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Technical Paper

Innovative Simulation Approach to Analyze and Add Value to Upcoming Complex Drive Cycle (WLTC) for Passenger Cars

2013-11-27
2013-01-2801
Vehicles which are sold and put into service in a country have to meet the regulations and standards of that country. Every country has a separate regulation and approval procedure which requires expensive design modifications, additional tests and duplicating approvals. Thus, there is the need to harmonize the different national technical requirements for vehicles and form a unique international regulation. With this rationale, the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE/WP29) has brought governments and automobile manufacturers together to work on a new harmonized test cycle and procedure which is to be adopted around the world. This lead to the development of Worldwide Harmonized Light Duty Test Procedures (WLTP) and Cycles (WLTC). The test procedure is divided into 3 cycles, depending on a power to mass ratio of the tested vehicle.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Thermal Balance of Diesel Engine and Identification of Scope for Waste Heat Recovery

2013-11-27
2013-01-2744
Diesel engines as prime movers for passenger cars are becoming popular, primarily due to their superior thermal efficiency. However, the peak thermal efficiency does not exceed 35 to 40% even in the best engines. Huge efforts are being put in to improve engine efficiencies to meet ever stringent fuel economy requirements. Such efforts are mainly focused on combustion improvement and parasitic losses reduction. However, a large part of the energy input to engine is lost to cooling system, exhaust gases and other heat losses. Such losses are higher at part and low loads which is where the engine operates in normal usage conditions. This paper analyses in detail the various energy losses at different engine operating regimes. Quantification of losses and understanding of loss mechanism serves as a starting point for future technologies to recover the lost energy. Quantification of losses: Losses in different systems are quantified at different engine operating regimes.
Technical Paper

Base Engine Value Engineering for Higher Fuel Efficiency and Enhanced Performance

2013-11-27
2013-01-2748
To sustain market leadership position one has to continuously improve their product and services so that on one hand customer expectations are met and on the other hand business profitability is maintained. Value engineering is one of the approach through which we can achieve these two objectives simultaneously. Enhancing the value of running products is always a challenge as there is limited scope and flexibility to modify the current design and processes. Value engineering approach, integrated in product development cycle, brings great opportunity to upgrade the new and running products. This study reveals approach to upgrade the base engine of Maruti Alto. Upgraded engine is used in Alto 800 vehicle launched in October 2012. Improvement points were studied based on the business requirement, market competition, and legislative requirements. Based on functional improvement points, all the design parameters were studied and finalized.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Pulsation Noise in CNG Vehicles

2013-01-09
2013-26-0098
Natural gas is increasingly being utilized for vehicle applications both to reduce vehicle emissions and as an alternate energy source to gasoline and diesel fuels. Natural gas can be used to reduce carbon dioxide emissions while the global distribution of natural gas allows energy independence for regions with gas rather than oil reserves. Thus natural gas as alternative vehicle fuel not only provides emission benefits but also provide an economical option in comparison to the Hybrid and Electric Vehicles. An increasing number of vehicles worldwide are being manufactured to run on CNG. CNG/NGV vehicles produce 20-30% less carbon dioxide than gasoline and diesel [1]. The CO2 contributes to global climate change due to greenhouse effect. Further CNG vehicles decrease noise pollution by having a smoother and more silent engine performance compared to gasoline and diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Development of Jig to Determine Center of Gravity for Vehicle Seats (Unsymmetrical Three Dimensional Bodies) for Automotive Regulatory Test

2013-01-09
2013-26-0059
This article brings a practical analysis for determination of gravity center in unsymmetrical three dimensional bodies practically and graphically. The gravitational center of an object is the point from which if suspended, the object remains stable at all times, this is also called as center of mass of the object, or the theoretical point at which the entire weight of the object is assumed to be concentrated. In certain tests, the Center of Gravity (CG) of the Seat is required to be known, for load application. The CG is the point at which a SEAT would balance if it were possible to suspend it at that point. This paper deals with use of applied engineering and theoretical calculations to ascertain the CG of First and Second Row seats (individual and bench type). In this case the center of gravity location is expressed in units of length along each of three axes (X, Y and Z). Load balance equation is used to calculate the CG of the seat.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Front Air - Dam Design Based on Aerodynamic and Fuel Economy Simulations

