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Technical Paper

Development of Sliding Surface Material for Combustion Chamber of High-Output Rotary Engine

1985-11-11
852176
The present trend of internal combustion engines toward higher-speed and higher-output capacity is pressing the need for improved lubrication of sliding parts in the combustion chamber to secure reliability. To meet this need, investigation into frictional phenomena was made with a rotary engine, which led to the development of a method of coating the inner surface of the rotor housing with fluorocarbon resin superior in self-lubrication and friction resistance. Rotary engines given this surface finishing showed no trace of irregular wear of the sliding surfaces even when subjected, prior to completion of run-in firing (in green condition), to high-speed and high-load tests, indicating this method's noteworthy benefit of improving comformability. This method offers an excellent surface finish for sliding parts of internal combustion engines (rotary and reciprocating) which will gain increasingly higher output in the future.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Fuel Distribution, Flow Field, and Combustion Characteristics of a Mixture Injected SI Engine

1995-02-01
950104
In order to control the mixture formation, a mixture injected 4-valve SI engine was developed with a small mixture chamber and mechanically driven mixture injection valve installed into the cylinder head. The mixture injection valve was located at the center of the combustion chamber. The mixture was injected from the final stage of the intake stroke to the beginning of the compression stroke. The mixture distribution and in-cylinder flow field inside the combustion chamber were measured by a pair of laser two-dimensional visualization techniques. A planar-laser-induced exciplex fluorescence technique was used to visualize the in-cylinder mixture formation by obtaining spectrally separated fluorescence images of liquid and vapor phase fuel distribution. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to obtain flow field images. In the case of the mixture injected SI engine, the mixture injected into the swirl center was retained during the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Improving NOx and Fuel Economy for Mixture Injected SI Engine with EGR

1995-02-01
950684
A large quantity of recirculated exhaust gas is used to reduce NOx emissions and improve fuel economy at the same time. The effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated under the stoichiometric and lean operating conditions and compared with the effect of lean operation without EGR. A mixture injected SI engine that has a mechanically driven mixture injection valve installed was prepared. In this engine, it is possible to charge combustible mixture independently from combustion air and recirculated exhaust gas introduced from intake port in order to stratify the mixture. The effect of the EGR ratio on NOx emissions and fuel consumption was measured under the stoichiometric and lean operating conditions. Due to the mixture distribution controlled by the mixture injection, a large quantity of recirculated exhaust gas could be introduced into the combustion chamber under the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. The limit of EGR ratio was 48 %.
Technical Paper

Development of the Stratified Charge and Stable Combustion Method in DI Gasoline Engines

1995-02-01
950688
The new combustion method in DISC engine has been developed. It has a double structure combustion chamber characterized as ‘Caldera’. The chamber is constructed by a center cavity for the purpose of forming a stable mixture around a spark plug electrode, and by an outer cavity which has a role of a main chamber. This method makes possible a perfect un-throttling operation, and a fuel consumption equal to a diesel engine is achieved. With regard to an out-put of DISC engine, a stoichmetric combustion and a high torque are achieved by controling a fuel injection timing with an electro-magnetic injection system device. With regard to emission regulations, a heavy EGR include residual gas decreases greatly NOx and HC emissions simultaneously, and which suggests a possibility to achieve LEV/ULEV regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of Lean Burn Catalyst

1995-02-01
950746
A new type of three way catalyst for lean engine was developed in order to reduce hydrocarbon (HC), carbon-monoxide (CO) and nitrogen-oxides (NOx) in lean exhaust gas. This catalyst has a base support material of MFI zeolite loaded with active metals including platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir) and rhodium (Rh). It showed good catalytic activity and thermal durability on a lean engine. This catalyst made it possible to enlarge the lean operating region of the lean burn engine. It showed the NOx reduction of 51% in Japanese 10-15 mode emission test and the emissions were found low enough to satisfy the new Japanese emission standards. Consequently, fuel economy of the lean vehicle with this catalyst has been improved about 16% in comparison with a comparable current stoichiometric combustion vehicle. This catalyst has been mass-produced for Mazda 323 lean burn vehicle (Z-Lean) for the Japanese domestic market.
Technical Paper

