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Technical Paper

Innovative Simulation Approach to Analyze and Add Value to Upcoming Complex Drive Cycle (WLTC) for Passenger Cars

2013-11-27
2013-01-2801
Vehicles which are sold and put into service in a country have to meet the regulations and standards of that country. Every country has a separate regulation and approval procedure which requires expensive design modifications, additional tests and duplicating approvals. Thus, there is the need to harmonize the different national technical requirements for vehicles and form a unique international regulation. With this rationale, the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE/WP29) has brought governments and automobile manufacturers together to work on a new harmonized test cycle and procedure which is to be adopted around the world. This lead to the development of Worldwide Harmonized Light Duty Test Procedures (WLTP) and Cycles (WLTC). The test procedure is divided into 3 cycles, depending on a power to mass ratio of the tested vehicle.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Thermal Balance of Diesel Engine and Identification of Scope for Waste Heat Recovery

2013-11-27
2013-01-2744
Diesel engines as prime movers for passenger cars are becoming popular, primarily due to their superior thermal efficiency. However, the peak thermal efficiency does not exceed 35 to 40% even in the best engines. Huge efforts are being put in to improve engine efficiencies to meet ever stringent fuel economy requirements. Such efforts are mainly focused on combustion improvement and parasitic losses reduction. However, a large part of the energy input to engine is lost to cooling system, exhaust gases and other heat losses. Such losses are higher at part and low loads which is where the engine operates in normal usage conditions. This paper analyses in detail the various energy losses at different engine operating regimes. Quantification of losses and understanding of loss mechanism serves as a starting point for future technologies to recover the lost energy. Quantification of losses: Losses in different systems are quantified at different engine operating regimes.
Technical Paper

Base Engine Value Engineering for Higher Fuel Efficiency and Enhanced Performance

2013-11-27
2013-01-2748
To sustain market leadership position one has to continuously improve their product and services so that on one hand customer expectations are met and on the other hand business profitability is maintained. Value engineering is one of the approach through which we can achieve these two objectives simultaneously. Enhancing the value of running products is always a challenge as there is limited scope and flexibility to modify the current design and processes. Value engineering approach, integrated in product development cycle, brings great opportunity to upgrade the new and running products. This study reveals approach to upgrade the base engine of Maruti Alto. Upgraded engine is used in Alto 800 vehicle launched in October 2012. Improvement points were studied based on the business requirement, market competition, and legislative requirements. Based on functional improvement points, all the design parameters were studied and finalized.
Technical Paper

Simulating Real World Driving: A Case study on New Delhi

2016-02-01
2016-28-0236
In the Indian Context, Fuel Economy of a vehicle is one of key elements while buying a Car. The fuel economy declared by OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) is one of the key indicators while assessing the fuel economy. However it is based on a standard driving cycle and evaluated under standard conditions as mandated by emission legislation. As the driving pattern has a major influence on fuel economy, the objective of this paper is to study real world driving patterns and to define a methodology to simulate a real world driving cycle. A case study was done on Delhi City, by running a fleet of vehicles in different traffic conditions. Thereafter data analysis like acceleration %, specific energy demand per distance, Acceleration vs. Vehicle Speed distribution etc. was done with the help of MATLAB. The final validation of cycle was done by comparing Lab results with on-road Fuel Economy data.
Technical Paper

Design of Front Structure of Vehicle for Pedestrian Headform Protection

2017-03-28
2017-01-1298
Vehicle Hood being the face of a passenger car poses the challenge to meet the regulatory and aesthetic requirements. Urge to make a saleable product makes aesthetics a primary condition. This eventually makes the role of structure optimization much more important. Pedestrian protection- a recent development in the Indian automotive industry, known for dynamics of cost competitive cars, has posed the challenge to make passenger cars meeting the regulation at minimal cost. The paper demonstrates structure optimization of hood and design of peripheral parts for meeting pedestrian protection performance keeping the focus on low cost of ownership. The paper discusses development of an in-house methodology for meeting Headform compliance of a flagship model of Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., providing detailed analysis of the procedure followed from introduction stage of regulatory requirement in the project to final validation of the engineering intent.
Technical Paper

