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Technical Paper

A Purge Solenoid Structure-borne Noise Model

2001-04-30
2001-01-1423
Evaporative emission control system purge solenoid valves in passenger cars and light-duty trucks are a noise source that engenders customer complaint. Valveonly noise tests produce results that are inconsistent with measured system noise. Such tests fail to account for variables introduced in situ. This study investigates valve-induced structure-borne noise as the major source of system noise. It researches a theoretical method to relate structure-borne purge solenoid system noise requirements, valve-only, and vehicle mounting system dynamic requirements. It aims to validate the researched method and determine the nature of a valve-only bench test and a mounting system dynamic test. Several systems' noise levels, inertance, and acoustic responses were measured. The bench test vibration for each solenoid valve was also measured. This study discovered that the internal force of the purge solenoid may change with the mounting system compliance.
Technical Paper

Power Steering Pump with Enhanced Cold Start Priming

2001-04-30
2001-01-1422
The objective of the present work was to improve the cold start NVH performance of an automotive power steering pump under low temperature conditions. This objective was accomplished through the use experimental study and measurement. The satisfactory operation of a fixed displacement vane pump in cold temperatures depends on a number of factors including; (1) filling characteristics, (2) the inlet conditions to the pump, (3) the fluid, and (4) the ability of the vanes to maintain contact with the cam surface. In this investigation, factor (4) was chosen for investigation. A unique outlet orifice was designed and tested at three different operating ambient temperatures, -19 °C, -29 °C, and -40 °C. Maximum “noise” duration was measured as the maximum duration of fluid borne pump outlet pressure oscillations greater the 345 kPa peak-to-peak. The results show that noise duration can reduced by as much as 50% at -40 °C.
Technical Paper

Evaluating CFD Models of Axial Fans by Comparisons with Phase-Averaged Experimental Data

2001-05-14
2001-01-1701
In order to improve the reliability of fan design and the prediction of underhood engine cooling based on CFD, Valeo Motors and Actuators and Michigan State University have teamed up to develop a comprehensive experimental and numerical database. The initial focus has been on the simulations of the isolated fan environment in two different test facilities. To understand the discrepancies observed in the comparisons of integral performances, the first detailed hot wire measurements on the MSU test facility have been collected. The data are split into mean velocity components and RMS fluctuations. The former are successfully compared to three detailed turbulent numerical simulations of the corresponding facilities.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Turbulence Statistics from Engine Cooling Fan Velocity Measurements

2001-05-14
2001-01-1710
The present communication reports on processing and interpreting velocity measurements in the wake of a cooling fan. Velocity data are typically phase averaged to create statistics that would be observed in a rotating frame of reference. The difference between any given instantaneous measurement and the phase mean value is often referred to as the fluctuating component of velocity. These deviations can be caused by a variety of mechanisms (blade vibration for example) and do not necessarily represent “turbulence”. A different approach using an eigenfunction decomposition of the data is used on a sample data set to help distinguish between cycle-to-cycle variations and turbulence.
Technical Paper

R134A Suction Line Heat Exchanger in Different Configurations of Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems

2001-05-14
2001-01-1694
A suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) transfers heat from the condenser outlet to the suction gas. In a TXV (thermostatic expansion valve) system, the performance improvement with a 60 to 80 % effective SLHX is expected to be on the order of 8 to 10 % for capacity, and 5 to 7 % for COP for high outdoor air temperatures of 43ºC. In a FOT (fixed orifice tube) system, the performance improvement was calculated to be about 10 to 15 %. The calculated improvements have been verified experimentally within a few percent.
Technical Paper

Automotive HVAC Flow Noise Prediction Models

2001-04-30
2001-01-1498
Flow noise from automotive HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems is one of the major considerations of occupant comfort. The noise generated at high blower speed is a major contributor to the vehicle interior noise. This paper reviews automotive HVAC air rush noise prediction models for estimating register, buck (air handling subsystem) and vehicle noise levels. The vehicle noise prediction method correlates well with measured noise levels at driver right ear location: with a standard deviation of 1.31 dB where standard deviation is the difference between measured and predicted noise levels for a sample size of 10 vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvements through Improved Automatic Transmission Warmup - Stand Alone Oil to Air (OTA) Transmission Cooling Strategy with Thermostatic Cold Flow Bypass Valve

2001-05-14
2001-01-1760
The stand alone oil to air (OTA) transmission cooling strategy with thermostatic cold flow bypass valve has been shown to be an effective means of improving the warmup of an automatic transmission. Improving the system warmup rate of an automatic transmission significantly improves its efficiency by reducing losses resulting from extremely viscous transmission fluid and can allow for calibration changes that improve overall transmission performance. Improved transmission efficiency in turn allows for improved engine efficiency and performance. The improvements obtained from increased transmission and engine efficiency result in an overall increase in vehicle fuel economy. Fuel economy and consumption are important parameters considered by the vehicle manufacturer and the customer. Fuel economy can be considered as important as reliability and durability.
Technical Paper

