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Technical Paper

Decoupled Design of Cylinder Liner for IC Engines

1991-11-01
911231
Concept of a new decoupled cylinder liner design for internal combustion (IC) engines is presented from the framework of axiomatic design to improve friction and wear characteristics. In the current design, the piston rings fail to satisfy their functional requirements at the two dead centers of the piston stroke where lubrication is poor. It is proposed that by using undulated cylindrical surfaces selectively along the cylinder liner, much of the existing friction and wear problems of IC engines may be solved. The main idea behind undulated surface is to trap wear particles at the piston-cylinder interface in order to minimize plowing, and thus maintain low friction even in areas where lubrication fails to be hydrodynamic. In dry sliding tests using a modified engine motored at low speeds, undulated cylinders operated for significantly longer time than smooth cylinders without catastrophic increase in friction.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Measurement of Tribological Parameters between Piston Rings and Liner in Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1440
This paper presents tribological modeling, experimental work, and validation of tribology parameters of a single cylinder turbocharged diesel engine run at various loads, speeds, intake boost pressures, and cylinder liner temperatures. Analysis were made on piston rings and liner materials, rings mechanical and thermal loads, contact pressure between rings and liner, and lubricant conditions. The engine tribology parameters were measured, and used to validate the engine tribology models. These tribology parameters are: oil film thickness, coefficient of friction between rings and liner, friction force, friction power, friction torque, shear rate, shear stress and wear of the sliding surfaces. In order to measure the oil film thickness between rings and liner, a single cylinder AVL turbocharged diesel engine was instrumented to accept the difference in voltage drop method between rings, oil film, and liner.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Structural, Volume and Pressure Components to Space Suit Joint Rigidity

2009-07-12
2009-01-2535
Gas-pressurized space suits are highly resistive to astronaut movement, and this resistance has been previously explained by volume and/or structural effects. This study proposed that an additional effect, pressure effects due to compressing/expanding the internal gas during joint articulation, also inhibits mobility. EMU elbow torque components were quantified through hypobaric testing. Structural effects dominated at low joint angles, and volume effects were found to be the primary torque component at higher angles. Pressure effects were found to be significant only at high joint angles (increased flexion), contributing up to 8.8% of the total torque. These effects are predicted to increase for larger, multi-axis joints. An active regulator system was developed to mitigate pressure effects, and was found to be capable of mitigating repeated pressure spikes caused by volume changes.
Journal Article

AHSS Shear Fracture Predictions Based on a Recently Developed Fracture Criterion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0988
One of the issues in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is the stretch bending fracture on a sharp radius (commonly referred to as shear fracture). Shear fracture typically occurs at a strain level below the conventional forming limit curve (FLC). Therefore it is difficult to predict in computer simulations using the FLC as the failure criterion. A modified Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) fracture criterion has been developed to predict shear fracture. The model parameters for several AHSS have been calibrated using various tests including the butter-fly shaped shear test. In this paper, validation simulations are conducted using the modified (M-C) fracture criterion for a dual phase (DP) 780 steel to predict fracture in the stretch forming simulator (SFS) test and the bending under tension (BUT) test. Various deformation fracture modes are analyzed, and the range of usability of the criterion is identified.
Technical Paper

Engine Wear Modeling with Sensitivity to Lubricant Chemistry: A Theoretical Framework

2007-04-16
2007-01-1566
The life of an automotive engine is often limited by the ability of its components to resist wear. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) is an engine oil additive that reduces wear in an engine by forming solid antiwear films at points of moving contact. The effects of this additive are fairly well understood, but there is little theory behind the kinetics of antiwear film formation and removal. This lack of dynamic modeling makes it difficult to predict the effects of wear at the design stage for an engine component or a lubricant formulation. The purpose of this discussion is to develop a framework for modeling the formation and evolution of ZDDP antiwear films based on the relevant chemical pathways and physical mechanisms at work.
Technical Paper

Small Scale Research in Automobile Aerodynamics

1966-02-01
660384
This paper describes a three component strain gage balance designed to measure aerodynamic forces exerted on small automobile models when subjected to turbulence in an experimental wind tunnel. The instrument is described and the details of obtaining values with it are fully explained. Although tests were conducted on these models at quarter-scale Reynolds number, results agree closely with similar tests on larger models. The balance makes practical some unusual preliminary investigations before developing full-scale prototypes.
Technical Paper

Effect of Composition, Particle Size, and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Al-4.5 wt.% Cu Based Alumina Particulate Reinforced Composites

1998-02-23
980700
The quest for higher efficiency and performance of automotive vehicles requires application of materials with high strength, stiffness and lower weight in their construction. Particulate-reinforced aluminum-matrix composites are cost-competitive materials, which can meet these requirements. MMCC, Inc. has been optimizing particulate-reinforced alloy systems and developing the Advanced Pressure Infiltration Casting (APIC™) process for the manufacture of components from these materials. This paper discusses the results of a recent study in which composites reinforced with 55 vol.% alumina were cast using two sizes of alumina particulate and eight different matrix alloys based on Al-4.5 wt.% Cu with varying amounts of silicon and magnesium. Optimum heat treatments for each alloy were determined utilizing microhardness studies. The tensile strength and fracture toughness were evaluated as a function of alloy chemistry, particulate size, and heat treatment.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of Resistance Spot Welding Lobe Curve

