0133
Differential in Gear Box play vital role in Tractors for assisting it in turning and also to take straight path. Light weight machine always have advantage in terms of fuel economy and performance. Weight optimized rotating part have additional benefits of saving power loss, against stationary dead weight. Differential Housing is such a part, which rotates during the vehicle motion and torque transmission. [1] This paper describes a method by which weight of the Differential Housing is optimized. In this particular body of work, additional constraints of avoiding any change in existing cold forged parts like Bevel Gear & Pinion. This also have additional benefit of enhanced flow of Oil inside Differential Housing for better lubrication of Bevel Gears and Pinion. This resulted in weight saving of Differential Housing and finally fuel economy of Tractor.
Technical Paper

Factors affecting Regeneration interval of a Diesel Particulate Filter and their influence on BSV emission application

2015-01-14
2015-26-0106
With the implementation of stringent PM emission norms in various countries for diesel vehicles, the legislation demands a PM mass limit as low as 4.5mg/km in the NEDC cycle, starting from Euro5. This makes the usage of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) mandatory. The same is going to be mandated for upcoming BSV emission norms in India. Thus it becomes imperative to know the functional aspects of a DPF and their impacts. Basically there are two major functions of a DPF- Soot mass filtration and Soot burning or Regeneration. This paper highlights usage of DPF in Indian context from the perspective of one of the major aspects of DPF regeneration-Regeneration Interval, which is basically governed by vehicle/engine out smoke. Regeneration interval also has direct or indirect influence on life of engine of a vehicle and average fuel economy of a vehicle which will also be touched upon herein.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies of Different VGT Designs on Performance and Smoke of CRDe Engine

2018-07-09
2018-28-0074
Diesel engines have occupied a significant position in passenger car applications in the present automotive sector. Turbochargers find a very prominent role in diesel engines of all applications in order to achieve desired power and better fuel economy. Gaining higher torque at lower engine speeds with low smoke levels is a very tough task with fixed geometry turbochargers due to availability of lower air mass resulting in higher smoke emissions. Variable geometry turbochargers are capable of providing better torque at lower speeds and reduced smoke emissions on Common Rail Diesel engines. The Variable Geometry Turbocharger types used in this study are straight profile nozzle vanes (sample A) and curved profile nozzle vanes (sample B). The curved profile vanes as seen in sample B results in reduced variation of circumferential pressure distortions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gear Shift Indicator Technique Enhancing Improved Fuel Economy on SUV

2018-07-09
2018-28-0054
Improving the fuel economy of the vehicle resulting in energy conservation on long run is a challenging task in the automotive field without compromising the emission margins. Fuel economy improvement by effective driving is the main focus of this paper by the proper utilization of gears which can enable good fuel economy even when the vehicle is driven by different drivers. GSI technique was implemented on Sports utility vehicle operating with 2.2 l engine. Tests were carried with GSI and the effect of fuel consumption and emissions were compared to the regular driving cycle. Optimization of various gear shifting points were analyzed and implemented for better fuel economy keeping the drivability in mind, meeting the BS4 emission norms comfortably. The experiments were carried out in both cold and hot conditions to check the effect of GSI and positive results of fuel economy improvement was yielded.
Technical Paper

Optimization of EGR Mixer to Minimize Thermal Hot Spot on Plastic Duct & Soot Deposition on Throttle Valve Using CFD Simulation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0286
In recent time, with inception of BS VI emission regulation with more focus on fuel economy and emission, many engine parts which were conventionally made from metal are getting replaced with plastic components for reducing weight to attain better fuel economy. EGR is commonly used technique to reduce emissions in diesel engine along with after treatment devices. EGR reduces peak combustion temperature inside the combustion chamber thereby reducing NOx. EGR is bypassed from the exhaust manifold, cooled down in EGR cooler and mixed with intake air at upstream of the intake manifold. Throttle valve is used for controlling the charged air flow to cylinders for different vehicle operating conditions. With compact engine layout EGR mixer are often located near to throttle valve thereby increasing the possibility of soot deposition on throttle valve.
Technical Paper

Optimization of IP Duct Vane Articulation for Improved Cabin Airflow Directivity

2019-10-11
2019-28-0132
The air velocity achieved at driver and passenger aim point is one of the key parameters to evaluate the automotive air-conditioning system performance. The design of duct, vent and vanes has a major contribution in the cabin air flow directivity. However, visual appearance of vent and vane receives higher priority in design because of market demand than their performance. More iterations are carried out to finalize the HVAC duct assembly until the target velocity is achieved. The objective of this study is to develop an automated process for vane articulation study along with predicting the optimized velocity at driver and passengers. The automated simulation of vane articulation study is carried out using STAR-CCM+ and SHERPA optimization algorithm which is available in HEEDS tool. The minimum and maximum vane angle are defined as parameters and face level velocity is defined as response.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Diesel Engine Combustion Noise through Various Injection Strategies