Challenges of Hydraulic Engine Mount Development for NVH Refinement

2018-04-03
2018-01-0681
NVH refinement of passenger vehicle is essential to customer acceptance for premium or even mid-size segment passenger cars. Hydraulic engine mount is becoming common for these segments to reduce engine bounce, idle shake and noise transfer to passenger cabin. Modern layout of hydraulic mount with integrated engine-bracket and smaller size insulator has made it cost-effective to use due to reduction of cost gap from conventional elastomeric mounts. However the downsizing and complex internal structure may create some new types of noises in passenger cabin which are very difficult to identify in initial development stage. Main purpose of hydraulic mount is to provide high damping at low-frequency range (6~15 Hz) and to isolate noise transfer from combustion engine to passenger cabin within wide frequency range (15~600 Hz).This paper emphasizes on challenges and problems related to hydraulic mount development.
Technical Paper

Determination of the Polyurethane Parameters for Riding Comfort Evaluation in Automobile Seating Application

2019-04-02
2019-01-0931
Riding comfort for automobile seating can be classified into two categories, long time riding comfort and short term riding comfort. The attributes that govern the riding comfort includes static spring constant and energy lost due to hysteresis. The emerging trend towards long term riding comfort could be governed by the above mentioned factors. The hysteresis loss characteristic is related to Poly-Urethane (PU) properties used extensively in automotive seating application. The nature with which the energy is released considering the same material and varying the hardness directly contributes to the comfort analysis for automobile seating and vice versa. Two curves can define the same area but the loading and unloading trend for the two cases could be different and so be the riding comfort. A conclusion would be drawn by obtaining hysteresis loss rate by changing the different parameters (hardness, density). One parameter would be varied by keeping the others constant.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cold Start Mode Fuel Economy Simulation Model Making Methodology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0898
The air pollution and global warming has become a major problem to the society. To counter this worldwide emission norms have become more stringent in recent times and shall continue to get further stringent in the next decade. From OEMs perspective with increased complexity, it has become a necessity to use simulation methods along with model based systems approach to deal with system level complexities and reduce model development time and cost to deal with the various regulatory requirements and customer needs. The simulation models must have good correlation with the actual test results and at the same time should be less complex, fast, and integrable with other vehicle function modelling. As the vehicle fuel economy is declared in cold start condition, the fuel economy simulation model of vehicle in cold start condition is required. The present paper describes a methodology to simulate the cold start fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Intake and Exhaust Ports Design for Tumble and Mass Flow Rate Improvements in Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0763
In recent years, world-wide automotive manufacturers have been continuously working in the research of suitable technical solutions to meet upcoming stringent carbon dioxide (CO2) emission targets, as defined by international regulatory authorities. Many technologies have been already developed, or are currently under study, to meet legislated targets. In-line with above objective, the enhancement of turbulence intensity inside the combustion chamber has a significant importance which contributes to accelerating the burning rate, to increase the thermal efficiency and to reduce the cyclic variability [9]. Turbulence generation is mainly achieved during the intake stroke which is strictly affected by the intake port geometry, orientation and to certain extends by combustion chamber masking. Conservation of turbulence intensity till 700~720 crank angle (CA) is achieved by optimized shape of combustion chamber geometry and piston bowl shape.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Design Optimization in Rear End of a Hatchback Passenger Vehicle

2019-03-25
2019-01-1430
Aerodynamic evaluation plays an important role in the new vehicle development process to meet the ever increasing demand of Fuel Economy (FE), superior aero acoustics and thermal performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is extensively used to evaluate the performance of the vehicle at early design stage to overcome cost of proto-parts, late design changes and for time line adherence. CFD is extensively used to optimize the vehicle’s shape, profiles and design features starting from the concept stage to improve the vehicle’s aerodynamic performance. Since the shape of the vehicle determines the flow behavior around it, the performance is different for hatchback, notchback and SUV type of vehicles. In a hatchback vehicle, the roof line is abruptly truncated at the end, which causes flow separation and increase in drag.
Technical Paper

