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Technical Paper

Improving NOx and Fuel Economy for Mixture Injected SI Engine with EGR

1995-02-01
950684
A large quantity of recirculated exhaust gas is used to reduce NOx emissions and improve fuel economy at the same time. The effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated under the stoichiometric and lean operating conditions and compared with the effect of lean operation without EGR. A mixture injected SI engine that has a mechanically driven mixture injection valve installed was prepared. In this engine, it is possible to charge combustible mixture independently from combustion air and recirculated exhaust gas introduced from intake port in order to stratify the mixture. The effect of the EGR ratio on NOx emissions and fuel consumption was measured under the stoichiometric and lean operating conditions. Due to the mixture distribution controlled by the mixture injection, a large quantity of recirculated exhaust gas could be introduced into the combustion chamber under the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. The limit of EGR ratio was 48 %.
Technical Paper

Development of Lean Burn Catalyst

1995-02-01
950746
A new type of three way catalyst for lean engine was developed in order to reduce hydrocarbon (HC), carbon-monoxide (CO) and nitrogen-oxides (NOx) in lean exhaust gas. This catalyst has a base support material of MFI zeolite loaded with active metals including platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir) and rhodium (Rh). It showed good catalytic activity and thermal durability on a lean engine. This catalyst made it possible to enlarge the lean operating region of the lean burn engine. It showed the NOx reduction of 51% in Japanese 10-15 mode emission test and the emissions were found low enough to satisfy the new Japanese emission standards. Consequently, fuel economy of the lean vehicle with this catalyst has been improved about 16% in comparison with a comparable current stoichiometric combustion vehicle. This catalyst has been mass-produced for Mazda 323 lean burn vehicle (Z-Lean) for the Japanese domestic market.
Technical Paper

A Study of Exhaust and Noise Emissions Reduction on a Single Spray Direct Injection

1989-02-01
890467
Exhaust and noise emissions were successfully reduced using a Single Spray Direct Injection Diesel Engine (SSDI) on a two-liter naturally-aspirated four-cylinder engine. The compression ratio, the swirl ratio and the pumping rate were optimized to obtain good fuel economy, high power output and low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, through a modification of the fuel injection equipment, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were reduced. Upon a test vehicle evaluation of this engine, more than 11% fuel savings relative to Mazda two-liter Indirect Injection Diesel Engines (IDI) were obtained. As for engine noise, structural modifications of the engine were carried out to obtain noise emission levels equivalent to IDI.
Technical Paper

The Concept of Future Man-Machine System and the Evaluation Method of Vigilance

1991-02-01
910114
We have proposed a human mimetic machine, using electronics control technology, which is quasi-human like an android equipped with volition as a new technical concept for man-machine systems. This machine determines the driver's physiological and psychological conditions and, in response, controls surrounding stimuli, such as sounds and vibrations. In this way, the relationship between the driver and the vehicle is made more human like. To determine the significance of the human mimetic machine, we have been developing a biofeedback vigilance control system, which maintains an optimum vigilance level during driving by controlling stimuli. In the first stage of the study, we have developed an accurate method to determine vigilance level using multiple regression analysis of electroencephalograms.
Technical Paper

The Driving Simulator with Large Amplitude Motion System

1991-02-01
910113
An Advanced driving simulator has been developed at Mazda Yokohama Research Center. The primary use of this simulator is to research future driver-vehicle systems. In an emergency situation, a driver must respond rapidly to perceived motion and visual stimulus to avoid an accident. In such cases, because the time delay associated with the perception of motion cues is shorter than visual and auditory cues, the driver will strongly rely upon perceived motion to control the vehicle. Hence, a driving simulator to be used in the research of driver-vehicle interactions in emergency driving must include a high performance motion system capable of large amplitude lateral motion. The Mazda simulator produces motion cues in four degrees of freedom, provides visual and auditory cues, and generates control feel on the steering wheel. This paper describes the merit of the large amplitude motion system and the features of this newly developed driving simulator.
Technical Paper

Mazda New Lightweight and Compact V6 Engines

1992-02-01
920677
Mazda has developed new-generation V6 engines. The new V6 series comprises 2.5-litre, 2.0-litre and 1.8-litre engines. The development objective was to ensure high output performance for excellent “acceleration and top-end feel”, while satisfying “Clean & Economy” requirements. The engines also had to have a pleasant sound. Mazda selected for these engines a short stroke, 60° V-shaped 24 valve DOHC with an aluminum cylinder block. Various techniques are adopted as follows: Combustion improvement and optimization of control to achieve high fuel economy and low emissions Improvement of volumetric efficiency, inertia reduction of rotating parts and optimization of control to achieve excellent “acceleration and top-end feel” Adoption of a high-rigidity, two-piece cylinder block and crankshaft and weight reduction of reciprocating parts to achieve a pleasant engine sound Material changes and elimination of dead space to achieve a compact, lightweight engine
Technical Paper

