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Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection Model for Spark Ignited Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1421
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Laminar Flame Speed of Gasoline - Ethanol/Air Mixtures with Varying Pressure, Temperature and Dilution

2010-04-12
2010-01-0620
A numerical analysis was performed to study the variation of the laminar burning speed of gasoline-ethanol blend, pressure, temperature and dilution using the one-dimensional premixed flame code CHEMKIN™. A semi-detailed validated chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for a gasoline surrogate fuel was used. The pure components in the surrogate fuel consist of n-heptane, isooctane and toluene. The ethanol mole fraction was varied from 0 to 85 percent, initial pressure from 4 to 8 bar, initial temperature from 300 to 600K, and the EGR dilution from 0 to 32% to represent the in-cylinder conditions of a spark-ignition engine. The laminar flame speed is found to increase with ethanol concentration and temperature but decrease with pressure and dilution.
Journal Article

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration

2010-04-12
2010-01-0557
Active regeneration experiments were performed on a production diesel aftertreatment system containing a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) using blends of soy-based biodiesel. The effects of biodiesel on particulate matter oxidation rates in the filter were explored. These experiments are a continuation of the work performed by Chilumukuru et al., in SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1474, which studied the active regeneration characteristics of the same aftertreatment system using ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Particulate matter loading of the filter was performed at the rated engine speed of 2100 rpm and 20% of the full engine load of 1120 Nm. At this engine speed and load the passive oxidation rate is low. The 17 L CPF was loaded to a particulate matter level of 2.2 g/L.
Technical Paper

The Characterization of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Diesel Particulate Matter

1979-02-01
790418
This paper is concerned with the demonstration of a methodology for chemically characterizing diesel particulate organic matter (POM) emissions. The procedure begins with a Soxhlet extraction of the POM with dichloromethane to obtain a soluble organic fraction (SOF). The acidic and basic portions of the SOF are isolated by liquid-liquid extraction techniques with aqueous base and aqueous acid, respectively. The neutral portion of the extract is separated into paraffin, aromatic, transitional and oxygenated fractions by column chromatography on silica gel. Two additional fractions, the ether insoluble and hexane insoluble fractions, are also separated by the procedure. Quantitative mass data are presented on the extraction and fractionation of twelve particulate samples from the exhaust of a medium-duty diesel engine collected in a dilution tunnel at a volume dilution ratio of 8 to 1.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Physical Characteristics of Diesel Particulate Matter Using Transmission Electron Microscope Techniques

1979-02-01
790815
An Andersen Impactor was used to collect particulate samples in both the undiluted and diluted exhaust from a Caterpillar 3150 diesel engine operated on the EPA 13-mode cycle. A total of 24 samples were examined using the transmission electron microscope and approximately 300 photomicrographs were taken. The microscope analysis and photomicrographs revealed details concerning the physical characteristics of the particulate and permitted a direct visual comparison of the samples collected. The photomicrographs were used to obtain diameter measurements of the basic individual spherical particles that comprise the much larger aggregates/agglomerates. Nearly 11,000 basic particles were measured and the observed range of diameters was 70-1200 Å. The mean particle diameters in the undiluted and diluted exhaust samples were 479 Å and 436 Å respectively. respectively. A respectively. 436 A respectively.
Technical Paper

A Photographic Study of the Combustion of Low Cetane Fuels in a Diesel Engine Aided with Spark Assist

1986-03-01
860066
An experimental investigation of the ignition and combustion characteristics of two low cetane fuels in a spark assisted Diesel engine is described. A three cylinder Diesel engine was modified for single cylinder operation and fitted with a spark plug located in the periphery of the spray plume. Optical observations of ignition and combustion were obtained with high speed photography. Optical access was provided by a quartz piston crown and extended head arrangement. The low cetane fuels, a light end, low viscosity fuel and a heavy end, high viscosity fuel which were blended to bracket No. 2 Diesel fuel on the distillation curve, demonstrated extended operation in the modified Diesel engine. Qualitative and quantitative experimental observations of ignition delay, pressure rise, heat release, spray penetration and geometery were compared and evaluated against theoretical predictions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Ceramic Trap on Diesel Particulate: Fractions

1986-03-01
860620
A study of the Corning ceramic diesel particulate trap was conducted to investigate the trap's overall effect on diesel particulate fractions (soluble organic fraction. SOF; solid fraction, SOL; and sulfate fraction. SO4) under four different engine loads at 1680 rpm. The trap was found to filter the SOL fraction most efficiently with the SOF and SO4 fraction following in respective order. The filter efficiency of all fractions increased with increasing engine load. Graphs illustrating filter efficiency versus engine load indicate the slope of the SOF filter efficiency was smaller in magnitude than the TPM and SOL and SO4, fractions, which had similar slopes. The different slope of the SOF filter efficiency indicates other influences may be involved with the reduction in the SOF through the trap. Particle size distribution measurements in diluted exhaust revealed particle formation downstream of the trap.
Technical Paper

An Infrared Technique for Measuring Cycle-Resolved Transient Combustion-Chamber Surface Temperatures in a Fired Engine

