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Technical Paper

Aggressivity-Reducing Structure of Large Vehicles in Side Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crash

Driver fatality rate of a passenger vehicle is considerably high when struck on the side by an LTV (light truck and van). Aggressivity of LTVs, particularly in side crashes, needs to be reduced to improve this incompatible situation. Crash energy absorption share of a passenger car struck on the side by an LTV was measured through component tests. As a result, B-pillar of the struck passenger car was found to receive most of the crash energy intensively. This intensive energy triggered large B-pillar deformation. Computer simulation proved that B-pillar deformation was closely related to occupant injury. The key to mitigate the injury of side-struck car occupant, therefore, is to disperse crash energy to other structural parts than B-pillar. Front-end structures of LTVs that realize crash energy dispersion were designed and examined. The structures include (a) optimization of the vehicle height, and (b) adoption of a forward-extended sub-frame.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Increase in Aerodynamic Drag Caused by a Passing Vehicle

On-road turbulences caused by sources such as atmospheric wind and other vehicles influence the flow field and increases the drag in a vehicle. In this study, we focused on a scenario involving a passing vehicle and investigated its effect on the physical mechanism of the drag increase in order to establish a technique for reducing this drag. Firstly, we conducted on-road measurements of two sedan-type vehicles passed by a truck. Their aerodynamic drag estimated from the base pressure measurements showed different increment when passed by the truck. This result raised the possibility of reducing the drag increase by a modification of the local geometry. Then, we conducted wind tunnel measurements of a simplified one-fifth scale vehicle model in quasi-steady state, in order to understand the flow mechanism of the drag increase systematically.
Technical Paper

Developed Technologies of the New Rotary Engine (RENESIS)

The newly developed rotary engine has achieved major progress in high performance, improved fuel economy and clean exhaust gas by innovative action. The engine of the next generation is named RENESIS, which stands for “The RE (Rotary Engine)'s GENESIS” or the rotary engine for the new millennium. The peripheral exhaust port of the previous rotary engine is replaced by a side exhaust port system in the RENESIS. This allows for an increase in the intake port area, thus producing higher power. Exhaust opening timing is retarded to improve thermal efficiency. The side exhaust port also allows reducing the internal EGR, stabilizing the combustion at idling. The improved thermal efficiency and the stabilized idle combustion result in higher fuel economy. In addition, the side exhaust port allows a reduction of the HC mass, realizing reduced exhaust gas emission.
Technical Paper

Developments of the Reduced Chemical Reaction Scheme for Multi-Component Gasoline Fuel

The reduced chemical reaction scheme which can take the effect of major fuel components on auto ignition timing into account has been developed. This reaction scheme was based on the reduced reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels (PRF) proposed by Tsurushima [1] with 33 species and 38 reactions. Some pre-exponential factors were modified by using Particle Swarm Optimization to match the ignition delay time versus reciprocal temperature which was calculated by the detailed scheme with 2,301 species and 11,116 elementary chemical reactions. The result using the present reaction scheme shows good agreements with that using the detailed scheme for the effects of EGR, fuel components, and radical species on the ignition timing under homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI) conditions.
Journal Article

Detailed Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation Analysis with Improved Wall Model Using Large Eddy Simulation

A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.