2013-01-09
2013-26-0063
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used extensively in the optimization of modern passenger car to meet the ever growing need of higher fuel economy, better engine and underbody cooling. One of the way to achieve better fuel economy is to reduce the vehicle overall resistance to flow, know as drag. Vehicle drag is a complex phenomenon governed by vehicle styling, component shape, layout and driving velocity and road conditions. To reduce the drag a lot of aero-parts are used these days such as air-dam, skirts, spoiler, undercover, dams etc. However the design of these aero-parts must be optimized to get the desired result as their addition alone does not guarantee improvement in performance. This paper aims at studying the effect of air-dam height and position on vehicle aerodynamics. Also the effect of air-dam addition was verified using fuel economy simulations.
Technical Paper

Optimal Torque Handling in Hybrid Powertrain for Fuel Economy Improvement

2013-01-09
2013-26-0068
In this work, a parallel full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) was optimized to further lower its carbon footprint without opting for any additional hardware change. The study was focused to first recognize the system efficiency of the HEV and identify its low efficiency points over the MIDC. Thereafter, different functions of the HEV were studied for their individual and cumulative contribution in the fuel economy improvement over the base non-hybrid vehicle. This, along with the low system efficiency points helped in identifying the potential areas for improvement in fuel economy. With changes in calibration and control strategies resulting in an optimal torque handling between the E-machine and the ICE, it was established through simulation and subsequent experiments conducted on chassis dynamometer, that the fuel economy of the HEV tested can be improved with the performance remaining unchanged and emissions meeting regulatory requirements.
Technical Paper

An Alternate Methodology to Measure the A-Pillar Obstruction in Passenger Cars

2013-01-09
2013-26-0030
With ever increasing demand for vehicle safety and fuel efficiency, Body in White (BIW) designers are striving for vehicle's body mass optimization leading to the development of lean designs. Nevertheless, considerations like ergonomics also play a significant role while deciding the vehicle structure. As an example, A-pillar (front pillar) plays a major role in vehicle's passive safety. Increase in its cross section size, beyond a particular grade and gauge optimization is eminent to meet target requirements of rigidity and crash. However, the increased obstruction because of the wider section would not only lead to poor visibility and a claustrophobic feeling to the driver but also lead to a lesser response time for him or her to prevent a collision. Obstruction from A-pillar can be a subjective feeling of driver but it should also be quantified and measured to optimize the A-pillar structure. Numerous methodologies are being adopted globally to measure the A-pillar obstruction.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Light Weight Frontal Crash Box Design for Low Speed and Insurance Tests

2013-01-09
2013-26-0023
Single body architecture designed for various global markets and subjected to varied load cases is a challenge for Body in White (BIW) engineers. Optimization of structural design to meet regulatory, insurance and assessment requirements is an iterative and time consuming task. With focus on reduction of vehicle's damageability and ease of repairability Original Equipment Manufactures (OEM), insurance companies and Research Council for Automobile Repairs (RCAR) [1] are striving for better designs. A space constraint crash box structure installed behind the bumper plays a significant role in absorption of energy, before transmitting to longitudinal rails. In this study, crashworthiness of a multipurpose crash box for a hatch segment vehicle is presented with the various design of experiments conducted with a focus on light weighting, cost and ease of manufacturing.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Idle Combustion Stability of a CNG Powered Naturally Aspirated Engine

2013-01-09
2013-26-0003
In view of rising oil prices and concern for the greenhouse gas emissions, the need for greener and efficient engines is increasing. Thus, automobile manufacturers are trying to improve the performance and efficiency of the engine while keeping compliance with the stringent emission norms. CNG, with its high H/C ratio, makes it a clean fuel by significantly reducing the emission of green-house gas carbon-dioxide. CNG, being cheap compared to other conventional fuels, is an added advantage and hence is gaining popularity. Along with improvement in the part load and full load efficiency, Engine manufactures are looking to lower the idle speed for better fuel economy. Lowering the idle speed has to be optimized as, it reduces the combustion stability of the engine which in turn increases the variation of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) resulting in high structural vibration from the engine and to vehicle body.
Technical Paper