2019-01-09
2019-26-0211
The contribution of engine borne noise is the major source of vehicle noise in diesel powered vehicles. The engine noise can be minimized by modification of engine components design and also with different acoustic abatement techniques. The research activities were carried out on 4-cylinder CRDe engine for SUV application. All the emission and performance parameters along with combustion noise was captured continuously for all the part load points from 1000 RPM to 2750 RPM with respect to the different road conditions and driving cycle. This paper targets on reducing the combustion noise at the noise prone zones only on the basis of the injection strategies ensuring no ill effect on the emissions and fuel economy. The first step was the reduction of rail pressure which helped noise levels to be reduced by almost 6 dB at noise zones. Main injection timing retardation was tried at all possible zones which influenced in considerable noise reduction at various zones.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Selection of Turbocharger Meeting BS6 Emission Norms for 1.99l Engine

2019-01-09
2019-26-0058
Migration to BS6 emission norms from BS4 levels involves strenuous efforts involving advanced technology and higher cost. The challenging part is on achieving the stringent emission norms without compromising the engine fuel economy, performance and NVH factors. Selection of hardware and attaining an optimal behaviour is therefore vital. This article focuses on the evaluation of three different configuration of turbochargers for the same engine to meet the BS6 emission norms and performance. The turbocharger samples used measure the same compressor diameter with varying trim ratios. Simulation and testing of turbochargers ensured positive results for confirmation of the system. Parameters like low speed torque, smoke and compressor efficiency were evaluated and analysed for all configurations. The safe limits of surge and choke regions of all the compressors were also studied and verified.
Technical Paper

Determination of Principal Variables for Prediction of Fuel Economy using Principal Component Analysis

2019-01-09
2019-26-0359
The complexity of Urban driving conditions and the human behavior introduces undesired variabilities while establishing Fuel economy for a vehicle. These variabilities pose a great challenge while trying to determine that single figure for assessment of vehicle’s fuel efficiency on an urban driving cycle. This becomes even more challenging when two or more vehicles are simultaneously evaluated with respect to a reference vehicle. The attempt to fit a generalized linear model, between Fuel Economy as predicted variable and components of a driving cycle as predictor variables produced oxymoronic and counter-institutive results. This is primarily due to existence of multi-collinearity among the predictor variables. The context of the study is to consider the event of driving on a cycle as a random sampling experiment. The outcome of a driving cycle is summarized into a list of predictor variables or components.
Technical Paper

Automotive Vision & Obstruction Assessment For Driver

2017-01-10
2017-26-0012
This paper makes an attempt to focus on a study to evaluate angle of vision and obstruction in a vehicle, it is an objective assessment through different percentiles of population. In a view of Safety and comfort of a driver, a good perception of environment in which his vehicle is operating will be a determining component. Driver visibility and hidden corner in vehicle is a major safety area for passengers and pedestrian. Driver eye vision is an important key factor to design vehicle windshield, rear window and A-Pillar/ B-Pillar, positioning of side view mirror and IRVM based on anthropometry data. This study focuses on method of capturing and measuring the i) Driver's Direct field of vision that the driver sees directly by moving his/her eyes ii) Driver's Indirect field of vision in which driver views indirectly by using imaging devices Rear View mirror, Display cameras. iii) Driver's Angle of obstruction - by A pillar, B pillar.
Technical Paper

Methodological Approach for Matching Gear and Final Drive Ratio for Better Fuel Economy, Performance and Drivability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0865
Fuel economy, performance and drivability are the three important parameters for evaluating the vehicle performance. Powertrain matching plays a major role in meeting the above targets. Fuel economy is measured based on city, highway and some user defined driving cycles which can be considered as real world usage profiles. Performance and Drivability is evaluated based on the in-gear, thru-gear (acceleration performance) and grade-ability performance. The load collective points of the engine greatly influence the engines performance, fuel economy and emissions, which in-turn depends on the N/V ratio of the vehicle. The optimal selection of gear and final drive ratios plays a key role in the optimization of the Powertrain for a particular vehicle. The current study involves dynamic simulation of the vehicle performance and fuel economy at transient engine test-bed for different gear and final drive ratio combinations using AVL DynoExcat-dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization to Improve SUV Ride Performances Using MSC.ADAMS and Mode Frontier

2018-04-03
2018-01-0575
Ride is an important attribute which must be accounted in the passenger segment vehicles. Excessive H point acceleration, Steering wheel acceleration, Pitch acceleration can reduce the comfort of the driver and the passengers during high frequency and low frequency rough road events. Excessive Understeer gradient, roll gradient, roll acceleration and Sprung mass lift could affect the Vehicle driver interaction during Steady state cornering, Braking and Step steer events. The concept architecture of the vehicle plays an important role in how comfort the vehicle will be. This paper discusses how to improve SUV ride performances by keeping handling performance attributes same or better than base vehicle. Multi Objective Optimization was carried out by keeping spring, bushing and damper characteristic as the design variables to avoid new system or component development time and cost.
Technical Paper

An Optimal Method for Prediction of Engine Operating Points for an Effective Correlation in Fuel Economy Bench-marking.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0346
It is imperative that all the automobile manufactures conduct vehicle level benchmarking at the initial stage of any new project. From the benchmark information, the manufacturers can set relevant targets for their own vehicle under development. In this regard, an accurate prediction of the engine operating points can improve the correlation of the measured fuel economy of the benchmark vehicle. The present work describes a novel method which can be used for the accurate prediction of the engine operating points of any benchmark vehicle. Since the idea of instrumenting the crankshaft / driveshaft with torque transducers is a costlier and time-consuming process, the proposed method can be effective in reducing the benchmarking.
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