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Journal Article

A Turbulent Jet Ignition Pre-Chamber Combustion System for Large Fuel Economy Improvements in a Modern Vehicle Powertrain

Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced pre-chamber initiated combustion system for an otherwise standard spark ignition engine found in current on-road vehicles. This next-generation pre-chamber design overcomes previous packaging obstacles by simply replacing the spark plug in a modern four-valve, pent roof spark ignition engine. Turbulent Jet Ignition enables very fast burn rates due to the ignition system producing multiple, distributed ignition sites, which consume the main charge rapidly and with minimal combustion variability. The fast burn rates allow for increased levels of dilution (lean burn and/or EGR) when compared to conventional spark ignition combustion, with dilution levels being comparable to other low temperature combustion technologies (homogeneous charge compression ignition - HCCI) without the complex control drawbacks.
Technical Paper

Several Esoteric Considerations in the Design of a Gasoline Powered Super Mileage Vehicle

The need for increased fuel efficiency in conventional automobiles has motivated the design of lightweight, single passenger, super mileage vehicles. Typical low budget super mileage vehicles are capable of attaining 1000 to 1500 miles per gallon of gasoline. The present work discusses unique features of a high mileage vehicle designed and constructed by a research coterie at Michigan State University. More significant contributions of the coterie include an electronic engine and vehicle control system, a vehicle operation optimization analysis, and a computerized method of designing cam lobes based on flow mach numbers. These subjects are considered along with several customary design problems.
Technical Paper

Towards a Theory of Human Intraspecific Variation for Ergonomics and Human Modeling

Human intraspecific variation is a complex problem, but may be better understood by using computational models in tandem with knowledge about the genetic bases of phenotypic traits. These results can be used in a multitude of settings. To move closer to this goal, biologically-realistic mappings between genotype and phenotype are constructed using genetic algorithm and neural network-like models. These models allow for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions to be characterized in the resulting phenotype. Two types of model are introduced: a simple, two-layer model, and a more complex model. The final section will focus on trends of growth and development in relation to relationship to modeling anthropometric traits and other morphological phenomena.
Technical Paper

Modeling Worm Propagation over Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks*

Internet worms have shown the capability to compromise millions of network hosts in a matter of seconds, thereby precluding human countermeasures. A worm over a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) can, in addition to the well-known threats, pose a whole new class of traffic-related threats (ranging from congestion to large-scale accidents). To combat these automated adversaries, security patches can be distributed by good worms. An accurate VANET-based worm propagation model is essential to protect from malicious worms and to efficiently utilize good worms for distribution of security patches. This paper derives an approximate closed-form mathematical model of worm propagation over VANETs. Simulation results assert that the proposed model captures the VANET worm propagation dynamics with outstanding accuracy.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems

The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection for a Large Displacement Air-Cooled V-Twin Motorcycle Engine Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signals

To obtain the maximum output power and fuel economy from an internal combustion engine, it is often necessary to detect engine knock and operate the engine at its knock limit. This paper presents the ability to detect knock using in-cylinder ionization signals on a large displacement, air-cooled, “V” twin motorcycle engine over the engine operational map. The knock detection ability of three different sensors is compared: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure sensor, and ionization sensor. The test data shows that the ionization sensor is able to detect knock better than the production knock sensor when there is high mechanical noise present in the engine.
Technical Paper

Camless Variable Valve Actuator with Two Discrete Lifts

Camless Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technologies have been known for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance. VVA can be divided into electro-magnetic, electro-hydraulic, and electro-pneumatic actuation. This paper presents an electro-hydraulic VVA design (called GD-VVA-2) that offers continuously variable timing and two discrete lifts (low lift S1 and high lift S2). The lift control is achieved through a lift control sleeve, which is hydraulically switched between two mechanically defined positions to provide accurate lifts. The low lift S1 has a wide design range, anywhere between zero and the high lift S2, i.e., 0 < S1 < S2. If S1 ≥ 0.5*S2, engine valves may operate at the low lift during most of a typical drive cycle. Operation at the low lift reduces energy consumption significantly. The GD-VVA-2 design offers compact package size and reasonable energy consumption.
Journal Article

