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Technical Paper

Design and Development of the 2001 Michigan Tech FutureTruck, a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2002-03-04
2002-01-1212
In this paper, the conversion of a production SUV to a hybrid electric vehicle with a drive system utilizing a planetary power-split transmission is presented. The uniqueness of this design comes from its ability to couple the advantages of a parallel hybrid with the advantages of a series hybrid. Depending on operating conditions and recent operating history, the drive system transitions to one of several driving modes. The drive system consists of a planetary gear set coupled to an alternator, motor, and internal combustion engine. It performs the power-split operation without the need for belt drives or clutching devices. The effects on driveability, manufacturing, fuel economy, emissions, and performance are presented along with the design, selection, and implementation of all of the vehicle conversion components.
Technical Paper

Relating Integral Length Scale to Turbulent Time Scale and Comparing k-ε and RNG k-ε Turbulence Models in Diesel Combustion Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-1117
A modified version of the Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time combustion model and the Hiroyasu-Magnussen soot model have been implemented in the flow solver Star-CD. Combustion simulations of three DI diesel engines, utilizing the standard k-ε turbulence model and a modified version of the RNG k-ε turbulence model, have been performed and evaluated with respect to combustion performance and emissions. Adjustments of the turbulent characteristic combustion time coefficient, which were necessary to match the experimental cylinder peak pressures of the different engines, have been justified in terms of non-equilibrium turbulence considerations. The results confirm the existence of a correlation between the integral length scale and the turbulent time scale. This correlation can be used to predict the combustion time scale in different engines.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Model Based Feedback Controlled Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Applications Using a Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0336
A thermal management system for heavy duty diesel engines is presented for maintaining acceptable and constant engine temperatures over a wide range of operational conditions. It consists of a computer controlled variable speed coolant pump, a position controlled thermostat, and a model-based control strategy. An experimentally validated, diesel engine cooling system simulation was used to demonstrate the thermal management system's capability to reduce power consumption. The controller was evaluated using a variety of operating scenarios across a wide range of loads, vehicle speeds, and ambient temperatures. Three metrics were used to assess the effects of the computer controlled system: engine temperature, energy savings, and cab temperature. The proposed control system provided very good control over the engine coolant temperatures while maintaining engine metal temperatures within a desired range.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Dilution Effects on Particle Size Measurement from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

2001-03-05
2001-01-0220
A study of particle size distributions was conducted on a Cummins M11 1995 engine using the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) instrument in the baseline and downstream of the Catalyzed Particulate Filter (CPF). Measurements were made in the dilution tunnel to investigate the effect of primary dilution ratio and mixture temperature on the nuclei and accumulation mode particle formation. Experiments were conducted at two different engine modes namely Mode 11 (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm) and Mode 9 (75% load - 932 Nm, 1800 rpm). The nanoparticle formation decreased with increasing dilution ratios for a constant mixture temperature in the baseline as well as downstream of the CPF II for Mode 11 condition. At Mode 9 condition in the baseline, the dilution ratio had a little effect on the nanoparticle formation, since the distribution was not bimodal and was dominated by accumulation mode particles.
Technical Paper

Recovery of Waste Polystyrene Generated by Lost Foam Technology in the Automotive Industry

2001-03-05
2001-01-0345
In the automotive industry, lost foam casting is a relatively new technology, which is gaining popularity among manufacturers. Lost foam casting is a process in which an expanded polystyrene pattern is formed into the shape of the part to be cast. More complex parts are fabricated by simply gluing several simple patterns together. The pattern is then coated with a refractory material consisting of a mineral mixture and binders. Finally, hot metal is poured into the pattern, evaporating the expanded polystyrene and taking shape of the coating shell. However, the automotive industry has observed that a significant number of these fabricated, coated patterns are damaged, or do not meet specifications prior to casting. These are not reusable and inevitably are landfilled. It is the goal of this project to develop a simple, reliable, and inexpensive technology to recover expanded polystyrene from the glue and coating constituents.
Technical Paper

Noise and Emission Reduction Strategies for a Snowmobile

2000-09-11
2000-01-2573
The following paper discusses alternative strategies for reducing noise and emission production from a two-stroke snowmobile. Electric, two-stroke and four-stroke solutions were analyzed and considered for entry in the Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) 2000. A two-stroke solution was utilized primarily due to time constraints. Complete snowmobile competition results are provided. The electric solution, while the most effective at reducing emissions, is negatively impacted by weight and cost. A modified two-stroke solution, limited by cost and complexity, does not provide the required improvements in emissions. A four-stroke solution reduces noise and emissions and provides an acceptable trade-off between noise, emissions, performance and cost.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effect of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

