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Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Quenching Process at Caterpillar

1993-04-01
931172
Caterpillar uses heat treatment to enhance the properties of a significant number of parts. Traditional heat treat process optimization is both time consuming and expensive when done by empirical methods. This paper describes a computer simulation of the heat treatment process, developed by Caterpillar, based upon finite element analysis. This approach combines thermal, microstructural, and stress analysis to accurately model material transformation during quenching. Examples are presented to illustrate the program.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Measurement of Microstructure and Residual Stresses due to Electron Beam Welding Process

1999-04-14
1999-01-1872
Electron beam (EB) welding process is characterized by an extremely high power density that is capable of producing weld seams which are considerably deeper than width. Unlike other welding process, heat of EB welding is provided by the kinetic energy of electrons. This paper presents a computational model for the numerical prediction of microstructure and residual stress resulting from EB welding process. Energy input is modeled as a step function within the fusion zone. The predicted values from finite element simulation of the EB welding process agree well with the experimentally measured values. The present model is used to study an axial weld failure problem.
Technical Paper

Induction Hardening Simulation of Steel and Cast Iron Components

2002-03-19
2002-01-1557
The induction hardening process involves a complex interaction of electromagnetic heating, rapid cooling, metallurgical phase transformations, and mechanical behavior. Many factors including induction coil design, power, frequency, scanning velocity, workpiece geometry, material chemistry, and quench severity determine a process outcome. This paper demonstrates an effective application of a numerical analysis tool for understanding of induction hardening. First, an overview of the Caterpillar induction simulation tool is briefly discussed. Then, several important features of the model development are examined. Finally, two examples illustrating the use of the computer simulation tool for solving induction-hardening problems related to cracking and distortion are presented. These examples demonstrate the tool's ability to simulate changes in process parameters and latitude of modeling steel or cast iron.
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