1988-02-01
880278
A linearized lumped parameter heat balance model was developed and is discussed for the general case of resistance welding to see the effects of each parameter on the lobe shape. The parameters include material properties, geometry of electrodes and work piece, weld time and current, and electrical and thermal contact characteristics. These are then related to heat dissipation in the electrodes and the work piece. The results indicate that the ratio of thermal conductivity and heat capacity to electrical resistivity is a characteristic number which is representative of the ease of spot weldability of a given material. The increases in thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the sheet metal increase the lobe width while increases in electrical resistivity decrease the lobe width. Inconsistencies in the weldability of thin sheets and the wider lobe width at long welding times can both be explained by the heat dissipation characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Look at the Automotive-Turbine Regenerator System and Proposals to Improve Performance and Reduce Cost

1997-02-24
970237
The adoption of turbine engines for automotive power plants has been hampered by the high cost, high leakage and high wear rate of present designs of ceramic-matrix regenerators. Proposals are made and analyzed here for design directions to achieve substantial improvements in all three areas. These include lower-cost extruded and pressed matrices; and clamping seals coupled with incremental movement of the rotary-regenerator matrix.
Technical Paper

A Study of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in SI Engines Using a Modified Quasi-Dimensional Model

1996-05-01
961187
This paper describes the use of a modified quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation code to predict the extent of cycle-to-cycle variations in combustion. The modifications primarily relate to the combustion model and include the following: 1. A flame kernel model was developed and implemented to avoid choosing the initial flame size and temperature arbitrarily. 2. Instead of the usual assumption of the flame being spherical, ellipsoidal flame shapes are permitted in the model when the gas velocity in the vicinity of the spark plug during kernel development is high. Changes in flame shape influence the flame front area and the interaction of the enflamed volume with the combustion chamber walls. 3. The flame center shifts due to convection by the gas flow in the cylinder. This influences the flame front area through the interaction between the enflamed volume and the combustion chamber walls. 4. Turbulence intensity is not uniform in cylinder, and varies cycle-to-cycle.
Technical Paper

Crashworthiness of Thin Ultra-light Stainless Steel Sandwich Sheets: From the Design of Core Materials to Structural Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0886
Thin sandwich sheets hold a promise for widespread use in automotive industry due to their good crash and formability properties. In this paper, thin stainless steel sandwich sheets with low-density core materials are investigated with regard to their performance in crashworthiness applications. The total thickness of the sandwich materials is about 1.2mm: 0.2mm thick facings and a 0.8mm thick sandwich core. Throughout the crushing of prismatic sandwich profiles, the sandwich facings are bent and stretched while the sandwich core is crushed under shear loading. Thus, a high shear crushing strength of the sandwich core material is beneficial for the overall energy absorption of the sandwich profile. It is shown theoretically that the weight specific shear crushing strength of hexagonal metallic honeycombs is higher than the one of fiber cores - irrespective of their relative density or microstructural geometry.
Technical Paper

Effect of Operating Conditions and Fuel Type on Crevice HC Emissions: Model Results and Comparison with Experiments

1999-10-25
1999-01-3578
A one-dimensional model for crevice HC post-flame oxidation is used to calculate and understand the effect of operating parameters and fuel type (propane and isooctane) on the extent of crevice hydrocarbon and the product distribution in the post flame environment. The calculations show that the main parameters controlling oxidation are: bulk burned gas temperatures, wall temperatures, turbulent diffusivity, and fuel oxidation rates. Calculated extents of oxidation agree well with experimental values, and the sensitivities to operating conditions (wall temperatures, equivalence ratio, fuel type) are reasonably well captured. Whereas the bulk gas temperatures largely determine the extent of oxidation, the hydrocarbon product distribution is not very much affected by the burned gas temperatures, but mostly by diffusion rates. Uncertainties in both turbulent diffusion rates as well as in mechanisms are an important factor limiting the predictive capabilities of the model.
Technical Paper

Inverse Method for Measuring Weld Temperatures during Resistance Spot Welding

2001-03-05
2001-01-0437
A new monitoring system predicts the progression of welding temperature fields during resistance spot welding. The system captures welding voltages and currents to predict contact diameters and simulate temperature fields. The system accurately predicts fusion lines and heat-affected zones. Accuracy holds even for electrode tips used for a few thousand welds of zinc coated steels.
Technical Paper