Surrounding Combustion Process (SCP) - New Concept for Lean Burn Engine

1992-02-01
920058
Both NOx and unburned HC were reduced by changing the direction of the flame propagation. It is generally said that the optimum ignition position of spark ignition engine is in the center of combustion chamber. However by igniting arround the chamber and propagating the flame toward the center, a smooth heat release pattern due to the decrease in the flame area and a decrease in the unburned gas entering the ring crevise can be anticipated. These effects of this combustion process, which was named the surrounding combustion process (SCP), were experimntally confirmed using the constant volume combustion vessels and the spark ignition engine equipped with six spark plugs per cylinder. Next, the steps for decreasing the number of ignitions TCre considered, and additional three spark plugs for SCP were installed in the four valve pentroof combustion chamber. With this engine, the NOx reduction and the capability of SCP to further improve the lean burn engine fuel economy were confirmed.
Technical Paper

Mazda 4-Rotor Rotary Engine for the Le Mans 24-Hour Endurance Race

1992-02-01
920309
The “R26B” 4-rotor rotary engine is a powerplant that brought a Mazda racing car to victory in the 1991 Le Mans 24-hour endurance race. This engine was developed to achieve high levels of power output, fuel efficiency, and reliability, as required of endurance racing engines. This paper describes the basic structure of the engine, including a 3-piece eccentric shaft that represents a major technological achievement incorporated in the engine, as well as other technological innovations employed for the enhancement of the engine's power output and reliability, and for reducing its fuel consumption. These innovations include a telescopic intake manifold system, peripheral port injection, 3-plug ignition system, 2-piece ceramic apex seal, and a cermet coating on the rubbed surfaces of the housings.
Technical Paper

A Development of Statistical Human Back Contour Model for Backrest Comfort Evaluation

1993-03-01
930114
First, this paper describes a measurement of the human back-backrest interface contours and a reduction procedure of the measured contours to reconstruct the statistical back contours of American 50 and 95-percentile male. Second, the paper illustrates the difference of the back contour between the statistical male drivers and SAE 3-D Manikin. Finally, the advantage of using the back contour model in experiment is given. The AM 50 back contour model was used as a loader to obtain the backrest pressure distribution and proved an excellent tool for backrest comfort evaluation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Technique to Strengthen Body Frame with Structural Foam

2001-03-05
2001-01-0313
A technique to strengthen body frame with a polymeric structural foam has been developed with benefits of reducing vehicle weight and improving drivability and fuel economy. The idea of this new technology was evolved from the concept that body frame strength will increase drastically if the body frames are prevented from folding on collision. The energy of a collision impact would be effectively absorbed if weak portions of body frames are reinforced by a high strength structural foam. The new technology composed of the high strength structural foam and a light-weight frame structure with partial foam filling is reported here.
Technical Paper

Complete Ceramic Swirl Chamber for Passenger Car Diesel Engine

1987-02-01
870650
The U.S. Federal Emission Standards ruled that particulate emissions from '87 models should be no more than 0.20 g/mile for passenger cars and 0.26 g/mile for light-duty trucks. A complete ceramic swirl chamber with a heat insulating air gap has been developed to meet the above standards without sacrificing fuel economy or power output. The whole process by which the ceramic swirl chamber was developed will be described: optimization of materials, design, manufacturing, and the method and system of quality control. The results of long term durability tests will be described, which demonstrate the chamber's excellent reliability.
Technical Paper

Application of Plasma Welding to Tailor- Welded Blanks

2003-10-27
2003-01-2860
In recent years, improving fuel efficiency and collision safety are important issue. We have worked on a new construction method to develop body structure which is light weight and strong/stiff. We adopt multi type Tailor-Welded Blanks (TWB) which is formed after welding several steel sheets for ATENZA (MAZDA 6), NEW DEMIO (MAZDA 2), and RX-8. This is a technology to consistently improve of such product properties and to reduce costs. Laser welding is a common TWB welding method, but for further equipment cost reductions and productivity improvements, we have developed a higher welding speed and robust plasma welding and introduced this to mass production. We introduce this activity and results in this report.
Journal Article

A Study on Design Factors of Gas Pedal Operation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0073
Lateral distance from the center of a driver's seating position to the gas and brake pedals is one of the main design factors that relates to the ease of stepping on the pedals from one and the other. It is important to keep a certain distance between the pedals to prevent erroneous operations or to reduce the driver's anxiety. In this paper, we explain that the distance between the pedals is affected by the driver's seating height. In other words, if the driver sits lower, the accuracy of stepping on the pedals from the gas pedal to the brake pedal will increase compared to the higher seating position. In addition, we found out that providing auxiliary parts for the leg support enhances the accuracy of the pedal operations.
Technical Paper