1986-03-01
860240
An optical technique for measuring transient combustion chamber surface temperatures in a fired engine has been developed. The spectral region from 3.6 to 4.0 microns was found to be suitable for making optical measurements through the methane-air flame. The experimental apparatus was capable of making simultaneous time-resolved measurements of infrared gas absorption, gas emission and surface radiation during a single engine cycle. The effects of engine operating conditions on gas absorption and gas emission were investigated. Measurements of “simulated” deposits at temperatures ranging from 569 K to 944 K indicated that the technique was accurate within 7 K at the higher temperatures.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Low Sulfur Fuel and a Ceramic Particle Filter on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions

1992-02-01
920566
Diesel exhaust particle size distributions were measured using an Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) with both conventional (0.31 wt. pet sulfur) and low sulfur fuel (0.01 wt pet sulfur) with and without a ceramic diesel particle filter (DPF). The engine used for this study was a 1988 heavy-duty diesel engine (Cummins LTA10-300) operated at EPA steady-state modes 9 and 11. The particle size distribution results indicated the typical bi-modal distribution; however, there were clear differences in the number of particles in each mode for all conditions. For the baseline conditions with no DPF, there was more than one order of magnitude greater number of particles in the nuclei mode for the conventional fuel as compared to the low sulfur fuel, while the accumulation modes for each fuel were nearly identical.
Technical Paper

The Influence of a Low Sulfur Fuel and a Ceramic Particle Trap on the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Character of Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

1992-02-01
920565
This study was conducted to assess the effects of a low sulfur (<0.05 wt.%) fuel and an uncatalyzed ceramic particle trap on heavy-duty diesel emissions during both steady-state operation and during periods of electrically assisted trap regeneration. A Cummins LTA10-300 engine was operated at two steady-state modes with and without the trap. The exhaust trap system included a Corning EX-54 trap with an electrically assisted regeneration system. Both regulated emissions (oxides of nitrogen - NOx, total hydrocarbons - HC, and total particulate matter - TPM) and some unregulated emissions (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons - PAH soluble organic fraction - SOF, sulfates, vapor phase organics, and mutagenic activity) were measured during baseline, trap, and regeneration conditions. Emissions were collected with low sulfur (0.01 wt.%) fuel and compared to emissions with a conventional sulfur (0.32 wt.%) fuel. These fuels also varied in other fuel properties.
Technical Paper

The Influence of an Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Fuel Composition on the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust Emissions

1992-02-01
920854
The U.S. Bureau of Mines and Michigan Technological University are collaborating to conduct laboratory evaluations of oxidation catalytic converters (OCCs) and diesel fuels to identify combinations which minimize potentially harmful emissions. The purpose is to provide technical information concerning diesel exhaust emission control to the mining industry, regulators, and vendors of fuel and emission control devices. In this study, an Engelhard PTX 10 DVC (Ultra-10)* OCC was evaluated in the exhaust stream of an indirect injection Caterpillar 3304 PCNA mining engine using a light-duty laboratory transient cycle. This cycle was selected because it causes high emissions of particle-associated organics. Results are also reported for two different fuels with similar sulfur contents (0.03-0.04 wt pct) and a cetane number of 53, but different aromatic contents (11 vs. 20 wt pct).
Technical Paper

Impact of Blending Gasoline with Isobutanol Compared to Ethanol on Efficiency, Performance and Emissions of a Recreational Marine 4-Stroke Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1230
This study evaluates iso-butanol as a pathway to introduce higher levels of alternative fuels for recreational marine engine applications compared to ethanol. Butanol, a 4-carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to gasoline than ethanol. Isobutanol at 16 vol% blend level in gasoline (iB16) exhibits energy content as well as oxygen content identical to E10. Tests with these two blends, as well as indolene as a reference fuel, were conducted on a Mercury 90 HP, 4-stroke outboard engine featuring computer controlled sequential multi-port Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI). The test matrix included full load curves as well as the 5-mode steady-state marine engine test cycle. Analysis of the full load tests suggests that equal full load performance is achieved across the engine speed band regardless of fuel at a 15-20°C increase in exhaust gas temperatures for the alcohol blends compared to indolene.
Technical Paper

Using a Manufacturing Process Classification System for Improved Environmental Performance

2000-03-06
2000-01-0020
In terms of manufacturing processes and systems, decision-makers may encounter difficulty in making environmentally friendly choices. This difficulty arises largely because of the nascency of environmentally responsible manufacturing. There is a sparsity of environmental information on processes and a variety of seemingly unconnected tools, methods, concepts, etc. To help decisions-makers understand the nature of a process and identify the appropriate tools/methods that may be most suited to reducing environmental impact, a classification system for manufacturing processes is established. Methods and tools for environmentally responsible manufacturing are then identified for each class. Two examples are presented to show how the new classification system may be applied in environmentally responsible manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Development of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism for Dimethyl Ether (DME) with Comprehensive Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and NOx Chemistry

