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Technical Paper

Innovative Simulation Approach to Analyze and Add Value to Upcoming Complex Drive Cycle (WLTC) for Passenger Cars

Vehicles which are sold and put into service in a country have to meet the regulations and standards of that country. Every country has a separate regulation and approval procedure which requires expensive design modifications, additional tests and duplicating approvals. Thus, there is the need to harmonize the different national technical requirements for vehicles and form a unique international regulation. With this rationale, the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE/WP29) has brought governments and automobile manufacturers together to work on a new harmonized test cycle and procedure which is to be adopted around the world. This lead to the development of Worldwide Harmonized Light Duty Test Procedures (WLTP) and Cycles (WLTC). The test procedure is divided into 3 cycles, depending on a power to mass ratio of the tested vehicle.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Thermal Balance of Diesel Engine and Identification of Scope for Waste Heat Recovery

Diesel engines as prime movers for passenger cars are becoming popular, primarily due to their superior thermal efficiency. However, the peak thermal efficiency does not exceed 35 to 40% even in the best engines. Huge efforts are being put in to improve engine efficiencies to meet ever stringent fuel economy requirements. Such efforts are mainly focused on combustion improvement and parasitic losses reduction. However, a large part of the energy input to engine is lost to cooling system, exhaust gases and other heat losses. Such losses are higher at part and low loads which is where the engine operates in normal usage conditions. This paper analyses in detail the various energy losses at different engine operating regimes. Quantification of losses and understanding of loss mechanism serves as a starting point for future technologies to recover the lost energy. Quantification of losses: Losses in different systems are quantified at different engine operating regimes.
Technical Paper

Base Engine Value Engineering for Higher Fuel Efficiency and Enhanced Performance

To sustain market leadership position one has to continuously improve their product and services so that on one hand customer expectations are met and on the other hand business profitability is maintained. Value engineering is one of the approach through which we can achieve these two objectives simultaneously. Enhancing the value of running products is always a challenge as there is limited scope and flexibility to modify the current design and processes. Value engineering approach, integrated in product development cycle, brings great opportunity to upgrade the new and running products. This study reveals approach to upgrade the base engine of Maruti Alto. Upgraded engine is used in Alto 800 vehicle launched in October 2012. Improvement points were studied based on the business requirement, market competition, and legislative requirements. Based on functional improvement points, all the design parameters were studied and finalized.
Technical Paper

Simulating Real World Driving: A Case study on New Delhi

In the Indian Context, Fuel Economy of a vehicle is one of key elements while buying a Car. The fuel economy declared by OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) is one of the key indicators while assessing the fuel economy. However it is based on a standard driving cycle and evaluated under standard conditions as mandated by emission legislation. As the driving pattern has a major influence on fuel economy, the objective of this paper is to study real world driving patterns and to define a methodology to simulate a real world driving cycle. A case study was done on Delhi City, by running a fleet of vehicles in different traffic conditions. Thereafter data analysis like acceleration %, specific energy demand per distance, Acceleration vs. Vehicle Speed distribution etc. was done with the help of MATLAB. The final validation of cycle was done by comparing Lab results with on-road Fuel Economy data.
Technical Paper

Design of Front Structure of Vehicle for Pedestrian Headform Protection

Vehicle Hood being the face of a passenger car poses the challenge to meet the regulatory and aesthetic requirements. Urge to make a saleable product makes aesthetics a primary condition. This eventually makes the role of structure optimization much more important. Pedestrian protection- a recent development in the Indian automotive industry, known for dynamics of cost competitive cars, has posed the challenge to make passenger cars meeting the regulation at minimal cost. The paper demonstrates structure optimization of hood and design of peripheral parts for meeting pedestrian protection performance keeping the focus on low cost of ownership. The paper discusses development of an in-house methodology for meeting Headform compliance of a flagship model of Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., providing detailed analysis of the procedure followed from introduction stage of regulatory requirement in the project to final validation of the engineering intent.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Front Hood Structure for Meeting Pedestrian Headform Protection in an Existing Vehicle

