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Journal Article

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration

Active regeneration experiments were performed on a production diesel aftertreatment system containing a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) using blends of soy-based biodiesel. The effects of biodiesel on particulate matter oxidation rates in the filter were explored. These experiments are a continuation of the work performed by Chilumukuru et al., in SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1474, which studied the active regeneration characteristics of the same aftertreatment system using ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Particulate matter loading of the filter was performed at the rated engine speed of 2100 rpm and 20% of the full engine load of 1120 Nm. At this engine speed and load the passive oxidation rate is low. The 17 L CPF was loaded to a particulate matter level of 2.2 g/L.
Technical Paper

The Characterization of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Diesel Particulate Matter

This paper is concerned with the demonstration of a methodology for chemically characterizing diesel particulate organic matter (POM) emissions. The procedure begins with a Soxhlet extraction of the POM with dichloromethane to obtain a soluble organic fraction (SOF). The acidic and basic portions of the SOF are isolated by liquid-liquid extraction techniques with aqueous base and aqueous acid, respectively. The neutral portion of the extract is separated into paraffin, aromatic, transitional and oxygenated fractions by column chromatography on silica gel. Two additional fractions, the ether insoluble and hexane insoluble fractions, are also separated by the procedure. Quantitative mass data are presented on the extraction and fractionation of twelve particulate samples from the exhaust of a medium-duty diesel engine collected in a dilution tunnel at a volume dilution ratio of 8 to 1.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Physical Characteristics of Diesel Particulate Matter Using Transmission Electron Microscope Techniques

An Andersen Impactor was used to collect particulate samples in both the undiluted and diluted exhaust from a Caterpillar 3150 diesel engine operated on the EPA 13-mode cycle. A total of 24 samples were examined using the transmission electron microscope and approximately 300 photomicrographs were taken. The microscope analysis and photomicrographs revealed details concerning the physical characteristics of the particulate and permitted a direct visual comparison of the samples collected. The photomicrographs were used to obtain diameter measurements of the basic individual spherical particles that comprise the much larger aggregates/agglomerates. Nearly 11,000 basic particles were measured and the observed range of diameters was 70-1200 Å. The mean particle diameters in the undiluted and diluted exhaust samples were 479 Å and 436 Å respectively. respectively. A respectively. 436 A respectively.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Ceramic Trap on Diesel Particulate: Fractions

A study of the Corning ceramic diesel particulate trap was conducted to investigate the trap's overall effect on diesel particulate fractions (soluble organic fraction. SOF; solid fraction, SOL; and sulfate fraction. SO4) under four different engine loads at 1680 rpm. The trap was found to filter the SOL fraction most efficiently with the SOF and SO4 fraction following in respective order. The filter efficiency of all fractions increased with increasing engine load. Graphs illustrating filter efficiency versus engine load indicate the slope of the SOF filter efficiency was smaller in magnitude than the TPM and SOL and SO4, fractions, which had similar slopes. The different slope of the SOF filter efficiency indicates other influences may be involved with the reduction in the SOF through the trap. Particle size distribution measurements in diluted exhaust revealed particle formation downstream of the trap.
Technical Paper

An Infrared Technique for Measuring Cycle-Resolved Transient Combustion-Chamber Surface Temperatures in a Fired Engine

An optical technique for measuring transient combustion chamber surface temperatures in a fired engine has been developed. The spectral region from 3.6 to 4.0 microns was found to be suitable for making optical measurements through the methane-air flame. The experimental apparatus was capable of making simultaneous time-resolved measurements of infrared gas absorption, gas emission and surface radiation during a single engine cycle. The effects of engine operating conditions on gas absorption and gas emission were investigated. Measurements of “simulated” deposits at temperatures ranging from 569 K to 944 K indicated that the technique was accurate within 7 K at the higher temperatures.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Low Sulfur Fuel and a Ceramic Particle Filter on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions

Diesel exhaust particle size distributions were measured using an Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) with both conventional (0.31 wt. pet sulfur) and low sulfur fuel (0.01 wt pet sulfur) with and without a ceramic diesel particle filter (DPF). The engine used for this study was a 1988 heavy-duty diesel engine (Cummins LTA10-300) operated at EPA steady-state modes 9 and 11. The particle size distribution results indicated the typical bi-modal distribution; however, there were clear differences in the number of particles in each mode for all conditions. For the baseline conditions with no DPF, there was more than one order of magnitude greater number of particles in the nuclei mode for the conventional fuel as compared to the low sulfur fuel, while the accumulation modes for each fuel were nearly identical.
Technical Paper

The Influence of a Low Sulfur Fuel and a Ceramic Particle Trap on the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Character of Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

This study was conducted to assess the effects of a low sulfur (<0.05 wt.%) fuel and an uncatalyzed ceramic particle trap on heavy-duty diesel emissions during both steady-state operation and during periods of electrically assisted trap regeneration. A Cummins LTA10-300 engine was operated at two steady-state modes with and without the trap. The exhaust trap system included a Corning EX-54 trap with an electrically assisted regeneration system. Both regulated emissions (oxides of nitrogen - NOx, total hydrocarbons - HC, and total particulate matter - TPM) and some unregulated emissions (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons - PAH soluble organic fraction - SOF, sulfates, vapor phase organics, and mutagenic activity) were measured during baseline, trap, and regeneration conditions. Emissions were collected with low sulfur (0.01 wt.%) fuel and compared to emissions with a conventional sulfur (0.32 wt.%) fuel. These fuels also varied in other fuel properties.
Technical Paper