2001-03-05
2001-01-0910
The effects of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions were studied in this research. EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions but at the same time it can increase total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. CPF is technology available for retrofitting existing vehicles in the field to reduce the TPM emissions. A conventional low sulfur fuel (371 ppm S) was used in all the engine runs. Steady-state loading and regeneration experiments were performed with CPF I to determine its performance with respect to pressure drop and particulate mass characteristics at different engine operating conditions. From the dilution tunnel emission characterization results for CPF II, at Mode 11 condition (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm), the TPM, HC and vapor phase emissions (XOC) were decreased by 70%, 62% and 62% respectively downstream of the CPF II.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Model and Development of a Simulator for Predicting the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0911
As demand for wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular their pressure drop, under a wide range of operating conditions bears significant engineering applications. In this work, validation of a model and development of a simulator for predicting the pressure drop of clean and particulate-loaded DPFs are presented. The model, based on a previously developed theory, has been validated extensively in this work. The validation range includes utilizing a large matrix of wall-flow filters varying in their size, cell density and wall thickness, each positioned downstream of light or heavy duty Diesel engines; it also covers a wide range of engine operating conditions such as engine load, flow rate, flow temperature and filter soot loading conditions. The validated model was then incorporated into a DPF pressure drop simulator.
Technical Paper

Friction between Piston and Cylinder of an IC Engine: a Review

2011-04-12
2011-01-1405
Engine friction serves as an important domain for study and research in the field of internal combustion engines. Research shows that friction between the piston and cylinder accounts for almost 20% of the losses in an engine and therefore any effort to minimize friction losses will have an immediate impact on engine efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The two most common methods to experimentally measure engine friction are the floating liner method and the instantaneous indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) method. This paper provides a detailed review of the IMEP method, presents major findings, and discusses sources of error. Although the instantaneous IMEP method is relatively new compared to the floating liner method, it has been used by many scientists and engineers for calculating piston ring assembly friction with consistent results.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection Model for Spark Ignited Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1421
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Autoignition of Gasoline-Ethanol/Air Mixtures under Different Conditions of Pressure, Temperature, Dilution, and Equivalence Ratio.

2011-04-12
2011-01-0341
A numerical simulation of autoignition of gasoline-ethanol/air mixtures has been performed using the closed homogeneous reactor model in CHEMKIN® to compute the dependence of autoignition time with ethanol concentration, pressure, temperature, dilution, and equivalence ratio. A semi-detailed validated chemical kinetic model with 142 species and 672 reactions for a gasoline surrogate fuel with ethanol has been used. The pure components in the surrogate fuel consisted of n-heptane, isooctane and toluene. The ethanol volume fraction is varied between 0 to 85%, initial pressure is varied between 20 to 60 bar, initial temperature is varied between 800 to 1200K, and the dilution is varied between 0 to 32% at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 to represent the in-cylinder conditions of a spark-ignition engine. The ignition time is taken to be the point where the rate of change of temperature with respect to time is the largest (temperature inflection point criteria).
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Four-Stroke, EFI Snowmobile with Catalytic Exhaust Treatment

2001-09-24
2001-01-3657
The successful implementation of a clean, quiet, four-stroke engine into an existing snowmobile chassis has been achieved. The snowmobile is easy to start, easy to drive and environmentally friendly. The following paper describes the conversion process in detail with actual engine test data. The hydrocarbon emissions of the new, four-stroke snowmobile are 98% lower than current, production, two-stroke models. The noise production of the four-stroke snowmobile was 68 dBA during an independent wide open throttle acceleration test. If the four-stroke snowmobile were to replace all current, two-stroke snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), the vehicles would only produce 16% of the combined automobile and snowmobile hydrocarbon emissions compared to the current 93% produced by two-stroke snowmobiles.
Technical Paper

Development of a 1-D Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Model for Simulation of the Oxidation of Particulate Matter and Gaseous Species During Passive Oxidation and Active Regeneration

2013-04-08
2013-01-1574
Numerical modeling of aftertreatment systems has been proven to reduce development time as well as to facilitate understanding of the internal physical and chemical processes occurring during different operating conditions. Such a numerical model for a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) was developed in this research work which has been improved from an existing numerical model briefly described in reference. The focus of this CPF model was to predict the effect of the catalyst on the gaseous species concentrations and to develop particulate matter (PM) filtration and oxidation models for the PM cake layer and substrate wall so as to develop an overall model that accurately predicts the pressure drop and PM oxidized during passive oxidation and active regeneration. Descriptions of the governing equations and corresponding numerical methods used with relevant boundary conditions are presented.
Technical Paper

Two-Input Two-Output Control of Blended Fuel HCCI Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1663
Precise cycle-to-cycle control of combustion is the major challenge to reduce fuel consumption in Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, while maintaining low emission levels. This paper outlines a framework for simultaneous control of HCCI combustion phasing and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) on a cycle-to-cycle basis. A dynamic control model is extended to predict behavior of HCCI engine by capturing main physical processes through an HCCI engine cycle. Performance of the model is validated by comparison with the experimental data from a single cylinder Ricardo engine. For 60 different steady state and transient HCCI conditions, the model predicts the combustion phasing and IMEP with average errors less than 1.4 CAD and 0.2 bar respectively. A two-input two-output controller is designed to control combustion phasing and IMEP by adjusting fuel equivalence ratio and blending ratio of two Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs).
Technical Paper