Simulating Real World Driving: A Case study on New Delhi

2016-02-01
2016-28-0236
In the Indian Context, Fuel Economy of a vehicle is one of key elements while buying a Car. The fuel economy declared by OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) is one of the key indicators while assessing the fuel economy. However it is based on a standard driving cycle and evaluated under standard conditions as mandated by emission legislation. As the driving pattern has a major influence on fuel economy, the objective of this paper is to study real world driving patterns and to define a methodology to simulate a real world driving cycle. A case study was done on Delhi City, by running a fleet of vehicles in different traffic conditions. Thereafter data analysis like acceleration %, specific energy demand per distance, Acceleration vs. Vehicle Speed distribution etc. was done with the help of MATLAB. The final validation of cycle was done by comparing Lab results with on-road Fuel Economy data.
Technical Paper

Design of Front Structure of Vehicle for Pedestrian Headform Protection

2017-03-28
2017-01-1298
Vehicle Hood being the face of a passenger car poses the challenge to meet the regulatory and aesthetic requirements. Urge to make a saleable product makes aesthetics a primary condition. This eventually makes the role of structure optimization much more important. Pedestrian protection- a recent development in the Indian automotive industry, known for dynamics of cost competitive cars, has posed the challenge to make passenger cars meeting the regulation at minimal cost. The paper demonstrates structure optimization of hood and design of peripheral parts for meeting pedestrian protection performance keeping the focus on low cost of ownership. The paper discusses development of an in-house methodology for meeting Headform compliance of a flagship model of Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., providing detailed analysis of the procedure followed from introduction stage of regulatory requirement in the project to final validation of the engineering intent.
Technical Paper

Effect of PVC Skin and Its Properties on Automotive Door Trim Inserts

2017-03-28
2017-01-0492
Plastic plays a major role in automotive interiors. Till now most of the Indian automobile industries are using plastics mainly to cover the bare sheet metal panels and to reduce the weight of the vehicle along with safety concerns. Eventually Indian customer requirement is changing towards luxury vehicles. Premium look and luxury feel of the vehicle plays an equal role along with fuel economy and cost. Interior cabin is the place where aesthetics and comfort is the key to attract customers. Door Trims are one of the major areas of interiors where one can be able to provide premium feeling to the customer by giving PVC skin and decorative inserts. This paper deals with different types of PVC skins and its properties based on process constraints, complexity of the inserts. Door trim inserts can be manufactured by various methods like adhesive pasting, thermo-compression molding and low pressure injection molding process etc.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cold Start Mode Fuel Economy Simulation Model Making Methodology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0898
The air pollution and global warming has become a major problem to the society. To counter this worldwide emission norms have become more stringent in recent times and shall continue to get further stringent in the next decade. From OEMs perspective with increased complexity, it has become a necessity to use simulation methods along with model based systems approach to deal with system level complexities and reduce model development time and cost to deal with the various regulatory requirements and customer needs. The simulation models must have good correlation with the actual test results and at the same time should be less complex, fast, and integrable with other vehicle function modelling. As the vehicle fuel economy is declared in cold start condition, the fuel economy simulation model of vehicle in cold start condition is required. The present paper describes a methodology to simulate the cold start fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Design Optimization in Rear End of a Hatchback Passenger Vehicle

2019-03-25
2019-01-1430
Aerodynamic evaluation plays an important role in the new vehicle development process to meet the ever increasing demand of Fuel Economy (FE), superior aero acoustics and thermal performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is extensively used to evaluate the performance of the vehicle at early design stage to overcome cost of proto-parts, late design changes and for time line adherence. CFD is extensively used to optimize the vehicle’s shape, profiles and design features starting from the concept stage to improve the vehicle’s aerodynamic performance. Since the shape of the vehicle determines the flow behavior around it, the performance is different for hatchback, notchback and SUV type of vehicles. In a hatchback vehicle, the roof line is abruptly truncated at the end, which causes flow separation and increase in drag.
Technical Paper