Automotive industry today faces the unprecedented challenges both in terms of adapting to changing customer demands in terms of vehicle aesthetics, features or performance as well as meeting the mandatory regulatory requirements, which are being regularly upgraded and becoming stringent day by day. Vehicle hood, being part of vehicle front fascia, needs to fulfill the requirement of vehicle aesthetics as its primary condition. At the same time, every automobile manufacturer has a lineup of older platforms, which are in production and needs to comply with upcoming stricter safety norms, having a structure in under hood area designed as per older philosophy, which further reduces the space available for energy absorption. This makes the structure optimization in vehicle hood area much more challenging. Pedestrian protection - an upcoming regulation in India, has seen some major development in recent times.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Sound Radiation from Exhaust Muffler Shell-A Novel Experimental Approach

Shorter product development cycles, densely packed engine compartments and intensified noise legislation has increased the need for accurate predictions of passenger cars Exhaust system noise at early design stages. The urgent focus on the increasing CO2 emissions and the efficiency of IC-engines as well as upcoming technologies might adversely affect the noise emission from an exhaust system, so it is becoming increasingly important to evaluate the sub system level noise emissions in an early design stage in order to predict and optimize the exhaust system performance. Engine performance and vehicle NVH characteristics are two important parameters on which the design of the exhaust system has major influence. The reduction of exhaust noise is a very important factor in controlling the exterior and interior noise levels of vehicles, particularly to reach future target values of the pass-by noise and sound engineering for the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Simulation Channels for Inverse FRF Calculation on 6-Axis Road Load Simulator: An Experimental Approach

Nowadays, Road Load Simulators are used by automobile companies to reproduce the accurate and multi axial stresses in test parts to simulate the real loading conditions. The road conditions are simulated in lab by measuring the customer usage data by sensors like Wheel Force transducers, accelerometers, displacement sensors and strain gauges on the vehicle body and suspension parts. The acquired data is simulated in lab condition by generating ‘drive file’ using the response of the above mentioned sensors [2]. For generation of proper drive file, not only good FRF but ensuring stability of inverse FRF is also essential. Stability of the inverse FRF depends upon the simulation channels used. In this paper experimental approach has been applied for the optimization of the simulation channels to be used for simulation of normal Indian passenger car on 4 corners, 6-Axis Road Load Simulator. Time domain tests were performed to identify potential simulation channels.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficient Algorithm for Climate Control in Next Generation Vehicles

Automobile industry is shifting its focus from conventional fuel vehicles to NexGen vehicles. The NexGen vehicles have electrical components to propel the vehicle apart from mechanical system. These vehicles have a goal of achieving better fuel efficiency along with reduced emissions making it customer as well as environment friendly. Idle start-stop is a key feature of NexGen vehicles, where, the Engine ECU switches to engine stop mode while idling to cut the fuel consumption and increase fuel efficiency. Engine restarts when there is an input from driver to run the vehicle. There is always a clash between the Engine ECU and automatic climate control unit (Auto-AC) either to enter idle stop mode for better fuel efficiency or inhibit idle stop mode to keep the compressor running for driver comfort. This clash can be resolved in two ways: 1 Hardware change and, 2 Software change Hardware change leads to increase in cost, validation effort and time.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza using CFD Simulations

Recent automotive trend shows that customer demand is moving towards bigger size vehicle with more comfort, space, safety, feature and technology. Global market of SUV is projected to surpass 21 million units by 2020. Despite economic slowdown and weak new car sales worldwide, India and China will continue to be primary market for SUV due to sheer size of population, urban expanding middle class and larger untapped rural market. However, stricter emission norms push for clean and green technology and unfavorable policy towards use of diesel vehicle has made the SUV design very challenging due to conflicting needs. Due to bigger size of vehicle, aerodynamic design plays an important role in achieving emission targets and higher fuel efficiency. This paper highlights the aerodynamic development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza, which is an entry level SUV vehicle with high ground clearance of 198 mm and best in class fuel economy of 24.3 kmpl.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Bumper Beam Structure for Pedestrian Protection and Low Speed Bumper Impact

