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Technical Paper

Development of cabin air filter with aldehyde capture function

Aldehydes are the cause of sick house syndrome or chemical sensitivity and have harmful influences for human beings. In the cabin of vehicle, aldehydes which are included in the volatilization gas from the interior materials, DE emission gas in intake air, cigarette smoke and so on spoil the comfortableness. Active carbon, which has been used as an adsorbent, shows an excellent removal efficiency for most of the gas components by physical adsorption. But for aldehydes, it has difficulty because aldehydes are hard to be adsorbed physically. We have developed new aldehydes adsorbent undergoing addition reaction with gaseous aldehydes on its surface. Aldehydes capture material (ACM) make use of the chemical reaction using a resorcin as a reagent and an H-type zeolite as a water-containing support, and active hydrogen is used as a catalyst to promote the reaction. In addition, we have applied ACM to cabin air filter (CAF) of vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Sliding Surface Material for Combustion Chamber of High-Output Rotary Engine

The present trend of internal combustion engines toward higher-speed and higher-output capacity is pressing the need for improved lubrication of sliding parts in the combustion chamber to secure reliability. To meet this need, investigation into frictional phenomena was made with a rotary engine, which led to the development of a method of coating the inner surface of the rotor housing with fluorocarbon resin superior in self-lubrication and friction resistance. Rotary engines given this surface finishing showed no trace of irregular wear of the sliding surfaces even when subjected, prior to completion of run-in firing (in green condition), to high-speed and high-load tests, indicating this method's noteworthy benefit of improving comformability. This method offers an excellent surface finish for sliding parts of internal combustion engines (rotary and reciprocating) which will gain increasingly higher output in the future.
Technical Paper

Development of Capacitance-Loaded Window Antenna for AM/FM Car Radios

Mazda established an original design methodology combining a capacitive coupling technology and transmission line theory, to develop a high performance window antenna for AM/FM radios which construction is very simple to construct and requires no use of any antenna boosters or matching circuits. This paper introduces the design methodology and performance characteristics of the new antenna as well as its application to the production '95 model Mazda 929.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Fuel Distribution, Flow Field, and Combustion Characteristics of a Mixture Injected SI Engine

In order to control the mixture formation, a mixture injected 4-valve SI engine was developed with a small mixture chamber and mechanically driven mixture injection valve installed into the cylinder head. The mixture injection valve was located at the center of the combustion chamber. The mixture was injected from the final stage of the intake stroke to the beginning of the compression stroke. The mixture distribution and in-cylinder flow field inside the combustion chamber were measured by a pair of laser two-dimensional visualization techniques. A planar-laser-induced exciplex fluorescence technique was used to visualize the in-cylinder mixture formation by obtaining spectrally separated fluorescence images of liquid and vapor phase fuel distribution. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to obtain flow field images. In the case of the mixture injected SI engine, the mixture injected into the swirl center was retained during the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Improving NOx and Fuel Economy for Mixture Injected SI Engine with EGR

A large quantity of recirculated exhaust gas is used to reduce NOx emissions and improve fuel economy at the same time. The effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated under the stoichiometric and lean operating conditions and compared with the effect of lean operation without EGR. A mixture injected SI engine that has a mechanically driven mixture injection valve installed was prepared. In this engine, it is possible to charge combustible mixture independently from combustion air and recirculated exhaust gas introduced from intake port in order to stratify the mixture. The effect of the EGR ratio on NOx emissions and fuel consumption was measured under the stoichiometric and lean operating conditions. Due to the mixture distribution controlled by the mixture injection, a large quantity of recirculated exhaust gas could be introduced into the combustion chamber under the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. The limit of EGR ratio was 48 %.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Combustion Chamber Deposit Interference and Effects of Gasoline Additives on CCD Formation

Recently, an audible clattering noise has been noticed in some vehicles during cold engine starts, mainly in the U.S. The clattering is referred to by various names, such as “carbon knock,” “carbon rap,” “mechanical knock” and “combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI).” CCDI is believed to be caused by the deposit formation in the combustion chamber. In the research effort described here, CCDI was successfully reproduced in a 2.5-liter multipoint injection engine with a polyolefin amine gasoline additive. It was determined that the CCDI was caused by mechanical contact between the piston top and the cylinder head deposits. The vibration due to CCDI originated mainly at the thrust side of the piston right after top-dead-center on compression stroke and was characterized by a high frequency response. Combustion chamber deposit (CCD) formation depends on many factors, including gasoline additives.
Technical Paper

Development of the Stratified Charge and Stable Combustion Method in DI Gasoline Engines