The Characteristics of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of the Side Exhaust Port Rotary Engine

1995-02-01
950454
Mazda has been pursuing the research of side exhaust porting for its rotary engine in an effort to improve the engine's fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions characteristics. The side exhaust porting configuration provides greater flexibility in setting port timing and shape, as compared to the peripheral exhaust porting configuration, which is in use in the current-generation rotary engines; the side exhaust porting configuration enables the selection of a port timing more favorable to reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The side exhaust port rotary engine used in this research has its exhaust port closure timing around the top dead center (TDC) and has no intake-exhaust timing overlap. As a result, burnt gasses entering the next cycle of combustion are reduced, thus enhancing combustion stability; also, the air-fuel ratio can be set leaner for improved fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Improving Fuel Efficiency by Miller Cycle and Its Future Prospect

1995-02-01
950974
We have introduced a supercharged Miller Cycle gasoline engine into the market in 1993 as an answer to the requirement of reduction in CO2 emission of vehicles. Improvement in the fuel economy of a supercharged Miller Cycle engine is achieved by the reduction of friction loss due to a smaller displacement. The biggest problem of a conventional supercharged engine is knocking. In order to avoid the knocking, lower compression ratio, which accompanies lower expansion ratio, has been adopted by the conventonal engines and achieved insufficient fuel economy improvement. The Miller Cycle obtains superior anti-knocking performance as well as lowering compression ratio, while keeping the high expansion ratio. The decreased friction loss by the smaller displacement has completely lead to the improvement of fuel economy.
Technical Paper

A General Method of Life Cycle Assessment

2012-04-16
2012-01-0649
In previous Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods, environmental burden items to be analyzed, prior to a life cycle inventory analysis, were assumed as the main factors of environmental problems regardless of the product category. Next, the life cycle inventory analysis, in which the total amount of environmental burden items emitted during the life cycle of a product was calculated, and an environmental impact assessment were performed. The environmental impact assessment was based on the initially assumed environmental burden items. The process, in other words, was a particular solution based on this assumption. A general solution unconstrained by this assumption was necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop a general method of LCA that did not require such initially assumed environmental burden items, and to make it possible to perform a comprehensive environmental impact assessment and strategically reduce environmental burden of a product.
Journal Article

Diesel Combustion Noise Reduction by Controlling Piston Vibration

2015-04-14
2015-01-1667
It has been required recently that diesel engines for passenger cars meet various requirements, such as low noise, low fuel consumption, low emissions and high power. The key to improve the noise is to reduce a combustion noise known as “Diesel knock noise”. Conventional approaches to reduce the diesel knock are decreasing combustion excitation force due to pilot/pre fuel injection, adding ribs to engine blocks or improving noise transfer characteristics by using insulation covers. However, these approaches have negative effects, such as deterioration in fuel economy and increase in cost/weight. Therefore, modification of engine structures is required to reduce it. We analyzed noise transfer paths from a piston, a connecting rod, a crank shaft to an engine block and vibration behavior during engine operation experimentally, and identified that piston resonance was a noise source.
Technical Paper

New Methodology of Life Cycle Assessment for Clean Energy Vehicle and New Car Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0851
Mazda announced that all customers who purchase Mazda cars are provided with the joy of driving and excellent environmental and safety performance under slogan of "Sustainable Zoom-Zoom" long-term vision for technology development. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach of Life Cycle Assessment (abbreviated to LCA) to be applied to clean energy vehicles and new car models. The improvement of both environmental performance, e.g., fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, vehicle weight reduction, and LCA that is a useful methodology to assess the environmental load of automobiles for their lifecycles has become more important. LCA by inventory analysis, for RX-8 Hydrogen RE as a rotary engine vehicle used hydrogen as clean energy, was carried out and disclosed the world for the first time. LCA for new Mazda 5 was carried out as the portfolio of all models, previously only the specific model equipped with fuel efficiency device based on ISO14040.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fluid Analysis By a Mesh Free Simulation - Part 2 Analysis of the Indoor Climate in a Vehicle Cabin Based on the 3D-CAD Model

2011-10-06
2011-28-0136
The thermal fluid field in a vehicle cabin model is analyzed by the mesh free method as well as mentioned in the Part 1. This paper focuses on the steady state indoor climate in the vehicle cabin including the effect of the buoyancy, the heat generation of the driver and heat conduction through the vehicle body surface under the maximum air-cooling condition soaked in a climate chamber in the summer condition for the demonstration of the mesh free method without not only the deformation of the 3D-CAD model but mesh generation. The solar radiation distribution and heat generation through the exhaust pipe from the engine room are simply included in the analysis. Simulated results are compared with experiments in the conditions of both moving and idling states. As a result, no significant difference in air temperature between simulation and experiments can be obtained in both conditions.
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