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Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

The Mvma Investigation Into the Complexities of Heavy Truck Splash and Spray Problem

1985-01-01
856097
Splash and spray conditions created by tractor-trailer combinations operating on the Federal highway system have been studied and tested for many years with mixed results. Past events are reviewed briefly in this paper. In additional testing during 1983, using new state-of- the-art splash/spray suppressant devices, some encouragement was provided that these devices could work. The 1984 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) test program was designed to develop practicable and reliable test procedures to measure effectiveness of splash and spray reduction methods applied to tractor-trailer combination vehicles. Over 40 different combinations of splash/spray suppression devices on five different tractors and three van trailer types were tested. The spray-cloud densities for some 400 test runs were measured by laser transmissometers and also recorded by still photography, motion pictures, and videotape. On-site observers made subjective ratings of spray density.
Technical Paper

The Development of Ford's Natural Gas Powered Ranger

1985-11-11
852277
Operation of America's first factory built vehicles modified to operate on natural gas began in April, 1984, when Ford Motor Company delivered the first of 27 specially equipped 1984 Ranger pickup trucks to 25 major utility and natural gas related companies in the United States and Canada. In addition to the fuel system, modifications to these test vehicles include a 12.8:1 compression ratio engine and a unique distributor calibration to provide performance similar to the gasoline powered vehicle. The fuel tanks are significantly more expensive than gasoline tanks and remain one of the major cost issues with a natural gas powered vehicle. There are however, no unresolvable technological issues that would prevent motor vehicles from operating economically and efficiently on natural gas.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of the Ford GT Spaceframe

2004-03-08
2004-01-1255
The Ford GT is a high performance sports car designed to compete with the best that the global automotive industry has to offer. A critical enabler for the performance that a vehicle in this class must achieve is the stiffness and response of the frame structure to the numerous load inputs from the suspension, powertrain and occupants. The process of designing the Ford GT spaceframe started with a number of constraints and performance targets derived through vehicle dynamics CAE modeling, crash performance requirements, competitive benchmarking and the requirement to maintain the unique styling of the GT40 concept car. To achieve these goals, an aluminum spaceframe was designed incorporating 35 different extrusion cross-sections, 5 complex castings, 4 smaller node castings and numerous aluminum stampings.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

1994-11-01
942256
Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Delivery Module for Light Truck Applications

1993-11-01
932980
This paper reviews the design and development of a self-filling, in-tank fuel system reservoir intended for use in diesel engine vehicle applications. This new idea eliminates engine driveability concerns (stumbles, hesitations, stalling, etc.) associated with an inconsistent supply of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine, particularly during sudden vehicle maneuvers and with low fuel tank conditions.
Technical Paper

Impact of Computer Aided Engineering on Ford Motor Company Light Truck Cooling Design and Development Processes

1993-11-01
932977
This paper presents the benefits of following a disciplined thermal management process during the design and development of Ford Light Truck engine cooling systems. The thermal management process described has evolved through the increased use of Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. The primary CAE tool used is a numerical simulation technique within the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The paper discusses the need to establish a heat management team, develop a heat management model, construct a three dimensional CFD model to simulate the thermal environment of the engine cooling system, and presents CFD modeling examples of Ford Light Trucks with engine driven cooling fans.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Weight Reduction in Truck Frame Design

1993-11-01
933037
A new, systematic, sensitivity based design process for weight reduction is presented. Traditionally, a trial and error method is used when a design fails to meet the weight and the design criteria, which often conflict. This old approach not only is time and cost consuming but also does not provide insight into structural behavior. This proposed process uses state-of-the-art technologies such as design sensitivity analysis, numerical optimization, graphical user interface, etc. It handles multi-discipline design criteria simultaneously and provides design engineers insight into structural responses for frequency, durability, and stiffness concerns and a means for systematic weight reduction and quality improvement. The new design process has been applied for the weight reduction of advanced truck frame designs. Results show that a significant weight savings has been achieved while all design criteria are met.
Journal Article

Crash Performance Simulation of a Multilayer Thermoplastic Fuel Tank with Manufacturing and Assembly Consideration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0009
The modeling of plastic fuel tank systems for crash safety applications has been very challenging. The major challenges include the prediction of fuel sloshing in high speed impact conditions, the modeling of multilayer thermoplastic fuel tanks with post-forming (non-uniform) material properties, and the modeling of tank straps with pre-tensions. Extensive studies can be found in the literature to improve the prediction of fuel sloshing. However, little research had been conducted to model the post-forming fuel tank and to address the tension between the fuel tank and the tank straps for crash safety simulations. Hoping to help improve the modeling of fuel systems, the authors made the first attempt to tackle these major challenges all at once in this study by dividing the modeling of the fuel tank into eight stages. An ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) method was adopted to simulate the interaction between the fuel and the tank.
Technical Paper

Ford Motor Companys' new Torqshift 6 Automatic Transmission for Super Duty F250-F550 Truck

2010-04-12
2010-01-0859
Ford developed the 6R140 TorqShift six-speed transmission for the Ford F-series SuperDuty trucks. The 6R140 transmission is specifically designed to manage the increased torque produced by the 6.7-liter Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine. It is also matched with the 6.2-liter V-8 gasoline engine. By design, the new 6R140 transmission seamlessly delivers the enormous low-rpm torque produced by the new diesel engine and efficiently manages the higher rpm of the new gasoline engine.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0585
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of CD Variation With Aspect Ratio