The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. While working on global platform, it is challenging to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) and at the same time meeting the styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper, a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem in meeting both the requirements with limited space. This paper outlines vehicle case study in order to optimize the design of Bumper Beam structure, for complying with regulatory requirements while satisfying the styling intent.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Controls Comparison on HILs Using a Modular Soft Platform

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Controls Development is an important aspect to realize the goals of Powertrain Electrification i.e. fuel economy and emission improvement. Keeping that in mind, development engineers need to formulate numerous control strategies. Once the control strategy is evaluated and frozen, it typically does not change from one vehicle model application to another. However, it may happen that Electronic Control Unit (ECU) manufacturer may change depending on the sourcing strategy. Therefore, in order to maintain uniformity, it may be required to compare control strategy of a finished ECU product frozen for one model application to be compared with new ECU sourced through another manufacturer. This paper discusses a methodology to compare control strategy of two ECU’s sourced from different ECU manufacturers with identical control requirements.
Technical Paper

Development of Test Method to Validate Synchronizer Ring Design for Torsional Fluctuations in Manual Transmission

Manual transmissions dominate the Indian market for their obvious benefit of low cost and higher mechanical efficiency resulting in higher fuel economy. Synchronizer system in manual transmission enables smoother and quieter gear shifting. Synchronizer ring is the key element which provides the necessary frictional torque to synchronize the speed of gear and sleeve for smooth shifting. During vehicle running, synchronizer rings are free to rattle inside the indexing clearance. High engine torsional excitation and low clutch dampening can result into increased fluctuation of the input shaft of transmission. High fluctuation or lower contact area of synchronizer ring can lead to damage on the index area. This damage may cause hard gear shifting and gear shift blockage in case of extreme damage.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Vehicle NVH Using Multi-Dimensional Source Path Contributor Paradigm.

Automotive Industry is moving towards lightweight vehicle design with more powerful engines. This is increasing a demand for more optimized NVH design. Source-Path-Contributor (SPC) analysis is one of the ways to draw a holistic picture of any NVH problem. In this paper, an NVH problem of low frequency booming noise and steering vibration has been studied in a development vehicle. All three dimensions of SPC paradigm were looked at to propose a feasible and optimized solution at each level of Source, Path and Contributor model. A classical transfer path analysis (TPA) has been done to identify the highest contributing path: transmission mount and suspension arm. Optimization of suspension bush parameter has been carried out using dynamic elastomer testing facility for an improved NVH performance. After identifying source as engine a study of torsional fluctuations due to gas pressure and torsional resonances has been carried out in order to achieve a feasible solution at source.
Technical Paper

Study of Effect of Variation in Micro-Geometry of Gear Pair on Noise Level at Transmission

Gear noise and vibration in automobile transmissions is a phenomenon of great concern. Noise generated at the gearbox, due to gear meshing, also known as gear whine, gets transferred from the engine cabin to the passenger cabin via various transfer paths and is perceived as air borne noise to the passengers in the vehicle. This noise due to its tonal nature can be very uncomfortable to the passengers. Optimizing micro-geometry of a gear pair can help in improving the stress distribution on tooth flank and reducing the sound level of the tonal noise generated during the running of the gearbox when that gear pair is engaged. This technical paper contains the study of variation in noise level in passenger cabin and contact on tooth flank with change in micro-geometry parameters (involute slope and lead slope) of a particular gear pair. Further scope of study has been discussed at the end of the paper.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Developing Low Rolling Resistance Tyre