Visualization of Propane and Natural Gas Spark Ignition and Turbulent Jet Ignition Combustion

This study focuses on the combustion visualization of spark ignition combustion in an optical single cylinder engine using natural gas and propane at several air to fuel ratios and speed-load operating points. Propane and natural gas fuels were compared as they are the most promising gaseous alternative fuels for reciprocating powertrains, with both fuels beginning to find wide market penetration on the fleet level across many regions of the world. Additionally, when compared to gasoline, these gaseous fuels are affordable, have high knock resistance and relatively low carbon content and they do not suffer from the complex re-fueling and storage problems associated with hydrogen.
Journal Article

Air-to-Fuel and Dual-Fuel Ratio Control of an Internal Combustion Engine

Air-to-fuel (A/F) ratio is the mass ratio of the air-to-fuel mixture trapped inside a cylinder before combustion begins, and it affects engine emissions, fuel economy, and other performances. Using an A/F ratio and dual-fuel ratio control oriented engine model, a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) sliding mode control scheme is used to simultaneously control the mass flow rate of both port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI) systems. The control target is to regulate the A/F ratio at a desired level (e.g., at stoichiometric) and fuel ratio (ratio of PFI fueling vs. total fueling) to any desired level between zero and one. A MIMO sliding mode controller was designed with guaranteed stability to drive the system A/F and fuel ratios to the desired target under various air flow disturbances.
Journal Article

Progress in Camless Variable Valve Actuation with Two-Spring Pendulum and Electrohydraulic Latching

Camless Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technologies have been known for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance. VVA can be divided into electro-magnetic, electro-hydraulic, and electro-pneumatic actuation. A family of camless VVA designs (called LGD-VVA or Gongda-VVA) has been presented in an earlier SAE publication (SAE 2007-01-1295) that consists of a two-spring actuation, a bypass passage, and an electrohydraulic latch-release mechanism. The two-spring pendulum system is used to provide efficient conversion between the moving mass kinetic energy and the spring potential energy for reduced energy consumption and to be more robust to the operational temperature than the conventional electrohydraulic actuation; and the electrohydraulic mechanism is intended for latch-release function, energy compensation and seating velocity control.
Technical Paper

Model Reference Adaptive Control of a Pneumatic Valve Actuator for Infinitely Variable Valve Timing and Lift

Electro-pneumatic valve actuators are used to eliminate the cam shaft of a traditional internal combustion engine. They are used to control the opening timing, duration, and lift of both intake and exhaust valves. A physics based nonlinear mathematical model called the level one model was built using Newton's law, mass conservation and thermodynamic principles. A control oriented model, the level two model, was created by partially linearizing the level one model for model reference parameter identification. This model reduces computational throughput and enables real-time implementation. A model reference adaptive control system was used to identify the nonlinear parameters that were needed for generating a feedforward control signal. The closed-loop valve lift tracking, valve opening and closing timing control strategies were proposed.
Technical Paper

Patellofemoral Joint Fracture Load Prediction Using Physical and Pathological Parameters

Lower extremity (knee) injury prediction resulting from impact trauma is currently based on a bone fracture criterion derived from experiments on predominantly aged cadavers. Subsequent experimental and theoretical studies indicate that more aged, pathological specimens require higher, not lower, loads to initiate bone fracture. This suggests that a bone fracture criterion based solely on aged specimens may not be representative of the current driving population. In the current study, we sought to determine if cadaver age, physical size, sex, baseline joint pathology, or patellar geometry correlated with fracture load. An analysis was made of data from previous impact experiments conducted on fifteen isolated cadaver knees using a consistent impact protocol. The protocol consisted of sequentially increasing the impact energy with a rigid interface until gross fracture. Gross bone fractures occurred at loads of 6.9±2.0 kN (range 3.2 to 10.6 kN) using this protocol.
Technical Paper

Pressure Diagnostics of Closed System in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