Noise Problem Resolution and Sound Quality Improvement of Valve Timing Belt in 4 Cylinders PFI Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0783
IC Engine Timing belt is a major noise prone area and it takes time during development to achieve acceptable NVH characteristics. In an existing engine under series production noise problem observed due to excitation of timing belt span by crank timing sprocket tooth. From vehicle perspective noise was heard in vehicle cabin at around idling RPM and a second peak observed around twice the initial RPM. This paper includes a methodology for use of computer based analytical simulation methods to predict timing belt dynamic behavior and NVH characteristics. Along with development of computer based multi body dynamic model for timing belt, validation of simulation model with actual testing was done and after correlation of testing and simulated results countermeasure were finalized based on iterations in multi body simulation model.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fabric Parameters on Phenomena of Electrostatic Charge Generation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0464
Electrostatic charge generation in fabric is a common phenomenon. This phenomenon of charge generation & transfer of the same to human body is more in case of fabrics made of polyester yarns due to interface property of the material. The charge generation may result in attraction of dust on the fabric surface, clinginess & may also result in uncomfortable shock to the human body. This situation is attributed to various parameters such as fabric construction, yarn properties, yarn finish & various coating on the yarn. Since, polyester fabric is prime material used in seating; there have been many incidences of rubbing of seat fabric to human body, resulting in generation of static charge. This study focuses on understanding the effect of various fabric parameters on electrostatic charge generation. The study will also look into various potential solutions to reduce the charge generation with their merits and demerits.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Front Hood Structure for Meeting Pedestrian Headform Protection in an Existing Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0615
Automotive industry today faces the unprecedented challenges both in terms of adapting to changing customer demands in terms of vehicle aesthetics, features or performance as well as meeting the mandatory regulatory requirements, which are being regularly upgraded and becoming stringent day by day. Vehicle hood, being part of vehicle front fascia, needs to fulfill the requirement of vehicle aesthetics as its primary condition. At the same time, every automobile manufacturer has a lineup of older platforms, which are in production and needs to comply with upcoming stricter safety norms, having a structure in under hood area designed as per older philosophy, which further reduces the space available for energy absorption. This makes the structure optimization in vehicle hood area much more challenging. Pedestrian protection - an upcoming regulation in India, has seen some major development in recent times.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fabric Type and Construction on Automotive Seating Comfort

2013-04-08
2013-01-0654
The interface between human body and automotive seat contours is seat upholstery. Seating comfort has a functional correlation to the upholstery. Two seats having different upholstery will give different comfort perception. Even an ergonomically designed seat if fitted with poor quality fabric will subdue the seat comfort drastically. The effect of fabric comfort ranges from initial short term to long term comfort, driven by properties like wick-ability and factors like thermal stress. Beyond material characteristics, fabric fit also plays an important role. This paper analyses the effect of fabric parameters and construction on automotive seat comfort. A comprehensive comparative study is followed by systematic analysis and comfort improvement scope through upholstery. The research is to conclude potential of the seat fabric in enhancing the automotive seating comfort within stipulated constraints of fabric properties and cost.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficient Algorithm for Climate Control in Next Generation Vehicles

2017-01-10
2017-26-0370
Automobile industry is shifting its focus from conventional fuel vehicles to NexGen vehicles. The NexGen vehicles have electrical components to propel the vehicle apart from mechanical system. These vehicles have a goal of achieving better fuel efficiency along with reduced emissions making it customer as well as environment friendly. Idle start-stop is a key feature of NexGen vehicles, where, the Engine ECU switches to engine stop mode while idling to cut the fuel consumption and increase fuel efficiency. Engine restarts when there is an input from driver to run the vehicle. There is always a clash between the Engine ECU and automatic climate control unit (Auto-AC) either to enter idle stop mode for better fuel efficiency or inhibit idle stop mode to keep the compressor running for driver comfort. This clash can be resolved in two ways: 1 Hardware change and, 2 Software change Hardware change leads to increase in cost, validation effort and time.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza using CFD Simulations

