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Journal Article

Visualization of Propane and Natural Gas Spark Ignition and Turbulent Jet Ignition Combustion

This study focuses on the combustion visualization of spark ignition combustion in an optical single cylinder engine using natural gas and propane at several air to fuel ratios and speed-load operating points. Propane and natural gas fuels were compared as they are the most promising gaseous alternative fuels for reciprocating powertrains, with both fuels beginning to find wide market penetration on the fleet level across many regions of the world. Additionally, when compared to gasoline, these gaseous fuels are affordable, have high knock resistance and relatively low carbon content and they do not suffer from the complex re-fueling and storage problems associated with hydrogen.
Journal Article

Progress in Camless Variable Valve Actuation with Two-Spring Pendulum and Electrohydraulic Latching

Camless Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technologies have been known for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance. VVA can be divided into electro-magnetic, electro-hydraulic, and electro-pneumatic actuation. A family of camless VVA designs (called LGD-VVA or Gongda-VVA) has been presented in an earlier SAE publication (SAE 2007-01-1295) that consists of a two-spring actuation, a bypass passage, and an electrohydraulic latch-release mechanism. The two-spring pendulum system is used to provide efficient conversion between the moving mass kinetic energy and the spring potential energy for reduced energy consumption and to be more robust to the operational temperature than the conventional electrohydraulic actuation; and the electrohydraulic mechanism is intended for latch-release function, energy compensation and seating velocity control.
Journal Article

A Turbulent Jet Ignition Pre-Chamber Combustion System for Large Fuel Economy Improvements in a Modern Vehicle Powertrain

Turbulent Jet Ignition is an advanced pre-chamber initiated combustion system for an otherwise standard spark ignition engine found in current on-road vehicles. This next-generation pre-chamber design overcomes previous packaging obstacles by simply replacing the spark plug in a modern four-valve, pent roof spark ignition engine. Turbulent Jet Ignition enables very fast burn rates due to the ignition system producing multiple, distributed ignition sites, which consume the main charge rapidly and with minimal combustion variability. The fast burn rates allow for increased levels of dilution (lean burn and/or EGR) when compared to conventional spark ignition combustion, with dilution levels being comparable to other low temperature combustion technologies (homogeneous charge compression ignition - HCCI) without the complex control drawbacks.
Journal Article

Acceleration and Braking Performance of School Buses

There is a limited amount of data currently available on the acceleration and braking performances of school buses. This paper analyzes the braking performance of various Type A and Type C school buses with hydraulic and air brakes. The effect of ABS and Non-ABS systems as well as driver experience is discussed. A comparison with passenger car braking performance is presented. The acceleration of a school bus is also presented. Evaluations of “normal” and “rapid” accelerations are presented for Type A and Type B buses. A comparison with commonly used acceleration values for various vehicles is presented.
Technical Paper

Camless Variable Valve Actuator with Two Discrete Lifts

Camless Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technologies have been known for improving fuel economy, reducing emissions, and enhancing engine performance. VVA can be divided into electro-magnetic, electro-hydraulic, and electro-pneumatic actuation. This paper presents an electro-hydraulic VVA design (called GD-VVA-2) that offers continuously variable timing and two discrete lifts (low lift S1 and high lift S2). The lift control is achieved through a lift control sleeve, which is hydraulically switched between two mechanically defined positions to provide accurate lifts. The low lift S1 has a wide design range, anywhere between zero and the high lift S2, i.e., 0 < S1 < S2. If S1 ≥ 0.5*S2, engine valves may operate at the low lift during most of a typical drive cycle. Operation at the low lift reduces energy consumption significantly. The GD-VVA-2 design offers compact package size and reasonable energy consumption.
Journal Article

Air-to-Fuel and Dual-Fuel Ratio Control of an Internal Combustion Engine

Air-to-fuel (A/F) ratio is the mass ratio of the air-to-fuel mixture trapped inside a cylinder before combustion begins, and it affects engine emissions, fuel economy, and other performances. Using an A/F ratio and dual-fuel ratio control oriented engine model, a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) sliding mode control scheme is used to simultaneously control the mass flow rate of both port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI) systems. The control target is to regulate the A/F ratio at a desired level (e.g., at stoichiometric) and fuel ratio (ratio of PFI fueling vs. total fueling) to any desired level between zero and one. A MIMO sliding mode controller was designed with guaranteed stability to drive the system A/F and fuel ratios to the desired target under various air flow disturbances.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems

The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection for a Large Displacement Air-Cooled V-Twin Motorcycle Engine Using In-Cylinder Ionization Signals

To obtain the maximum output power and fuel economy from an internal combustion engine, it is often necessary to detect engine knock and operate the engine at its knock limit. This paper presents the ability to detect knock using in-cylinder ionization signals on a large displacement, air-cooled, “V” twin motorcycle engine over the engine operational map. The knock detection ability of three different sensors is compared: production knock (accelerometer) sensor, in-cylinder pressure sensor, and ionization sensor. The test data shows that the ionization sensor is able to detect knock better than the production knock sensor when there is high mechanical noise present in the engine.
Technical Paper

Development of Injury Criteria for Human Surrogates to Address Current Trends in Knee-to-Instrument Panel Injuries

Injuries to the lower extremities are common during car accidents because the lower extremity is typically the first point of contact between the occupant and the car interior. While injuries to the knee, ankle and hip are usually not life threatening, they can represent a large societal burden through treatment costs, lost work days and a reduced quality of life. The aim of the current study was to specifically study injuries associated with the knee and to propose a methodology which could be used to prevent future knee injuries. To understand the scope of this problem, a study was designed to identify injury trends in car crashes for the years 1979-1995. The NASS (National Accident Sampling System) showed that 10% of all injuries were to the knee, second only to head and neck injuries. Most knee injuries resulted from knee-to-instrument panel contact. Subfracture injuries were most common (contusions, abrasions, lacerations) followed by gross fracture injuries.
Technical Paper

Development of the HANS Head and Neck Support for Formula One

Extensive crash sled testing and analysis has recently led to the development of a new HANS prototypes for use in FIA F1. The performance of HANS prototypes has been studied with various conditions of HANS design geometry and impact direction. The new HANS prototypes have been found to substantially reduce injurious motions and forces of the head and neck, and the new HANS is lighter, more compact, and performs better than the currently available HANS. Use of HANS by FIA F1 drivers has been initiated.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Impact Interface on Human Knee Injury: Implications for Instrument Panel Design and the Lower Extremity Injury Criterion

Injury to the lower extremity during an automotive crash is a significant problem. While the introduction of safety features (i.e. seat belts, air bags) has significantly reduced fatalities, lower extremity injury now occurs more frequently, probably for a variety of reasons. Lower extremity trauma is currently based on a bone fracture criterion derived from human cadaver impact experiments. These impact experiments, conducted in the 1960's and 70's, typically used a rigid impact interface to deliver a blunt insult to the 90° flexed knee. The resulting criterion states that 10 kN is the maximum load allowed at the knee during an automotive crash when certifying new automobiles using anthropomorphic dummies. However, clinical studies suggest that subfracture loading can cause osteochondral microdamage which can progress to a chronic and debilitating joint disease.
Technical Paper

Patellofemoral Joint Fracture Load Prediction Using Physical and Pathological Parameters

Lower extremity (knee) injury prediction resulting from impact trauma is currently based on a bone fracture criterion derived from experiments on predominantly aged cadavers. Subsequent experimental and theoretical studies indicate that more aged, pathological specimens require higher, not lower, loads to initiate bone fracture. This suggests that a bone fracture criterion based solely on aged specimens may not be representative of the current driving population. In the current study, we sought to determine if cadaver age, physical size, sex, baseline joint pathology, or patellar geometry correlated with fracture load. An analysis was made of data from previous impact experiments conducted on fifteen isolated cadaver knees using a consistent impact protocol. The protocol consisted of sequentially increasing the impact energy with a rigid interface until gross fracture. Gross bone fractures occurred at loads of 6.9±2.0 kN (range 3.2 to 10.6 kN) using this protocol.
Technical Paper