Development of Steel Clad Aluminum Brake

2013-09-30
2013-01-2054
Aluminum based brake rotors have been a priority research topic in the DOE 1999 Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automobile Market. After fourteen years, no satisfactory technology has been developed to solve the problem of aluminum's low working temperatures except the steel clad aluminum (SCA) brake technology. This technology research started at Michigan Technological University (MTU) in 2001 and has matured recently for commercial productions. The SCA brake rotor has a solid body and replaces the traditional convective cooling of a vented rotor with conductive cooling to a connected aluminum wheel. Much lower temperatures result with the aluminum wheel acting as a great heat sink/radiator. The steel cladding further increases the capability of the SCA rotor to withstand higher surface temperatures. During the road tests of SCA rotors on three cars, significant gas mileage improvement was found; primarily attributed to the unique capability of the SCA rotor on pad drag reduction.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Computer-Aided Engineering Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application Part I: A/C Component Simulations and Integration

1999-03-01
1999-01-1195
This paper details the computer algorithm which was developed to determine the A/C refrigeration circuit balance point under the system transient operating conditions. The A/C circuit model consisting of major component submodels, such as the evaporator, compressor, condenser, orifice, air handling system, and connecting hoses, are included in the study. Pressure drop and thermal capacity for the evaporator, condenser, and connecting ducts/hoses are also considered in the simulation. The results obtained from the simulation model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Users can take advantage of this CAE tool to optimize the A/C system design and to minimize the development process with time-saving and cost-effective perspectives.
Technical Paper

The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation Part 2 – Model Validation Using Transient Data

1999-03-01
1999-01-0241
The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) computer code has been developed at the Michigan Technological University to simulate the thermal response of a cooling system for an on-highway heavy duty diesel powered truck under steady and transient operation. In Part 1 of this research, the code development and verification has been presented. The revised and enhanced VECSS (version 8.1) software is capable of simulating in real-time a Freightliner FLD 120 truck with a Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine, Behr McCord radiator, Allied signal / Garrett Automotive charge air cooler and turbocharger, Kysor DST variable speed fan clutch, DDC oil and coolant thermostat. Other cooling system components were run and compared with experimental data provided by Kysor Cooling Systems. The experimental data were collected using the Detroit Diesel Electronic Control's (DDEC) Electronic Control Module (ECM) and the Hewlett Packard (HP) data acquisition system.
Technical Paper

A Computational Model Describing the Performance of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap in Steady-State Operation and Over a Transient Cycle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0465
A model for calculating the trap pressure drop, various particulate properties, filtration characteristics and trap temperatures was developed during the steady-state and transient cycles using the theory originated by Opris and Johnson, 1998. This model was validated with the data obtained from the steady-state cycles run with an IBIDEN SiC diesel particulate filter. To evaluate the trap experimental filtration efficiency, raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap. A trap scaling and equivalent comparison model was developed for comparing different traps at the same volume and same filtration area. Using the model, the trap pressure drop data obtained from different traps were compared equivalently at the same trap volume and same filtration area. The pressure drop performance of the IBIDEN SiC trap compared favorably to the previously tested NoTox SiC and the Cordierite traps.
Technical Paper

The Performance of a Spark-Ignited Stratified-Charge Two Stroke Engine Operating on a Kerosine Based Aviation Fuel

1997-09-08
972737
This study examines the feasibility of broadening the fuel capabilities of a direct-injected two-stroke engine with stratified combustion. A three cylinder, direct-injected two-stroke engine was modified to operate on JP-5, a kerosene-based jet fuel that is heavier, more viscous, and less volatile than gasoline. Demonstration of engine operation with such a fuel after appropriate design modifications would significantly enhance the utilization of this engine in a variety of applications. Results have indicated that the performance characteristics of this engine with jet fuel are similar to that of gasoline with respect to torque and power output at low speeds and loads, but the engine's performance is hampered at the higher speeds and loads by the occurrence of knock.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Regeneration Process in a Silicon Carbide Particulate Trap Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1997-02-24
970188
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pressure drop and regeneration characteristics of a silicon carbide (SiC) wall-flow diesel particulate filter. The performance of a 25 μm mean pore size SiC dual trap system (DTS) consisting of two 12 liter traps connected in parallel in conjunction with a copper (Cu) fuel additive was evaluated. A comparison between the 25 μm DTS and a 15 μm DTS was performed, in order to show the effect of trap material mean pore size on trap loading and regeneration behavior. A 1988 Cummins LTA 10-300 diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance of the 15 and 25 μm DTS. A mathematical model was developed to better understand the thermal and catalytic oxidation of the particulate matter. For all the trap steady-state loading tests, the engine was run at EPA mode 11 for 10 hours. Raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap system in order to determine the DTS filtration efficiency.
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