A Study of Exhaust and Noise Emissions Reduction on a Single Spray Direct Injection

1989-02-01
890467
Exhaust and noise emissions were successfully reduced using a Single Spray Direct Injection Diesel Engine (SSDI) on a two-liter naturally-aspirated four-cylinder engine. The compression ratio, the swirl ratio and the pumping rate were optimized to obtain good fuel economy, high power output and low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, through a modification of the fuel injection equipment, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were reduced. Upon a test vehicle evaluation of this engine, more than 11% fuel savings relative to Mazda two-liter Indirect Injection Diesel Engines (IDI) were obtained. As for engine noise, structural modifications of the engine were carried out to obtain noise emission levels equivalent to IDI.
Technical Paper

Mazda New Lightweight and Compact V6 Engines

1992-02-01
920677
Mazda has developed new-generation V6 engines. The new V6 series comprises 2.5-litre, 2.0-litre and 1.8-litre engines. The development objective was to ensure high output performance for excellent “acceleration and top-end feel”, while satisfying “Clean & Economy” requirements. The engines also had to have a pleasant sound. Mazda selected for these engines a short stroke, 60° V-shaped 24 valve DOHC with an aluminum cylinder block. Various techniques are adopted as follows: Combustion improvement and optimization of control to achieve high fuel economy and low emissions Improvement of volumetric efficiency, inertia reduction of rotating parts and optimization of control to achieve excellent “acceleration and top-end feel” Adoption of a high-rigidity, two-piece cylinder block and crankshaft and weight reduction of reciprocating parts to achieve a pleasant engine sound Material changes and elimination of dead space to achieve a compact, lightweight engine
Technical Paper

Surrounding Combustion Process (SCP) - New Concept for Lean Burn Engine

1992-02-01
920058
Both NOx and unburned HC were reduced by changing the direction of the flame propagation. It is generally said that the optimum ignition position of spark ignition engine is in the center of combustion chamber. However by igniting arround the chamber and propagating the flame toward the center, a smooth heat release pattern due to the decrease in the flame area and a decrease in the unburned gas entering the ring crevise can be anticipated. These effects of this combustion process, which was named the surrounding combustion process (SCP), were experimntally confirmed using the constant volume combustion vessels and the spark ignition engine equipped with six spark plugs per cylinder. Next, the steps for decreasing the number of ignitions TCre considered, and additional three spark plugs for SCP were installed in the four valve pentroof combustion chamber. With this engine, the NOx reduction and the capability of SCP to further improve the lean burn engine fuel economy were confirmed.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics in Hydrogen Fueled Rotary Engine

1992-02-01
920302
A hydrogen-fueled rotary engine was investigated with respect to the effects of the fuel supply method, spark plug rating and spark plug cavity volume on abnormal combustion. It was found that abnormal combustion was caused by pre-ignition from the spark plugs and gas leakage through the plug hole cavity. The hydrogen-fueled rotary engine could function through a wide operating range at a theoretical air-to-fuel ratio by optimising the above factors. Consequently, the hydrogen-fueled rotary engine achieved output power of up to 63%-75% of the gasoline specification, while the hydrogen-fueled reciprocating engine only reached 50%.
Technical Paper

Mazda 4-Rotor Rotary Engine for the Le Mans 24-Hour Endurance Race

1992-02-01
920309
The “R26B” 4-rotor rotary engine is a powerplant that brought a Mazda racing car to victory in the 1991 Le Mans 24-hour endurance race. This engine was developed to achieve high levels of power output, fuel efficiency, and reliability, as required of endurance racing engines. This paper describes the basic structure of the engine, including a 3-piece eccentric shaft that represents a major technological achievement incorporated in the engine, as well as other technological innovations employed for the enhancement of the engine's power output and reliability, and for reducing its fuel consumption. These innovations include a telescopic intake manifold system, peripheral port injection, 3-plug ignition system, 2-piece ceramic apex seal, and a cermet coating on the rubbed surfaces of the housings.
Technical Paper