2017-01-10
2017-26-0268
Recent automotive trend shows that customer demand is moving towards bigger size vehicle with more comfort, space, safety, feature and technology. Global market of SUV is projected to surpass 21 million units by 2020. Despite economic slowdown and weak new car sales worldwide, India and China will continue to be primary market for SUV due to sheer size of population, urban expanding middle class and larger untapped rural market. However, stricter emission norms push for clean and green technology and unfavorable policy towards use of diesel vehicle has made the SUV design very challenging due to conflicting needs. Due to bigger size of vehicle, aerodynamic design plays an important role in achieving emission targets and higher fuel efficiency. This paper highlights the aerodynamic development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza, which is an entry level SUV vehicle with high ground clearance of 198 mm and best in class fuel economy of 24.3 kmpl.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Bumper Beam Structure for Pedestrian Protection and Low Speed Bumper Impact

2016-02-01
2016-28-0210
The biggest challenge in vehicle BIW design today is to make a light, cost effective and energy absorbing structure. With the increasing competition as well as increasing customer awareness, today’s vehicle has to satisfy several aesthetic and functional requirements besides the mandatory regulatory requirements. While working on global platform, it is challenging to comply with both pedestrian protection and low speed bumper impact (ECE-R42) and at the same time meeting the styling intent of reducing the front overhang. Pedestrian lower leg compliance demands space between bumper member and bumper, a condition that reduces the space available for energy absorption during low speed impact (ECE-R42). Therefore, reduction in front overhang poses a problem in meeting both the requirements with limited space. This paper outlines vehicle case study in order to optimize the design of Bumper Beam structure, for complying with regulatory requirements while satisfying the styling intent.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Establishing Damage Criteria Using Probability Distribution Function on Component Level Tests - a Case Study

2016-02-01
2016-28-0041
Automobile components are usually subjected to complex varying loads. Thus, fatigue failure is a common mode of failure in automobile components. Accurately predicting the fatigue life is the key point for light weight and also reliability design of automobile components. Various life prediction theories are being used in the automotive industry for damage analysis using material S-N curves. However, due to variability in manufacturing, material spec etc. it is difficult to predict the experimental lives using conventional theories. Probability based statistical modeling is prevalent in the industry for life prediction. Probabilistic plots of cycles to failure to constant amplitude loads are plotted and used for prediction purpose. As the component is subjected to varying loads in real world, defining a single parameter i.e. damage would be more relevant compared to loads.
Technical Paper

Consideration of Indian Turbans in Vehicle Design

2016-02-01
2016-28-0044
India is a country of diversity. From North to South, east to west, one can find altogether different culture, religions, spoken languages, foods, weather conditions, people lifestyles, dressing styles etc. This vast diversity of India poses a great challenge in front of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, so as to assimilate all the requirements (of this big nation) in one single car (design). For example, many people in India wear turban (out of their religious beliefs or cultural heritage). So, is it required to keep enough consideration for Turban wearing population in vehicle design? Turban, unlike caps or hats, is something which is tied on the head (not just only kept). It is something which cannot be removed whenever required. So, it can somehow be considered as an integral part of body (as an added head dimension). So, it becomes all the more important to thoroughly understand this aspect & keep a consideration for the same in vehicle design.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Controls Comparison on HILs Using a Modular Soft Platform

2016-02-01
2016-28-0026
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Controls Development is an important aspect to realize the goals of Powertrain Electrification i.e. fuel economy and emission improvement. Keeping that in mind, development engineers need to formulate numerous control strategies. Once the control strategy is evaluated and frozen, it typically does not change from one vehicle model application to another. However, it may happen that Electronic Control Unit (ECU) manufacturer may change depending on the sourcing strategy. Therefore, in order to maintain uniformity, it may be required to compare control strategy of a finished ECU product frozen for one model application to be compared with new ECU sourced through another manufacturer. This paper discusses a methodology to compare control strategy of two ECU’s sourced from different ECU manufacturers with identical control requirements.
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