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Technical Paper

A New Validation of Spray Penetration Models for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Injectors

The performance of five positive k-factor injector tips has been assessed in this work by analyzing a comprehensive set of injected mass, momentum, and spray measurements. Using high speed shadowgraphs of the injected diesel plumes, the sensitivities of measured vapor penetration and dispersion to injection pressure (100-250MPa) and ambient density (20-52 kg/m3) have been compared with the Naber-Siebers empirical spray model to gain understanding of second order effects of orifice diameter. Varying in size from 137 to 353μm, the orifice diameters and corresponding injector tips are appropriate for a relatively wide range of engine cylinder sizes (from 0.5 to 5L). In this regime, decreasing the orifice exit diameter was found to reduce spray penetration sensitivity to differential injection pressure. The cone angle and k-factored orifice exit diameter were found to be uncorrelated.
Journal Article

Early Investigation of Ducted Fuel Injection for Reducing Soot in Mixing-Controlled Diesel Flames

Ducted fuel injection (DFI) is a developing technology for reducing in-cylinder soot formed during mixing-controlled combustion in diesel compression ignition engines. Fuel injection through a small duct has the effect of extending the lift-off length (LOL) and reducing the equivalence ratio at ignition. In this work, the feasibility of DFI to reduce soot and to enable leaner lifted-flame combustion (LLFC) is investigated for a single diesel jet injected from a 138 μm orifice into engine-like (60-120 bar, 800-950 K) quiescent conditions. High-speed imaging and natural luminosity (NL) measurements of combusting sprays were used to quantify duct effects on jet penetration, ignition delay, LOL, and soot emission in a constant pressure high-temperature-pressure vessel (HTPV). At the highest ambient pressure and temperatures tested, soot luminosity was reduced by as much as 50%.