Water Condensate Retention and “Wet” Fin Performance in Automotive Evaporators

2001-03-05
2001-01-1252
Water condensate retained inside an automotive evaporator has remained as one of the primary sources of unpleasant “odors”, which in turn can drive up the warranty cost for automotive manufacturers. The “wet” evaporator fin can also underperform due to the presence of condensate blocking the air passage. Moreover, condensate retention can be a potential factor of freezing up evaporators. Thus, an evaporator fin must be designed such that it can shed and drain water condensate as well as provide an excellent heat transfer capability. While the importance of water retention is well known, there seems lacking of a comprehensive way to evaluate the water retention characteristics of a particular product. In this work, attempts were made to answer four questions: (1) What is the mechanism that controls water condensate retention characteristics in an automotive evaporator? (2) Can different water retention evaluation methods reveal the same characteristics?
Technical Paper

Stability Control of Combination Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-0138
This paper discusses the development of combination vehicle stability program (CVSP) at Visteon. It will describe why stability control is needed for combination vehicles and how the vehicle stability can be improved. We propose and evaluate controller structures and design methods for CVSP. These include driver's intent identification, combination vehicle status estimation and control, and fault detection / tolerance. In this paper, the braking and steering dynamics of car-trailer and tractor-semitrailer combinations, and the brake systems which should be used extensively to increase the stability of combination vehicles are presented. Also our development platform is introduced and the combination vehicle simulation results are presented. The definition of combination vehicles in this paper includes car-trailer and commercial tractor-semitrailer combinations since their vehicle dynamics are based on the same equations of motion.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Effects of Body Attachment Stiffness on Steering Column In-Vehicle Modes

2001-03-05
2001-01-0041
This paper presents an unambiguous and intuitive method for identification of steering column resonant (SCR) mode of vibration. One simple but overlooked technique to determine the SCR mode in-vehicle is to provide local stiffnesses of the body locations where the Instrument Panel (IP) attaches, to the IP suppliers to be used in their design and development. This paper describes how this technique is useful in predicting the first few important in-vehicle steering column modes for different classes of vehicles, with examples presented in each class. The results obtained from such analyses are compared against those from direct in-buck simulations. This technique is not limited to its application in developing IP systems, but can easily be extended to include other systems such as seats, fuel tanks, etc. Also it is shown that a design optimization analysis may be performed using these attachment stiffnesses as design variables resulting in a system level solution.
Technical Paper

Influence of Automotive Seat and Package Factors on Posture and Applicability to Design Models

2001-06-26
2001-01-2091
In an effort to create computer models to promote rapid, cost-effective prototyping while easing design changes, more information about how people interact with seats is needed. Predicting the occupant location, their geometry, and motion within a vehicle leads to a better determination of safety restraint location, controls reach, and visibility - factors that affect the overall operation of the vehicle. Based on the Michigan State University JOHN model, which provides a biomechanical simulation of the torso posture, experiments were conducted to examine the change of postures due to seat and interior package factors. The results can be incorporated into the posture prediction model of the RAMSIS program to give a more detailed prognosis of the spine curvature and refine the model-seat interactions. This paper will address findings of the experimental study with relation to model development.
Technical Paper

Portable NVH Dynamometers

2003-05-05
2003-01-1682
Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) characteristics have become a key differentiator between “Good” vehicles and “Best-In-Class” vehicles. While all OEM's and most Tier 1 suppliers have on-site in-ground chassis dynamometers, a need was identified to design, develop and bring to market, a fully capable portable NVH full vehicle chassis system. The original concept entailed a device, which could be brought to the customer's location, be fully self contained, requiring no external power, and provide data acquisition using transducers that would not contact the vehicle. With traditional instrumentation taking several hours to install, non-contacting lasers would be used to provide significant timesaving, and prevent any possible damage to the vehicle from pinched wires. The new methodology should provide data acquisition in as little as 20 minutes. Analysis would be accomplished immediately following testing, with hard copies available before the next vehicle was ready to run.
Technical Paper

EVOP Design of Experiments

2003-03-03
2003-01-1015
Evolutionary Operation (EVOP) experimental design using Sequential Simplex method is an effective and robust means for determining the ideal process parameter (factor) settings to achieve optimum output (response) results. EVOP is the methodology of using on-line experimental design. Small perturbations to the process are made within allowable control plan limits, to minimize any product quality issues while obtaining information for improvement on the process. It is often the case in high volume production where issues exist, however off-line experimentation is not an option due to production time, the threat of quality issues and costs. EVOP leverages production time to arrive at the optimum solution while continuing to process saleable product, thus substantially reducing the cost of the analysis.
Technical Paper

Development of Human Back Contours for Automobile Seat Design

1997-02-24
970590
Driver and passenger comfort, as related to automotive seats, is a growing issue in the automotive industry. As this trend continues, automotive seat designers and developers are generating a greater need for more anthropometrically accurate tools to aid them in their work. One tool being developed is the JOHN software program that utilizes three-dimensional solid objects to represent humans in seated postures. Contours have been developed to represent the outside skin surfaces of three different body types in a variety of postures in the sagittal plane. These body types include: the small female, the average male, and the large male.
Technical Paper