A New Analytical Model for Clutch System Modeling and Design Optimization

2019-04-02
2019-01-0840
In manual transmission vehicles, Clutch has direct interaction with the driver and plays a significant role in defining the drivability and NVH of a vehicle. These key performance factors depend on the interaction of diaphragm and cushion springs of a clutch. For an automobile manufacturer, it’s essential to optimize the characteristics of these springs based vehicle performance requirements. A state of the art analytical model has been developed by modeling the diaphragm and cushion spring with exponential equations. Based on these models, response functions for release load, torque build-up, and pressure plate lift have been derived. Results achieved from these response functions are correlated with test data. Key contributing factors for peak clutch pedal load, vehicle launch acceleration, and disengagement point have been identified by sensitivity analysis. Multi-objective optimization is performed to select optimized parameters for vehicle performance improvement
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Front Hood Structure for Meeting Pedestrian Headform Protection in an Existing Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0615
Automotive industry today faces the unprecedented challenges both in terms of adapting to changing customer demands in terms of vehicle aesthetics, features or performance as well as meeting the mandatory regulatory requirements, which are being regularly upgraded and becoming stringent day by day. Vehicle hood, being part of vehicle front fascia, needs to fulfill the requirement of vehicle aesthetics as its primary condition. At the same time, every automobile manufacturer has a lineup of older platforms, which are in production and needs to comply with upcoming stricter safety norms, having a structure in under hood area designed as per older philosophy, which further reduces the space available for energy absorption. This makes the structure optimization in vehicle hood area much more challenging. Pedestrian protection - an upcoming regulation in India, has seen some major development in recent times.
Technical Paper

Improving Side Crash Performance of a Compact Car via CAE

2014-04-01
2014-01-0546
The side impact accident is one of the very severe crash modes for the struck side occupants. According to NHTSA fatality reports, side impact accounts for over 25% of the fatalities in the US. Similar fatality estimates have been reported in the EU region. Side crash compliance of a compact car is more severe because of the less space available between the occupant and the vehicle structure, stringent fuel economy, weight and cost targets. The current work focuses on the development of Side body structure of a compact car through Computer Aided Tools (CAE), for meeting the Side crash requirements as per ECE R95 Regulation. A modified design philosophy has been adopted for controlling the intrusion of upper and lower portion of B-pillar in order to mitigate the injury to Euro SIDII dummy. At first, initial CAE evaluation of baseline vehicle was conducted.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficient Algorithm for Climate Control in Next Generation Vehicles

2017-01-10
2017-26-0370
Automobile industry is shifting its focus from conventional fuel vehicles to NexGen vehicles. The NexGen vehicles have electrical components to propel the vehicle apart from mechanical system. These vehicles have a goal of achieving better fuel efficiency along with reduced emissions making it customer as well as environment friendly. Idle start-stop is a key feature of NexGen vehicles, where, the Engine ECU switches to engine stop mode while idling to cut the fuel consumption and increase fuel efficiency. Engine restarts when there is an input from driver to run the vehicle. There is always a clash between the Engine ECU and automatic climate control unit (Auto-AC) either to enter idle stop mode for better fuel efficiency or inhibit idle stop mode to keep the compressor running for driver comfort. This clash can be resolved in two ways: 1 Hardware change and, 2 Software change Hardware change leads to increase in cost, validation effort and time.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza using CFD Simulations

2017-01-10
2017-26-0268
Recent automotive trend shows that customer demand is moving towards bigger size vehicle with more comfort, space, safety, feature and technology. Global market of SUV is projected to surpass 21 million units by 2020. Despite economic slowdown and weak new car sales worldwide, India and China will continue to be primary market for SUV due to sheer size of population, urban expanding middle class and larger untapped rural market. However, stricter emission norms push for clean and green technology and unfavorable policy towards use of diesel vehicle has made the SUV design very challenging due to conflicting needs. Due to bigger size of vehicle, aerodynamic design plays an important role in achieving emission targets and higher fuel efficiency. This paper highlights the aerodynamic development of Maruti Suzuki Vitara Brezza, which is an entry level SUV vehicle with high ground clearance of 198 mm and best in class fuel economy of 24.3 kmpl.
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