The new combustion method in DISC engine has been developed. It has a double structure combustion chamber characterized as ‘Caldera’. The chamber is constructed by a center cavity for the purpose of forming a stable mixture around a spark plug electrode, and by an outer cavity which has a role of a main chamber. This method makes possible a perfect un-throttling operation, and a fuel consumption equal to a diesel engine is achieved. With regard to an out-put of DISC engine, a stoichmetric combustion and a high torque are achieved by controling a fuel injection timing with an electro-magnetic injection system device. With regard to emission regulations, a heavy EGR include residual gas decreases greatly NOx and HC emissions simultaneously, and which suggests a possibility to achieve LEV/ULEV regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of Lean Burn Catalyst

A new type of three way catalyst for lean engine was developed in order to reduce hydrocarbon (HC), carbon-monoxide (CO) and nitrogen-oxides (NOx) in lean exhaust gas. This catalyst has a base support material of MFI zeolite loaded with active metals including platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir) and rhodium (Rh). It showed good catalytic activity and thermal durability on a lean engine. This catalyst made it possible to enlarge the lean operating region of the lean burn engine. It showed the NOx reduction of 51% in Japanese 10-15 mode emission test and the emissions were found low enough to satisfy the new Japanese emission standards. Consequently, fuel economy of the lean vehicle with this catalyst has been improved about 16% in comparison with a comparable current stoichiometric combustion vehicle. This catalyst has been mass-produced for Mazda 323 lean burn vehicle (Z-Lean) for the Japanese domestic market.
Technical Paper

Material Technology Development Applied to Rotary Engine at Mazda

New material and processing technologies were developed for main components of the rotary engine to establish its reliability and durability. The components discussed in this paper are the rotor housing, side housing, and sealing elements. Also described are the material and processing technologies which resolved problems about their strength, rigidity, wear, etc.
Technical Paper

A Study of Exhaust and Noise Emissions Reduction on a Single Spray Direct Injection

Exhaust and noise emissions were successfully reduced using a Single Spray Direct Injection Diesel Engine (SSDI) on a two-liter naturally-aspirated four-cylinder engine. The compression ratio, the swirl ratio and the pumping rate were optimized to obtain good fuel economy, high power output and low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, through a modification of the fuel injection equipment, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were reduced. Upon a test vehicle evaluation of this engine, more than 11% fuel savings relative to Mazda two-liter Indirect Injection Diesel Engines (IDI) were obtained. As for engine noise, structural modifications of the engine were carried out to obtain noise emission levels equivalent to IDI.
Technical Paper

A Study of Jump and Bounce in a Valve Train

Valve train motion was investigated with computer simulation technique. The application of a 5-mass model was found to accurately predict the valve train behavior. It was identified that valve train stiffness and close-side characteristics of valve lift curve have significant effects on bounce occurrence. A valve train with high stiffness tends to develop bounce after jump, while on one with low stiffness, bounce starts in the absence of jump. These findings allowed to develop a new cam form with use of harmonic curves for elevating the revolution limit of the valve train.
Technical Paper

Mazda New Lightweight and Compact V6 Engines

Mazda has developed new-generation V6 engines. The new V6 series comprises 2.5-litre, 2.0-litre and 1.8-litre engines. The development objective was to ensure high output performance for excellent “acceleration and top-end feel”, while satisfying “Clean & Economy” requirements. The engines also had to have a pleasant sound. Mazda selected for these engines a short stroke, 60° V-shaped 24 valve DOHC with an aluminum cylinder block. Various techniques are adopted as follows: Combustion improvement and optimization of control to achieve high fuel economy and low emissions Improvement of volumetric efficiency, inertia reduction of rotating parts and optimization of control to achieve excellent “acceleration and top-end feel” Adoption of a high-rigidity, two-piece cylinder block and crankshaft and weight reduction of reciprocating parts to achieve a pleasant engine sound Material changes and elimination of dead space to achieve a compact, lightweight engine
Technical Paper

Surrounding Combustion Process (SCP) - New Concept for Lean Burn Engine

Both NOx and unburned HC were reduced by changing the direction of the flame propagation. It is generally said that the optimum ignition position of spark ignition engine is in the center of combustion chamber. However by igniting arround the chamber and propagating the flame toward the center, a smooth heat release pattern due to the decrease in the flame area and a decrease in the unburned gas entering the ring crevise can be anticipated. These effects of this combustion process, which was named the surrounding combustion process (SCP), were experimntally confirmed using the constant volume combustion vessels and the spark ignition engine equipped with six spark plugs per cylinder. Next, the steps for decreasing the number of ignitions TCre considered, and additional three spark plugs for SCP were installed in the four valve pentroof combustion chamber. With this engine, the NOx reduction and the capability of SCP to further improve the lean burn engine fuel economy were confirmed.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics in Hydrogen Fueled Rotary Engine

A hydrogen-fueled rotary engine was investigated with respect to the effects of the fuel supply method, spark plug rating and spark plug cavity volume on abnormal combustion. It was found that abnormal combustion was caused by pre-ignition from the spark plugs and gas leakage through the plug hole cavity. The hydrogen-fueled rotary engine could function through a wide operating range at a theoretical air-to-fuel ratio by optimising the above factors. Consequently, the hydrogen-fueled rotary engine achieved output power of up to 63%-75% of the gasoline specification, while the hydrogen-fueled reciprocating engine only reached 50%.
Technical Paper