Achieving An Affordable Low Emission Steel Vehicle; An Economic Assessment of the ULSAB-AVC Program Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0361
Vehicle weight reduction, reduced costs and improved safety performance are the main driving forces behind material selection for automotive applications. These goals are conflicting in nature and solutions will be realized by innovative design, advanced material processing and advanced materials. Advanced high strength steels are engineered materials that provide a remarkable combination of formability, strength, ductility, durability, strain-rate sensitivity and strain hardening characteristics essential to meeting the goals of automotive design. These characteristics act as enablers to cost- and mass-effective solutions. The ULSAB-AVC program demonstrates a solution to these conflicting goals and the advantages that are possible with the utilization of the advance high strength steels and provides a prediction of the material content of future body structures.
Technical Paper

Alternative Tooling Technologies for Low Volume Stamping

1999-09-28
1999-01-3216
Low volume manufacturing has become increasingly important for the automotive industry. Globalization trends have led automakers and their suppliers to operate in developing regions where minimum efficient scales can not always be achieved. With proper maintenance, standard cast iron stamping tools can be used to produce millions of parts, but require large investments. Thus at high production volumes, the impact of the tooling investment on individual piece costs is minimized. However, at low volumes there is a substantial cost penalty. In light of the trends towards localized manufacturing and relatively low demands in some developing markets, low cost stamping tools are needed. Several alternate tooling technologies exist, each of which require significantly lower initial investments, but suffer from greatly reduced tool lives. However, the use of these technologies at intermediate to high volumes requires multiple tool sets thus eliminating their cost advantage.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the Rotary Engine Apex Seal Lubrication

2015-09-01
2015-01-2035
The Wankel rotary engine is more compact than conventional piston engines, but its oil and fuel consumption must be reduced to satisfy emission standards and customer expectations. A key step toward this goal is to develop a better understanding of the apex seal lubrication to reduce oil injection while reducing friction and maintaining adequate wear. This paper presents an apex seal dynamics model capable of estimating relative wear and predicting friction, by modeling the gas and oil flows at the seal interfaces with the rotor housing and groove flanks. Model predictions show that a thin oil film can reduce wear and friction, but to a limited extent as the apex seal running face profile is sharp due to the engine kinematics.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston-Ring Dynamics on Ring/Groove Wear and Oil Consumption in a Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970835
The wear patterns of the rings and grooves of a diesel engine were analyzed by using a ring dynamics/gas flow model and a ring-pack oil film thickness model. The analysis focused primarily on the contact pressure distribution on the ring sides and grooves as well as on the contact location on the ring running surfaces. Analysis was performed for both new and worn ring/groove profiles. Calculated results are consistent with the measured wear patterns. The effects of groove tilt and static twist on the development of wear patterns on the ring sides, grooves, and ring running surfaces were studied. Ring flutter was observed from the calculation and its effect on oil transport was discussed. Up-scraping of the top ring was studied by considering ring dynamic twist and piston tilt. This work shows that the models used have potential for providing practical guidance to optimizing the ring pack and ring grooves to control wear and reduce oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries Towards Development of a Computational Model

2010-04-12
2010-01-1078
Battery packs for Hybrids, Plug-in Hybrids, and Electric Vehicles are assembled from a system of modules (sheets) with a tight sheet metal casing around them. Each module consists of an array of individual cells which vary in the composition of electrodes and separator from one manufacturer to another. In this paper a general procedure is outlined on the development of a constitutive and computational model of a cylindrical cell. Particular emphasis is placed on correct prediction of initiation and propagation of a tearing fracture of the steel can. The computational model correctly predicts rupture of the steel can which could release aggressive chemicals, fumes, or spread the ignited fire to the neighboring cells. The initiation site of skin fracture depends on many factors such as the ductility of the casing material, constitutive behavior of the system of electrodes, and type of loading.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Evaluating Body Architecture Concepts Using Technical Cost Modeling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0767
The ability to make accurate decisions concerning early body-in-white architectures is critical to an automaker since these decisions often have long term cost and weight impacts. We address this need with a methodology which can be used to assist in body architecture decisions using process-based technical cost modeling (TCM) as a filter to evaluate alternate designs. Despite the data limitations of early design concepts, TCM can be used to identify key trends for cost-effectiveness between design variants. A compact body-in-white architecture will be used as a case study to illustrate this technique. The baseline steel structure will be compared to several alternate aluminum intensive structures in the context of production volume.
Journal Article

Reduction of Cold-Start Emissions through Valve Timing in a GDI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0827
This work examines the effect of valve timing during cold crank-start and cold fast-idle (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP) on the emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate mass and number (PM/PN). Four different cam-phaser configurations are studied in detail: 1. Baseline stock valve timing. 2. Late intake opening/closing. 3. Early exhaust opening/closing. 4. Late intake phasing combined with early exhaust phasing. Delaying the intake valve opening improves the mixture formation process and results in more than 25% reduction of the HC and of the PM/PN emissions during cold crank-start. Early exhaust valve phasing results in a deterioration of the HC and PM/PN emissions performance during cold crank-start. Nevertheless, early exhaust valve phasing slightly improves the HC emissions and substantially reduces the particulate emissions at cold fast-idle.
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