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Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Database and Kinetic Models for Surrogate Diesel Fuels

Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations that include realistic combustion/emissions chemistry hold the promise of significantly shortening the development time for advanced high-efficiency, low-emission engines. However, significant challenges must be overcome to realize this potential. This paper discusses these challenges in the context of diesel combustion and outlines a technical program based on the use of surrogate fuels that sufficiently emulate the chemical complexity inherent in conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of In-Cylinder Processes Under Dual-Injection Conditions in a DI Diesel Engine

Fuel-injection schedules that use two injection events per cycle (“dual-injection” approaches) have the potential to simultaneously attenuate engine-out soot and NOx emissions. The extent to which these benefits are due to enhanced mixing, low-temperature combustion modes, altered combustion phasing, or other factors is not fully understood. A traditional single-injection, an early-injection-only, and two dual-injection cases are studied using a suite of imaging diagnostics including spray visualization, natural luminosity imaging, and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of nitric oxide (NO). These data, coupled with heat-release and efficiency analyses, are used to enhance understanding of the in-cylinder processes that lead to the observed emissions reductions.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Low-Soot and Soot-Free Combustion Strategies in a Heavy-Duty, Single-Cylinder, Direct-Injection, Optical Diesel Engine

High-efficiency, clean-combustion strategies for heavy-duty diesel engines are critical for meeting stringent emissions regulations and reducing the costs of aftertreatment systems that are currently required to meet these regulations. Results from previous constant-volume combustion-vessel experiments using a single jet of fuel under quiescent conditions have shown that mixing-controlled soot-free combustion (i.e., combustion where soot is not produced) is possible with #2 diesel fuel. These experiments employed small injector-orifice diameters (≺ 150 μm) and high fuel-injection pressures (≻ 200 MPa) at top-dead-center (TDC) temperatures and densities that could be achievable in modern heavy-duty diesel engines.
Journal Article

The Visualization of Soot Late in the Diesel Combustion Process by Laser Induced Incandescence with a Vertical Laser Sheet

Although soot-formation processes in diesel engines have been well characterized during the mixing-controlled burn, little is known about the distribution of soot throughout the combustion chamber after the end of appreciable heat release during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Hence, the laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic was developed to visualize the distribution of soot within an optically accessible single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine during this period. The developed LII diagnostic is semi-quantitative; i.e., if certain conditions (listed in the Appendix) are true, it accurately captures spatial and temporal trends in the in-cylinder soot field. The diagnostic features a vertically oriented and vertically propagating laser sheet that can be translated across the combustion chamber, where “vertical” refers to a direction parallel to the axis of the cylinder bore.
Journal Article

Early Direct-Injection, Low-Temperature Combustion of Diesel Fuel in an Optical Engine Utilizing a 15-Hole, Dual-Row, Narrow-Included-Angle Nozzle

Low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel was studied in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, optical engine employing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle (10 holes × 70° and 5 holes × 35°) with 103-μm-diameter orifices. This nozzle configuration provided the spray targeting necessary to contain the direct-injected diesel fuel within the piston bowl for injection timings as early as 70° before top dead center. Spray-visualization movies, acquired using a high-speed camera, show that impingement of liquid fuel on the piston surface can result when the in-cylinder temperature and density at the time of injection are sufficiently low. Seven single- and two-parameter sweeps around a 4.82-bar gross indicated mean effective pressure load point were performed to map the sensitivity of the combustion and emissions to variations in injection timing, injection pressure, equivalence ratio, simulated exhaust-gas recirculation, intake temperature, intake boost pressure, and load.
Technical Paper

Ducted Fuel Injection: Effects of Stand-Off Distance and Duct Length on Soot Reduction

Ducted fuel injection (DFI) has been shown to be an effective method to significantly reduce soot formation in mixing controlled compression ignition (MCCI) diesel combustion. This reduction has been demonstrated in both combustion vessels and in an optical engine. The mechanisms driving the soot reduction are to date not fully understood. Optimal duct configurations are also not immediately evident. The objective of this study is to show the effects of two geometric variables, namely distance from fuel injector orifice exit to duct inlet (0.1-6 mm) for a 2x14 mm duct, and duct length variation (8-14 mm) at a given stand-off distance of 0.1 mm. A 138 μm on-axis single-orifice injector operated at 100-250 MPa was used in a heated, continuous flow, constant pressure vessel with optical access.