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Technical Paper

Valve Opening and Closing Event Finalization for Cost Effective Valve Train of Gasoline Engine

With more stringent emission norm coming in future, add more pressure on IC engine to improve fuel efficiency for survival in next few decades. In gasoline SI (spark ignition) engine, valve events have major influence on fuel economy, performance and exhaust emissions. Optimization of valve event demands for extensive simulation and testing to achieve balance between conflicting requirement of low end torque, maximum power output, part load fuel consumption and emission performance. Balance between these requirements will become more critical when designing low cost valve train without VVT (Variable valve timing) to reduce overall cost of engine. Higher CR (Compression ratio) is an important low cost measure to achieve higher thermal efficiency but creates issue of knocking thereby limiting low speed high load performance. The effective CR reduction by means of late intake valve closing (LIVC) is one way to achieve higher expansion ratio while keeping high geometric CR.
Technical Paper

Effect of Muffler Characteristics on Performance of a Naturally Aspirated SI Engine

With steep increase in fuel prices, there is a strong need for development of better engines with improved performance and emissions. This needs a dedicated effort on engine hardware optimization for lower CO2 levels. Exhaust muffler design is trade-off between noise, backpressure and size/weight. With increase in exhaust muffler volume and simplification of structure there is a corresponding drop observed in exhaust pressures. Study of such a phenomenon would give an insight to benefits achieved based on changes in muffler volumes/structure. This in a way leads to engine improvement. In this paper it has been shown how exhaust muffler characteristics (size and internal construction) impacts engine performance.
Technical Paper

Innovative Simulation Approach to Analyze and Add Value to Upcoming Complex Drive Cycle (WLTC) for Passenger Cars

Vehicles which are sold and put into service in a country have to meet the regulations and standards of that country. Every country has a separate regulation and approval procedure which requires expensive design modifications, additional tests and duplicating approvals. Thus, there is the need to harmonize the different national technical requirements for vehicles and form a unique international regulation. With this rationale, the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE/WP29) has brought governments and automobile manufacturers together to work on a new harmonized test cycle and procedure which is to be adopted around the world. This lead to the development of Worldwide Harmonized Light Duty Test Procedures (WLTP) and Cycles (WLTC). The test procedure is divided into 3 cycles, depending on a power to mass ratio of the tested vehicle.
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

Integrated Exhaust Manifold Cylinder Head Design Methodology for RDE in Gasoline Engine Application

In recent years, worldwide automotive manufacturers have been continuously working in the research of suitable technical solutions to meet upcoming stringent Real Driving Emission (RDE) and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) targets, as set by international regulatory authorities. Many technologies have been already developed, or are currently under study by automotive manufacturer for gasoline engines, to meet legislated targets. In-line with the above objective, there are many technologies available in the market to expand lambda 1 (λ=1) region by reducing fuel enrichment at high load-high revolutions per minute (RPM) by reducing exhaust gas temperature (for catalyst protection) for RDE regulation [1]. Integrated Exhaust Manifold (IEM) is the key technology for the Internal Combustion (IC) for the subjected matter as catalyst durability protection is done by reducing exhaust gas temperatures instead of injecting excess fuel for cooling catalyst.