A Study About In-Cylinder Flow and Combustion in a 4-Valve S.I. Engine

1992-02-01
920574
Lean-burn technology is now being reviewed again in view of demands for higher efficiency and cleanness in internal combustion engines. The improvement of combustion using in-cylinder gas flow control is the fundamental technology for establishing lean-burn technology, but the great increase in main combustion velocity due to intensifying of turbulence causes a deterioration in performance such as increase in heat loss and N0x. Thus, it is desirable to improve combustion stability while suppressing the increase in main burn velocity as much as possible (1). It is expected that the fluid characteristics of the in-cylinder tumbling motion that the generated vortices during intake stroke breake down in end-half of compression stroke will satisfy the above requisition. This study is concerned with the effects of enhancing of tumble intensity on combustion in 4-valve S. I. engines.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Oxygen Storage Capacity of Three-Way Catalyst and Optimization of A/F Perturbation Control to Its Characteristics

2002-03-04
2002-01-1094
In order to study alternate methods of Air Fuel ratio (A/F) perturbation for maximizing three-way catalyst conversion efficiency, two methods for measuring the Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) of Catalyst were developed on an engine test bench. The first is to measure just the break-through Perturbing Oxygen Quantity (POQ, which is defined as the product of A/F amplitude, perturbation period and gas flow), and the second is to measure the response delay of the rear A/F sensor, which has been improved to be very similar to the former. Then, the OSC values of many catalysts were investigated with different perturbation parameters. The results show that OSC would not be affected by amplitude, period of perturbation and gas flow, and that the best conversion efficiency is obtained when the value of POQ is about 1/2 of the value for OSC. These results suggest that the best way to control perturbation is to keep POQ at 1/2 of OSC by setting perturbation parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of a Technique to Strengthen Body Frame with Structural Foam

2001-03-05
2001-01-0313
A technique to strengthen body frame with a polymeric structural foam has been developed with benefits of reducing vehicle weight and improving drivability and fuel economy. The idea of this new technology was evolved from the concept that body frame strength will increase drastically if the body frames are prevented from folding on collision. The energy of a collision impact would be effectively absorbed if weak portions of body frames are reinforced by a high strength structural foam. The new technology composed of the high strength structural foam and a light-weight frame structure with partial foam filling is reported here.
Technical Paper

Influence of Mixture Stratification Patter non Combustion Characteristics in a Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber

1995-10-01
952412
A pancake-type constant-volume combustion chamber was used to investigate the combustion and NOx emission characteristics of propane-air and hydrogen-air mixtures under various charge stratification patterns, which were obtained by variations of the initial charge and injected mixture concentrations and the ignition spark timing. A planar laser-induced fluorescence from nitrogen dioxide as gas fuel tracer was applied to measure the mixture distribution in the test chamber. The second harmonic output of pulsed Nd; YAG laser was used as a light source for fluorescence excitation. The fluorescence images were corrected by a gated image-intensified CCD camera. The quantitative analysis of fuel concentration was made possible by the application of linearity between fluorescence intensity and NO2 concentration at low trace level.
Technical Paper

The Characteristics of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of the Side Exhaust Port Rotary Engine

1995-02-01
950454
Mazda has been pursuing the research of side exhaust porting for its rotary engine in an effort to improve the engine's fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions characteristics. The side exhaust porting configuration provides greater flexibility in setting port timing and shape, as compared to the peripheral exhaust porting configuration, which is in use in the current-generation rotary engines; the side exhaust porting configuration enables the selection of a port timing more favorable to reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The side exhaust port rotary engine used in this research has its exhaust port closure timing around the top dead center (TDC) and has no intake-exhaust timing overlap. As a result, burnt gasses entering the next cycle of combustion are reduced, thus enhancing combustion stability; also, the air-fuel ratio can be set leaner for improved fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Improving Fuel Efficiency by Miller Cycle and Its Future Prospect