1999-03-01
1999-01-0649
There is little information in the technical literature about the dependence of drag coefficient, CD, on aspect ratio (height/width) for car and truck aerodynamics. Some of the information suggests that CD should increase with aspect ratio as the flow over the body becomes more two dimensional. Recent tests of candidate shapes for a commercial van with various roof heights suggested the opposite is true; the taller vans had lower drag coefficients. This report discusses the results of several experimental investigations to examine this relationship. Scale model and production drag measurements of commercial vans are presented along with drag measurements of simple shapes. The shapes consisted of eight radiused rectangular boxes of constant length and frontal area, but with different height/width ratios. The effects of underbody roughness and bumper presence were evaluated and are discussed.
Technical Paper

Implementation of ABS System on an Existing Heavy Trucks Line-up in Accordance to Brazilian Resolution No. 312/09 (CONTRAN)

2012-10-02
2012-36-0466
The automotive industry has been increasingly researching and working on improving vehicle and passenger safety over the years. Following countries such as the United States and European Union, the Brazilian government has been publishing many resolutions with the objective of improving the safety of their fleet. With the publication of resolution 312 from CONTRAN (National Traffic Counsel), on April 3rd, 2009, the installation of ABS (Anti-lock Brake System) feature has become mandatory for all car and truck models to be sold in Brazil, following a staggered implementation starting on January 1st, 2010. The ABS system adds to the vehicle's current brake system, not allowing the wheels to lock during braking, which helps preserve the vehicle's stability and improve its safety, thus avoiding accidents. The technology, which is already available in a few car models, is not yet developed for the heavy trucks applications in this market.
Technical Paper

A Heavy Truck Cab Suspension for Improved Ride

1978-02-01
780408
This paper presents a simplified concept of the cab-over-engine tractor ride problem. It discusses ways ride can be improved and the reasons cab suspension was chosen as the preferred solution. It describes the Ford CL-9000 cab suspension, explains why it improves ride and includes some data to indicate the benefits that are realized.
Technical Paper

Two Piece Composite Truck Cab

1990-02-01
900306
This report is a comprehensive investigation into the use of resin transfer molded glass fiber reinforced plastics in a structural application. A pickup truck cab structure is an ideal application for plastic composites. The cab is designed to fit a production Ranger pickup truck and uses carryover frame and front end structure. The cab concept consists primarily of two molded pieces. This design demonstrates extensive parts integration and allows for low-cost tooling, along with automated assembly.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Aerodynamic Simulations Using a Lattice Gas Based Simulation Technique

1999-11-15
1999-01-3756
Several studies have been conducted in an effort to bring Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) out of the research arena (5) and into the product design environment as a useful aerodynamic design tool. The focus of these studies has ranged from extremely simple shapes to more complex geometries representative of real vehicles. This paper presents the results of real vehicle applications in which CFD was used to predict the aerodynamic effect of proposed surface modifications. The simulation data was generated using a numerical method derived from lattice gas theory to evaluate the aerodynamic effect of surface modifications. The commercial software Powerflow was used to prepare the model, perform the simulation and post-process the results. These case studies were performed in parallel with real vehicle development programs. The depth of experimental comparison data was limited by traditional vehicle program timing and budget constraints.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Improvements for an Automatic Transmission through Design Retargeting and Manufacturing Variability Reduction

2001-04-30
2001-01-1505
Gear whine in 1st gear for an automatic transmission that has been in production for nearly thirty years was identified as an NVH issue. Due to advances in vehicle level refinement, and reduction of other masking noises, the automatic transmission gear whine became an issue with the customer. Since the transmission was already in production, the improvements had to be within the boundaries of manufacturing feasibility with existing equipment to avoid costly and time consuming investment in new machines. The approach used was one of identifying optimum values of existing gear parameters to provide a reduction in passenger compartment noise. The problem was in a light truck application. Objective noise measurements were recorded for 10 transmissions from more than 50 driven in vehicles. The transmissions were disassembled and the gears inspected.
Technical Paper

Correlating Stressed Environmental Testing of Structural Composites to Service

2001-03-05
2001-01-0094
A compact in-situ tensile stress fixture was designed for the study of the combined effects of stress and automotive environments on structural glass fiber-reinforced composite materials. With this fixture, a standardized 300 hour laboratory screening test was developed to compare the residual property loss of composite materials due to concurrent exposure to stress and environment. It is of great importance that the data gathered in the laboratory have correlation to on-vehicle (in-service) performance, and that both lab and real world data be taken with a test system (in-situ test fixtures) capable of providing accurate and consistent results under either test condition.
Technical Paper

Rail Transit Simulation

1981-02-01
810283
The design and construction of the rail transit simulator for the dynamic testing of automobiles, trucks and components is described. The test facility features seven servo-controlled hydraulic actuators, along with associated electronics to simulate vehicle environmental conditions during rail shipment. This ability to simulate the shipping environment in the laboratory has effectively reduced the cost and the time required to evaluate designs.
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