Mazda 4-Rotor Rotary Engine for the Le Mans 24-Hour Endurance Race

The “R26B” 4-rotor rotary engine is a powerplant that brought a Mazda racing car to victory in the 1991 Le Mans 24-hour endurance race. This engine was developed to achieve high levels of power output, fuel efficiency, and reliability, as required of endurance racing engines. This paper describes the basic structure of the engine, including a 3-piece eccentric shaft that represents a major technological achievement incorporated in the engine, as well as other technological innovations employed for the enhancement of the engine's power output and reliability, and for reducing its fuel consumption. These innovations include a telescopic intake manifold system, peripheral port injection, 3-plug ignition system, 2-piece ceramic apex seal, and a cermet coating on the rubbed surfaces of the housings.
Technical Paper

Diagnosis and Objective Evaluation of Gear Rattle

The objectives of this work were to establish a method to diagnose the source of gear rattle and to evaluate the rattle objectively. The methods are described in detail, applied to two passenger cars as an example. Investigations were conducted into transmission rattle under transient conditions. By analysing the transmission casing vibration with respect to the engine flywheel angle, and presenting the data in the form of contour maps, it was shown that the two vehicles had different characteristics of gear impacts. Further measurements of the angular motion of each gear revealed the impact conditions at the input mesh in the transmission largely controlled the character of the rattle and were fundamentally different between the two vehicles. A rattle index was developed, based on the casing vibration under transient driving conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study About In-Cylinder Flow and Combustion in a 4-Valve S.I. Engine

Lean-burn technology is now being reviewed again in view of demands for higher efficiency and cleanness in internal combustion engines. The improvement of combustion using in-cylinder gas flow control is the fundamental technology for establishing lean-burn technology, but the great increase in main combustion velocity due to intensifying of turbulence causes a deterioration in performance such as increase in heat loss and N0x. Thus, it is desirable to improve combustion stability while suppressing the increase in main burn velocity as much as possible (1). It is expected that the fluid characteristics of the in-cylinder tumbling motion that the generated vortices during intake stroke breake down in end-half of compression stroke will satisfy the above requisition. This study is concerned with the effects of enhancing of tumble intensity on combustion in 4-valve S. I. engines.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Ambient Air Entrainment into Split Injection D.I. Gasoline Spray by LIF-PIV Technique

Effects of split injection, with a relatively short time interval between the two sprays, on the spray development process, and the air entrainment into the spray, were investigated by using laser induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV) techniques. The velocities of the spray and the ambient air were measured. The cumulative mass of the ambient air entrained into the spray was calculated by using the entrainment velocity normal to the spray boundary. The vortex structure of the spray, formed around the leading edge of the spray, showed a true rotating flow motion at low ambient pressures of 0.1 MPa, whereas at 0.4 MPa, it was not a true rotating flow, but a phenomenon of the small droplets separating from the leading edge of the spray and falling behind, due to air resistance. The development processes of the 2nd spray were considerably different from that of the 1st spray because the 2nd spray was injected into the flow fields formed by the 1st spray.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Oxygen Storage Capacity of Three-Way Catalyst and Optimization of A/F Perturbation Control to Its Characteristics

In order to study alternate methods of Air Fuel ratio (A/F) perturbation for maximizing three-way catalyst conversion efficiency, two methods for measuring the Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) of Catalyst were developed on an engine test bench. The first is to measure just the break-through Perturbing Oxygen Quantity (POQ, which is defined as the product of A/F amplitude, perturbation period and gas flow), and the second is to measure the response delay of the rear A/F sensor, which has been improved to be very similar to the former. Then, the OSC values of many catalysts were investigated with different perturbation parameters. The results show that OSC would not be affected by amplitude, period of perturbation and gas flow, and that the best conversion efficiency is obtained when the value of POQ is about 1/2 of the value for OSC. These results suggest that the best way to control perturbation is to keep POQ at 1/2 of OSC by setting perturbation parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Fuel Tank Using Modified Multi-Layer Blow Molding

A new and very practical technology has been developed to prevent gasoline permeation in plastic fuel tanks. The main body of the new tank is multi-layered, consist of high density polyethylene (HDPE), adhesive resin, polyamide (PA). The top and bottom parts of the tank are single layer consist of HDPE. This method has many advantages including such features as excellent gasoline permeation prevention, the processing time is the same as that for conventional blow molding methods, the method is safe because no toxic substances are used in the treatment process, the cost-performance ratio is excellent due to the minimum use of expensive auxiliaries (PA, adhesive resin), and the top and bottom single layer flashes can be re-used if they are pulverized.