2015-04-14
2015-01-0807
Dimethyl ether (DME) appears to be an attractive alternative to common fossil fuels in compression ignition engines due to its smokeless combustion and fast mixture formation. However, in order to fully understand the complex combustion process of DME, there is still a remaining need to develop a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism that includes both soot and NOx chemistry. In this study, a detailed DME mechanism with 305 species is developed from the basic DME mechanism of Curran et al. (2000) with addition of soot and NOx chemistry from Howard's mechanism et al. (1999), and GRI 3.0 mechanism, respectively. Soot chemistry in Howard mechanism consisting hydrogen abstraction acetylene addition (HACA) and growth of small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), assesses over a wide range of temperature and is able to predict good to fair the formation of PAH up to coronene.
Technical Paper

Wet Versus Dry Turning: A Comparison of Machining Costs, Product Quality, and Aerosol Formation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0343
The use of cutting fluid in machining operations not only poses a health risk to workers but also creates environmental challenges associated with fluid treatment and disposal. In an effort to minimize these concerns and eliminate the costs associated with cutting fluids, e.g., purchase, maintenance, and treatment, dry machining is increasingly being considered as an alternative. This paper is focused on comparing dry and wet machining approaches from several perspectives, including air quality, product quality, and economics. Both experimental and analytical work is presented. Experiments have been performed to determine the effect cutting fluid has on product quality and aerosol generation in the wet and dry turning of gray cast iron. To compare costs in wet and dry turning, a cost model, which includes cutting fluid-related components, has also been established.
Technical Paper

The Effect of an Oxidation Catalyst on the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Character of Diesel Particulate Emissions

1981-02-01
810263
A diesel oxidation catalyst (Engelhard PTX Series) was evaluated on a medium-duty diesel engine (Caterpillar 3208, naturally aspirated, direct injection). Tests were conducted at six modes of the EPA 13 mode heavy-duty cycle to measure the total particulate, soluble organic fraction (SOF), sulfates, NO, NO2, NOx and hydrocarbons emitted by the engine with and without the oxidation catalysts. Chemical analysis of the SOF collected was carried out to determine the effects of the catalysts on each of the subfractions composing the SOF. The Ames Salmonella/microsome bioassay was employed to quantify the mutagenic properties of the particulate SOF. Test results show large increases in the amounts of total particulate and sulfate emissions due to the catalyst while the amounts of SOF are reduced by the catalyst. The amounts of NOx produced with and without the catalyst are similar, but the equivalent NO2 emitted with the catalyst installed is increased at most modes.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Injection Rate and Timing on the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Character of Particulate Emissions from a Direct Injection Diesel

1981-09-01
810996
Formation of pollutants from diesel combustion and methods for their control have been reviewed. Of these methods, fuel injection rate and timing were selected for a parametric study relative to total particulate, soluble organic fraction (SOF), sulfates, solids and NO and NO2 emissions from a heavy-duty, turbocharged, after-cooled, direct-injection (DI) diesel. Chemical analyses of the SOF were performed at selected engine conditions to determine the effects of injection rate and timing on each of the eight chemical subfractions comprising the SOF. Biological character of the SOF was determined using the Ames Salmonella/microsome bioassay.
Technical Paper

The First Annual Blizzard Baja

1981-09-01
810917
The First Annual Blizzard Baja was hosted by Michigan Technological University's SAE Student Branch on February 7, 1981. This was a competition between student designed vehicles which had previously competed in summer Baja events. The Blizzard Baja consisted of a one hour endurance race run on ice and snow. The purpose was to provide the student engineers an opportunity to test their vehicles in cold weather, snow and icy conditions.
Technical Paper

The Engineering Control of Diesel Pollutants in Underground Mining

1981-04-01
810684
A review of mine air pollutant standards and the important pollutants to control in underground mines using diesel powered equipment is presented. The underground Mine Air Quality Laboratory instrumentation is discussed. This includes the Mine Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML) and the instrumented Load Haul Dump (LHD) vehicle. The MAML measures CO, NO2, NO, CO2, particulate and temperatures while the LHD instrumentation measures and records engine speed, rack position (fuel rate), vehicle speed, CO2 concentration, exhaust temperature and operating mode with transducers and a Sea Data Corporation data logging and reader system. The mine LHD cycle data are related to the EPA 13 mode cycle data. Engine and aftertreatment emission control methods are reviewed including recent laboratory NO, NO2, sulfate and particulate data for a monolith catalyst. Maintenance of the LHD vehicle by engine subsystems in relation to component effects on emissions is presented.
Technical Paper

National Science Foundation Workshop on Environmentally Benign Manufacturing for the Transportation Industries

2002-03-04
2002-01-0593
The National Science Foundation recently sponsored a Workshop on Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM) for the Transportation Industries. The objective of the workshop was to determine future directions of research in the EBM area and to construct a roadmap for development of future research programs. While research in the fields of Design for the Environment (DfE) and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) have focused on the product and product life cycles, an additional focus is needed to find and develop processes with less environmental impact within the manufacturing environment. This workshop explored EBM issues with respect to the enterprise, the products, the processes and the materials.
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