The Influence of an Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Fuel Composition on the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust Emissions

The U.S. Bureau of Mines and Michigan Technological University are collaborating to conduct laboratory evaluations of oxidation catalytic converters (OCCs) and diesel fuels to identify combinations which minimize potentially harmful emissions. The purpose is to provide technical information concerning diesel exhaust emission control to the mining industry, regulators, and vendors of fuel and emission control devices. In this study, an Engelhard PTX 10 DVC (Ultra-10)* OCC was evaluated in the exhaust stream of an indirect injection Caterpillar 3304 PCNA mining engine using a light-duty laboratory transient cycle. This cycle was selected because it causes high emissions of particle-associated organics. Results are also reported for two different fuels with similar sulfur contents (0.03-0.04 wt pct) and a cetane number of 53, but different aromatic contents (11 vs. 20 wt pct).
Technical Paper

Development of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism for Dimethyl Ether (DME) with Comprehensive Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and NOx Chemistry

Dimethyl ether (DME) appears to be an attractive alternative to common fossil fuels in compression ignition engines due to its smokeless combustion and fast mixture formation. However, in order to fully understand the complex combustion process of DME, there is still a remaining need to develop a comprehensive chemical kinetic mechanism that includes both soot and NOx chemistry. In this study, a detailed DME mechanism with 305 species is developed from the basic DME mechanism of Curran et al. (2000) with addition of soot and NOx chemistry from Howard's mechanism et al. (1999), and GRI 3.0 mechanism, respectively. Soot chemistry in Howard mechanism consisting hydrogen abstraction acetylene addition (HACA) and growth of small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), assesses over a wide range of temperature and is able to predict good to fair the formation of PAH up to coronene.
Technical Paper

The Effect of an Oxidation Catalyst on the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Character of Diesel Particulate Emissions

A diesel oxidation catalyst (Engelhard PTX Series) was evaluated on a medium-duty diesel engine (Caterpillar 3208, naturally aspirated, direct injection). Tests were conducted at six modes of the EPA 13 mode heavy-duty cycle to measure the total particulate, soluble organic fraction (SOF), sulfates, NO, NO2, NOx and hydrocarbons emitted by the engine with and without the oxidation catalysts. Chemical analysis of the SOF collected was carried out to determine the effects of the catalysts on each of the subfractions composing the SOF. The Ames Salmonella/microsome bioassay was employed to quantify the mutagenic properties of the particulate SOF. Test results show large increases in the amounts of total particulate and sulfate emissions due to the catalyst while the amounts of SOF are reduced by the catalyst. The amounts of NOx produced with and without the catalyst are similar, but the equivalent NO2 emitted with the catalyst installed is increased at most modes.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Injection Rate and Timing on the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Character of Particulate Emissions from a Direct Injection Diesel

Formation of pollutants from diesel combustion and methods for their control have been reviewed. Of these methods, fuel injection rate and timing were selected for a parametric study relative to total particulate, soluble organic fraction (SOF), sulfates, solids and NO and NO2 emissions from a heavy-duty, turbocharged, after-cooled, direct-injection (DI) diesel. Chemical analyses of the SOF were performed at selected engine conditions to determine the effects of injection rate and timing on each of the eight chemical subfractions comprising the SOF. Biological character of the SOF was determined using the Ames Salmonella/microsome bioassay.
Technical Paper

The First Annual Blizzard Baja

The First Annual Blizzard Baja was hosted by Michigan Technological University's SAE Student Branch on February 7, 1981. This was a competition between student designed vehicles which had previously competed in summer Baja events. The Blizzard Baja consisted of a one hour endurance race run on ice and snow. The purpose was to provide the student engineers an opportunity to test their vehicles in cold weather, snow and icy conditions.
Technical Paper

The Engineering Control of Diesel Pollutants in Underground Mining

A review of mine air pollutant standards and the important pollutants to control in underground mines using diesel powered equipment is presented. The underground Mine Air Quality Laboratory instrumentation is discussed. This includes the Mine Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML) and the instrumented Load Haul Dump (LHD) vehicle. The MAML measures CO, NO2, NO, CO2, particulate and temperatures while the LHD instrumentation measures and records engine speed, rack position (fuel rate), vehicle speed, CO2 concentration, exhaust temperature and operating mode with transducers and a Sea Data Corporation data logging and reader system. The mine LHD cycle data are related to the EPA 13 mode cycle data. Engine and aftertreatment emission control methods are reviewed including recent laboratory NO, NO2, sulfate and particulate data for a monolith catalyst. Maintenance of the LHD vehicle by engine subsystems in relation to component effects on emissions is presented.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Ceramic Particle Trap and Copper Fuel Additive on Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