The sole purpose of combustion in a piston engine is to generate pressure in order to push the piston and produce work. Pressure diagnostics provides means to deduce data on the execution of the exothermic process of combustion in an engine cylinder from a measured pressure profile. Its task is that of an inverse problem: evaluation of the mechanism of a system from its measured output. The dynamic properties of the closed system in a piston engine are expressed in terms of a dynamic stage - the transition between the processes of compression and expansion. All the phenomena taking place in its course were analyzed in the predecessor of this paper, SAE 2002-01-0998. Here, on one hand, its concept is restricted to the purely dynamic effects, while on the other, the transformation of system components, taking place in the course of the exothermic chemical reaction to raise pressure, are taken into account by the exothermic stage.
Technical Paper

Development of Injury Criteria for Human Surrogates to Address Current Trends in Knee-to-Instrument Panel Injuries

Injuries to the lower extremities are common during car accidents because the lower extremity is typically the first point of contact between the occupant and the car interior. While injuries to the knee, ankle and hip are usually not life threatening, they can represent a large societal burden through treatment costs, lost work days and a reduced quality of life. The aim of the current study was to specifically study injuries associated with the knee and to propose a methodology which could be used to prevent future knee injuries. To understand the scope of this problem, a study was designed to identify injury trends in car crashes for the years 1979-1995. The NASS (National Accident Sampling System) showed that 10% of all injuries were to the knee, second only to head and neck injuries. Most knee injuries resulted from knee-to-instrument panel contact. Subfracture injuries were most common (contusions, abrasions, lacerations) followed by gross fracture injuries.
Journal Article

Experimental Studies of a Liquid Propane Auxiliary Fueled Turbulent Jet Igniter in a Rapid Compression Machine

Lean combustion is a promising combustion technology that has the potential to improve engine efficiency while decreasing emissions. One reason why lean combustion has not been more widely implemented is that as the air-fuel ratio increases, the resulting flame propagation speed becomes slower and combustion becomes unstable. Turbulent jet ignition is a pre-chamber ignition enhancement concept that facilitates ultra-lean combustion by using a hot combusting jet as a distributed ignition source. The jet penetration allows for shorter flame travel distances, which decreases the overall burn duration and improves stability. By using a rich mixture in the pre-chamber, the pre-chamber mixture is easily ignitable and the transport of chemically active radical species and unburned fuel into the main-chamber charge improves ignition quality.
Technical Paper


The subject of offtracking has been considered as a low speed phenomenon, amenable to analysis via small mechanical models or straightforward calculations. This paper views offtracking from a high speed as well as a low speed vantage point. A mathematical model with one degree of freedom is used to show that there is a speed, well within the routine driving range and independent of radius, at which there will be no offtracking in a steady turn. At higher speeds the trailer will track outside the steady turn circle, and at lower speeds the trailer will track inside the steady turn circle. The analysis indicates similar behavior in a lane change maneuver - small offtracking was found to occur at the steady turn zero-off tracking speed, and larger off tracking was found to occur at both higher and lower speeds.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of a Turbulent Jet Ignition System for Lean Burn Operation in a Rapid Compression Machine

Fully three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulations with detailed chemistry of a single-orifice turbulent jet ignition device installed in a rapid compression machine are presented. The simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics software CONVERGE and its RANS turbulence models. Simulations of propane fueled combustion are compared to data collected in the optically accessible rapid compression machine that the model's geometry is based on to establish the validity and limitations of the simulations and to compare the behavior of the different air-fuel ratios that are used in the simulations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Impact of Nozzle Endwall Clearance Distribution on Variable Nozzle Turbine Performance

As the variable nozzle turbine(VNT) becomes an important element in engine fuel economy and engine performance, improvement of turbine efficiency over wide operation range is the main focus of research efforts for both academia and industry in the past decades. It is well known that in a VNT, the nozzle endwall clearance has a big impact on the turbine efficiency, especially at small nozzle open positions. However, the clearance at hub and shroud wall sides may contribute differently to the turbine efficiency penalty. When the total height of nozzle clearance is fixed, varying distribution of nozzle endwall clearance at the hub and shroud sides may possibly generate different patterns of clearance leakage flow at nozzle exit that has different interaction with and impact on the main flow when it enters the inducer.