Vehicles in India will soon come with star ratings, signifying how environment-friendly they are. The OEM's have braced to improve fuel economy of their existing & upcoming models. Tyre rolling resistance is one of the significant factors for vehicle fuel consumption. Improvement in Fuel consumption is always a prime focus area & to improve it all major factors are considered. In newly launched models, the low rolling resistance tyre development was initiated. The project is challenging as it requires not only achieving low rolling resistance in smaller size tyres (12″ to 13″) but also required to meet other critical vehicle performance parameters like ride, handling, NVH & durability. Effects of Tyre construction, rubber compound were analyzed to achieve lower rolling resistance and better durability of tyre. In addition, the factors affecting the rolling resistance of tyre like inflation pressure, load, and speed in smaller tyre sizes (12″ to 13″) are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Seat Back Vibrations in a Passenger Car- An Integrated CAE - Experimental Approach

In the present automobile market, customers have put demand for smaller cars with better ride and comfort. For small diesel engine cars, where the comfort is known to be inferior to its gasoline siblings, the effect of engine excitation and road inputs has posed the problem of seat back vibrations. Low frequency vibrations are observed at irregular road inputs, which directly get transferred to the human body through the seat back resulting in fatigue and discomfort. This paper describes the use of testing and CAE in reducing the seat back vibrations. First step of the study includes the frequency response functions (FRF) of the seat frame and road data. The CAE model is validated with the test data and the problem areas are identified. The countermeasure design modifications in the seat frame structure are analyzed using CAE (Normal Mode Analysis). The feasible countermeasure action is road tested and clearly shows a reduction in the vibration levels coming on the seat back.
Technical Paper

Model Based Design of xEV Powertrain Controls

Powertrain Control development has gone through many changes in terms of process, tools and practice at all OEM's across the geography. This is mainly driven by increased number of powertrain components for control, shorter development schedules, cost control, and the need to realize the potential of electronic control to increase the performance, efficiency, safety and comfort. With the significant advancement in Powertrain Controls and additions of electronic functions, it has become imperative to automate the controller development process in the V-cycle to reduce the time and make the process more efficient while detecting any logic failures upfront at the early stage of the development cycle. Traditional practices and tools of defining the controls cannot meet new requirements. Model Based Design (MBD) approach is a promising solution to meet the critical needs of powertrain control engineering to define the control logic and validate.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Plastic Fuel Rail and Its Benefits

Global automobile market is very sensitive to vehicle fuel economy. Gross vehicle weight has substantial effects on FE. Hence, for designers it becomes utmost important to work on the weight reduction ideas up to single component level. Fuel delivery pipe (Fuel Rail) is one such component where there is a big potential. Fuel rail is an integral part of the vehicle fuel system and is mounted on the engine. Primarily it serves as a channel of fuel supply from fuel tank through fuel lines to the multiple fuel injectors, which further sprays the fuel into intake ports at high pressure. Due to opening and closing of injectors, pulsations are generated in fuel lines, so fuel rail also acts as a surge tank as well as a pulsation damper. All these factors make the design of a fuel rail very critical and unique for a particular engine. Materials like aluminum, plastic and sheet metal are generally used for fuel rail manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Study on Design Optimization of Air Intake Snorkel Using 1D & 3D Tools

With the increase in customer expectations related to engine performance and vehicle NVH, it has become the need of the hour for automotive industry to continuously use state of-the-art designs. These dynamic concepts require innovative simulation techniques correlated with testing to value engineer the optimal design and further validations. Compact engine room packaging and futuristic aesthetics changes in styling have further magnified these challenges. Packaging air intake system and positioning air intake snorkel are among such challenges that play a critical role for improving engine performance and life. The objective of this paper is to propose an approach for optimizing design and position of air intake snorkel to meet desired intake air temperature, noise targets with no water entry in to engine. Full vehicle computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is performed for predicting air intake temperature, water wading and 1D simulation for suction flow noise.