1995-02-01
950974
We have introduced a supercharged Miller Cycle gasoline engine into the market in 1993 as an answer to the requirement of reduction in CO2 emission of vehicles. Improvement in the fuel economy of a supercharged Miller Cycle engine is achieved by the reduction of friction loss due to a smaller displacement. The biggest problem of a conventional supercharged engine is knocking. In order to avoid the knocking, lower compression ratio, which accompanies lower expansion ratio, has been adopted by the conventonal engines and achieved insufficient fuel economy improvement. The Miller Cycle obtains superior anti-knocking performance as well as lowering compression ratio, while keeping the high expansion ratio. The decreased friction loss by the smaller displacement has completely lead to the improvement of fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Development of V6 Miller Cycle Gasoline Engine

1994-03-01
940198
A gasoline engine with an entirely new combustion cycle deriving from Miller Cycle is developed. By delaying closing timing of intake valve and with new Lysholm Compressor which provides higher boost pressure, engine knocking is avoided while high compression ratio is maintained and approximately 1.5 times larger toque than that of a naturally aspirated(NA) engine of the same displacement is realized. This V6 Miller Cycle gasoline engine can be the alternative to a larger displacement NA engine because of its equivalent torque performance and its lower fuel consumption by the effect of smaller displacement.
Technical Paper

A General Method of Life Cycle Assessment

2012-04-16
2012-01-0649
In previous Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods, environmental burden items to be analyzed, prior to a life cycle inventory analysis, were assumed as the main factors of environmental problems regardless of the product category. Next, the life cycle inventory analysis, in which the total amount of environmental burden items emitted during the life cycle of a product was calculated, and an environmental impact assessment were performed. The environmental impact assessment was based on the initially assumed environmental burden items. The process, in other words, was a particular solution based on this assumption. A general solution unconstrained by this assumption was necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop a general method of LCA that did not require such initially assumed environmental burden items, and to make it possible to perform a comprehensive environmental impact assessment and strategically reduce environmental burden of a product.
Technical Paper

Planar Measurements of OH Radicals in an S.I. Engine Based on Laser Induced Flourescence

1994-03-01
940477
The planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was applied to two dimensional visualization of OH radicals in a combustion flame. A frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser pumped dye laser was used to form a laser light sheet which excited the OH X2Π-A2Σ transition. A fluorescence image of the OH radical and a visible image of a combustion flame were simultaneously imaged by a pair of CCD cameras with image intensifiers. Measurement of the OH radical in the combustion flame could be carried out by using this PLIF technique without Mie scattering lights from soot particles and other optical disturbances. The PLIF technique was employed to study the OH radical in the combustion chamber of a spark ignition (S. I.) engine using gasoline as fuel. Measurements of the OH radical fluorescence were carried out under various operating conditions of mass burned fraction, swirl ratio and air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Air-Fuel Mixture Formation Inside a Low-Pressure Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine

1993-03-01
930678
Stratified charge engines have been getting attention for the drastic improvement in thermal efficiency at low-load region. There have been researchers on the two types of engines-the high pressure direct injection stratified charge type in which fuel is supplied directly at high pressure into its combustion chamber right before ignition timings, and the low pressure direct injection stratified charge type in which fuel is injected directly into its cylinder while the cylinder pressure is comparatively low[ 1- 3]. Rotary engines have higher freedom than reciprocating engines in terms of equipping direct fuel injection devices, since their combustion chambers rotate along the rotor housing. The fuel supply units, therefore, need not be exposed to high temperature combustion gas.
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