Biomechanically Articulated Chair Concept and Prototypes

The human torso includes three major segments, the thoracic (rib cage) segment, lumbar segment, and pelvic segment to which the thighs are attached. The JOHN model was developed to represent the positions and movements of these torso segments along with the head, arms, and legs. Using the JOHN model, a new seat concept has been developed to support and move with the torso segments and thighs. This paper describes the background of the biomechanically articulated chair (BAC) and the development of BAC prototypes. These BAC prototypes have been designed to move with and support the thighs, pelvis, and rib cage through a wide variety of recline angles and spinal curvatures. These motions have been evaluated with computer modeling and with initial experience of human subjects. Results from computer modeling and human subjects show that the BAC will allow a broad range of torso postures.
Technical Paper

Influence of Automotive Seat and Package Factors on Posture and Applicability to Design Models

In an effort to create computer models to promote rapid, cost-effective prototyping while easing design changes, more information about how people interact with seats is needed. Predicting the occupant location, their geometry, and motion within a vehicle leads to a better determination of safety restraint location, controls reach, and visibility - factors that affect the overall operation of the vehicle. Based on the Michigan State University JOHN model, which provides a biomechanical simulation of the torso posture, experiments were conducted to examine the change of postures due to seat and interior package factors. The results can be incorporated into the posture prediction model of the RAMSIS program to give a more detailed prognosis of the spine curvature and refine the model-seat interactions. This paper will address findings of the experimental study with relation to model development.
Technical Paper

Several Esoteric Considerations in the Design of a Gasoline Powered Super Mileage Vehicle

The need for increased fuel efficiency in conventional automobiles has motivated the design of lightweight, single passenger, super mileage vehicles. Typical low budget super mileage vehicles are capable of attaining 1000 to 1500 miles per gallon of gasoline. The present work discusses unique features of a high mileage vehicle designed and constructed by a research coterie at Michigan State University. More significant contributions of the coterie include an electronic engine and vehicle control system, a vehicle operation optimization analysis, and a computerized method of designing cam lobes based on flow mach numbers. These subjects are considered along with several customary design problems.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of the HANS Head and Neck Support

This paper describes additional and more recent results from the DaimlerChrysler study of HANS that includes a sensitivity analysis of HANS performance to variations in crash dummy neck length and other impact test conditions. The objective of the tests was to determine the robustness of the HANS concept in a variety of conditions that might occur in actual use. The results show that the variations in test parameters do effect injury measures from the crash dummy, but HANS provides substantial reductions in injury potential in all cases compared to not using HANS. Also, no injuries were indicated with HANS.
Technical Paper

Development of Human Back Contours for Automobile Seat Design

Driver and passenger comfort, as related to automotive seats, is a growing issue in the automotive industry. As this trend continues, automotive seat designers and developers are generating a greater need for more anthropometrically accurate tools to aid them in their work. One tool being developed is the JOHN software program that utilizes three-dimensional solid objects to represent humans in seated postures. Contours have been developed to represent the outside skin surfaces of three different body types in a variety of postures in the sagittal plane. These body types include: the small female, the average male, and the large male.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Torso Posture and Motion in Seating

Since the 1960's, automotive seats have been designed and evaluated with tools and procedures described in the SAE Recommended Practice J826. The SAE J826 design template and testing manikin each have a torso with a flat lower back shape and with a single joint at the H-point. The JOHN models provide a more anatomically detailed representation of human shape and movement. The articulations of the JOHN torso (pelvic, lumbar, and thoracic) segments are coupled so that their relative positions are determined by a single parameter related to spinal curvature. This paper describes the development and use of the JOHN biomechanical models for seating design.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Impact of Nozzle Endwall Clearance Distribution on Variable Nozzle Turbine Performance

As the variable nozzle turbine(VNT) becomes an important element in engine fuel economy and engine performance, improvement of turbine efficiency over wide operation range is the main focus of research efforts for both academia and industry in the past decades. It is well known that in a VNT, the nozzle endwall clearance has a big impact on the turbine efficiency, especially at small nozzle open positions. However, the clearance at hub and shroud wall sides may contribute differently to the turbine efficiency penalty. When the total height of nozzle clearance is fixed, varying distribution of nozzle endwall clearance at the hub and shroud sides may possibly generate different patterns of clearance leakage flow at nozzle exit that has different interaction with and impact on the main flow when it enters the inducer.