This research quantifies the effects of a copper fuel additive on the regulated [oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and total particulate matter (TPM)] and unregulated emissions [soluble organic fraction (SOF), vapor phase organics (XOC), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, particle size distributions and mutagenic activity] from a 1988 Cummins LTA10 diesel engine using a low sulfur fuel. The engine was operated at two steady state modes (EPA modes 9 and 11, which are 75 and 25% load at rated speed, respectively) and five additive levels (0, 15, 30, 60 and 100 ppm Cu by mass) with and without a ceramic trap. Measurements of PAH and mutagenic activity were limited to the 0, 30 and 60 ppm Cu levels. Data were also collected to assess the effect of the additive on regeneration temperature and duration. Copper species collected within the trap were identified and exhaust copper concentrations quantified.
Technical Paper

Computational Design of Experiments for Compound Fuel Injector Nozzles

A computational design of experiments was constructed to analyze two basic nozzle designs. Several geometric features of the nozzles such as cavity height, exit orifice area, turbulence generator area and exit orifice position in addition to the pressure differential across the injector were used in a 2k factorial design study. Performance characteristic which were analyzed in an analysis of variance study included the discharge coefficient. atomization efficiency and predicted spray pattern. The computational design of experiments revealed which of the studied parameters had the greatest influence on a given nozzle performance characteristic. These results were compared to a similar investigation which was later performed experimentally from which similar conclusions were drawn.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel and Engine Design on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions

The objective of this research was to obtain diesel particle size distributions from a 1988 and a 1991 diesel engine using three different fuels and two exhaust control technologies (a ceramic particle trap and an oxidation catalytic converter). The particle size distributions from both engines were used to develop models to estimate the composition of the individual size particles. Nucleation theory of the H2O and H2SO4 vapor is used to predict when nuclei-mode particles will form in the dilution tunnel. Combining the theory with the experimental data, the conditions necessary in the dilution tunnel for particle formation are predicted. The paper also contains a discussion on the differences between the 1988 and 1991 engine's particle size distributions. The results indicated that nuclei mode particles (0.0075-0.046 μm) are formed in the dilution tunnel and consist of more than 80% H2O-H2SO4 particles when using the 1988 engine and 0.29 wt% sulfur fuel.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Flow Separation in a Two Stroke Engine

The two stroke direct injected gasoline engine is in part characterized by low temperature exhaust flow, particularly at light loads, due to the fresh air scavenging of the combustion chamber during the exhaust process. This study investigated the possibility of separating the exhaust flow into two regimes: 1) high temperature flow of the combustion products, and 2) low temperature flow from the fresh air scavenging process. Separation of the exhaust flow was accomplished by a mechanical device placed in the exhaust stream. In this way, emissions from the exhaust could be handled by two different catalysts and/or processes, each optimized for different temperature ranges and flow compositions. The first portion of this study involved validation of a computer model, using experimental data from a single cylinder engine with a stationary exhaust port and splitter.

Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines

Emission and fuel economy regulations and standards are compelling manufacturers to build ultra-low emission vehicles. As a result, engineers must develop spark-ignition engines with integrated emission control systems that use reformulated low-sulfur fuel. Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines is a collection of SAE technical papers that covers the fundamentals of gasoline direct injection (DI) engine emissions and fuel economy, design variable effects on HC emissions, and advanced emission control technology and modeling approaches. All papers contained in this book were selected by an accomplished expert as the best in the field; reprinted in their entirety, they present a pathway to integrated emission control systems that meet 2004-2009 EPA standards for light-duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Application of a Portable Tailpipe Emissions Measurement Apparatus for Field Use

This paper discusses the evaluation and application of a portable parked-vehicle tailpipe emissions measurement apparatus (EMA). The EMA consists of an exhaust dilution system and a portable instrument package. The EMA instantaneously dilutes and cools a sample of exhaust with compressed nitrogen or air at a known dilution ratio, thereby presenting it to instruments as it is presented to personnel in the surrounding environment. The operating principles and governing equations of the EMA are presented. A computational method is presented to determine the engine operating and performance parameters from the exhaust CO2 concentrations along with an assumed engine overall volumetric efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption. The parameters determined are fuel/air ratio, mass flow rates of fuel, air and exhaust emissions, and engine brake torque and horsepower.
Technical Paper

Compound Port Fuel Injector Nozzle Droplet Sizes and Spray Patterns

The goal of this research was to determine an empirical method of relating the droplet sizes and the spray patterns to the parameters and the geometries of the compound nozzles. Two different types of compound nozzles were studied, the compound silicon micro machined nozzle and the compound metal disk nozzle. Several different orifice geometries of each nozzle type were examined. The injector components upstream of the compound nozzle of two different types of injectors were also studied. A nondimensional characterization of the droplet sizes and the mass flow rates was proposed. The results of this study show that there exists optimum geometric features that will produce sprays with the minimum steady state and dynamic Sauter mean diameter. The spray of a compound nozzle can be characterized by the atomization efficiency and the discharge coefficient. Nozzle testing results show that many flow characteristics are developed in the compound nozzle.