Biomechanically Articulated Chair Concept and Prototypes

1997-02-24
970591
The human torso includes three major segments, the thoracic (rib cage) segment, lumbar segment, and pelvic segment to which the thighs are attached. The JOHN model was developed to represent the positions and movements of these torso segments along with the head, arms, and legs. Using the JOHN model, a new seat concept has been developed to support and move with the torso segments and thighs. This paper describes the background of the biomechanically articulated chair (BAC) and the development of BAC prototypes. These BAC prototypes have been designed to move with and support the thighs, pelvis, and rib cage through a wide variety of recline angles and spinal curvatures. These motions have been evaluated with computer modeling and with initial experience of human subjects. Results from computer modeling and human subjects show that the BAC will allow a broad range of torso postures.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Computer Modeling of Human Posture in Automotive Seats

1997-02-24
970592
To assist automotive seat development and evaluation, a technique for predicting the posture of seated occupants has been developed. The method involved modeling the torso geometry and articulation of a mid-size male, based on information presented in SAE paper number 930110 [1]. This mid-size male model, known as 2-D JOHN, was developed in a commercial kinetic modeling software and used in a comparative seat evaluation study between a current production automotive seat and a prototype articulating seat. The 2-D JOHN model was supported a greater range of postures, defined as Total Lumbar Curvature (TLC) and Torso Recline Angle (TRA), in the prototype seat than the automotive seat.
Technical Paper

Measuring and Modeling of Human Soft Tissue and Seat Interaction

1997-02-24
970593
Deformations of soft tissues and seat cushion foam are significant factors in determining the interface contours between the seat and the back of the thigh. This paper describes the measurement of forces, deformations, and contours of people's thighs and seat cushion materials. The goal of this work is to represent the human interactions with seats. A two-dimensional, plane strain finite element method was used to develop a contact model between the cross section of the human mid-thigh and flat surfaces, which can be a flat, rigid surface or a flat, foam cushion of various thicknesses and densities. Results of human and seat interactions for various subjects were measured, modeled, and compared. The present work showed a good agreement between experiments and models for various subjects and foam densities. The important results showed that the stiffness of the foam does not depend on the foam thickness.
Technical Paper

Development of Injury Criteria for Human Surrogates to Address Current Trends in Knee-to-Instrument Panel Injuries

1998-11-02
983146
Injuries to the lower extremities are common during car accidents because the lower extremity is typically the first point of contact between the occupant and the car interior. While injuries to the knee, ankle and hip are usually not life threatening, they can represent a large societal burden through treatment costs, lost work days and a reduced quality of life. The aim of the current study was to specifically study injuries associated with the knee and to propose a methodology which could be used to prevent future knee injuries. To understand the scope of this problem, a study was designed to identify injury trends in car crashes for the years 1979-1995. The NASS (National Accident Sampling System) showed that 10% of all injuries were to the knee, second only to head and neck injuries. Most knee injuries resulted from knee-to-instrument panel contact. Subfracture injuries were most common (contusions, abrasions, lacerations) followed by gross fracture injuries.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Fluid Flow During Induction Stroke of a Water Analog Model of an IC Engine Employing LIPA

1995-02-01
950726
This paper presents results from experiments performed in an axisymmetric water analog model of a four-stroke IC engine using the optical velocimetry technique LIPA (Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry). The investigation can be described as a fundamental scientific inquiry into the fluid dynamics encountered during engine operation, with the long term goal of increasing performance. An application of LIPA to a fluid dynamics problem delivers two-dimensional fields of velocity vectors which are projections of the full three-dimensional vectors in single measurement steps. From an evaluation of a velocity field vorticity information can be obtained readily. Velocity fields and vorticity distributions are, in this study, the basis for the evaluation of seven parametric quantities. Some of these may become tools that give engineers ‘rule of thumb’ indications of the mixing that is occurring.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Impact Interface on Human Knee Injury: Implications for Instrument Panel Design and the Lower Extremity Injury Criterion

1997-11-12
973327
Injury to the lower extremity during an automotive crash is a significant problem. While the introduction of safety features (i.e. seat belts, air bags) has significantly reduced fatalities, lower extremity injury now occurs more frequently, probably for a variety of reasons. Lower extremity trauma is currently based on a bone fracture criterion derived from human cadaver impact experiments. These impact experiments, conducted in the 1960's and 70's, typically used a rigid impact interface to deliver a blunt insult to the 90° flexed knee. The resulting criterion states that 10 kN is the maximum load allowed at the knee during an automotive crash when certifying new automobiles using anthropomorphic dummies. However, clinical studies suggest that subfracture loading can cause osteochondral microdamage which can progress to a chronic and debilitating joint disease.
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