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Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part II - Blend Properties and Target Value Sensitivity

2013-04-08
2013-01-1126
Higher carbon number alcohols offer an opportunity to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and improve the energy content, petroleum displacement, and/or knock resistance of gasoline-alcohol blends from traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part II of this paper builds upon the alcohol selection, fuel implementation scenarios, criteria target values, and property prediction methodologies detailed in Part I. For each scenario, optimization schemes include maximizing energy content, knock resistance, or petroleum displacement. Optimum blend composition is very sensitive to energy content, knock resistance, vapor pressure, and oxygen content criteria target values. Iso-propanol is favored in both scenarios' suitable blends because of its high RON value.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part I - Methodology and Scenario Definition

2013-04-08
2013-01-1144
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) requires an increase in the use of advanced biofuels up to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Longer chain alcohols, in addition to cellulosic ethanol and synthetic biofuels, could be used to meet this demand while adhering to the RFS2 corn-based ethanol limitation. Higher carbon number alcohols can be utilized to improve the energy content, knock resistance, and/or petroleum displacement of gasoline-alcohol blends compared to traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part I of this paper focuses on the development of scenarios by which to compare higher alcohol fuel blends to traditional ethanol blends. It also details the implementation of fuel property prediction methods adapted from literature. Possible combinations of eight alcohols mixed with a gasoline blendstock were calculated and the properties of the theoretical fuel blends were predicted.
Technical Paper

Influence of Water Injection on Performance and Emissions of a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2377
The application of hydrogen (H2) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions. At certain operating conditions the stratification associated with hydrogen direct injection (DI) leads to an efficiency improvement. However, it also results in higher emissions levels. This paper examines the effects of combining an advanced direct injection strategy with water injection for efficiency benefits and emissions reduction of a hydrogen fuelled DI spark ignition (SI) engine.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Injector Location and Nozzle Design in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1785
The favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H2) make it an excellent alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Hydrogen direct injection provides multiple degrees of freedom for engine optimization and influencing the in-cylinder combustion processes. This paper compares the results in the mixture formation and combustion behavior of a hydrogen direct-injected single-cylinder research engine using two different injector locations as well as various injector nozzle designs. For this study the research engine was equipped with a specially designed cylinder head that allows accommodating a hydrogen injector in a side location between the intake valves as well as in the center location adjacent to the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Spark Ignition Events in Lean and Dilute Methane/Air Mixtures Using a Detailed Energy Deposition Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0609
It is beneficial but challenging to operate spark-ignition engines under highly lean and dilute conditions. The unstable ignition behavior can result in downgraded combustion performance in engine cylinders. Numerical approach is serving as a promising tool to identify the ignition requirements by providing insight into the complex physical/chemical phenomena. An effort to simulate the early stage of flame kernel initiation in lean and dilute fuel/air mixture has been made and discussed in this paper. The simulations are set to validate against laboratory results of spark ignition behavior in a constant volume combustion vessel. In order to present a practical as well as comprehensive ignition model, the simulations are performed by taking into consideration the discharge circuit analysis, the detailed reaction mechanism, and local heat transfer between the flame kernel and spark plug.
Technical Paper

HEUI Injector Modeling and ROI Experiments for High Injection Pressure of Diesel and Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0855
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is considered a clean alternative fuel to diesel due to its soot-free combustion characteristics and its capability to be produced from renewable energy sources rather than fossil fuels such as coal or petroleum. To mitigate the effect of strong wave dynamics on fuel supply lines caused due to the high compressibility of DME and to overcome its low lubricity, a hydraulically actuated electronic unit injector (HEUI) with pressure intensification was used. The study focuses on high pressure operation, up to 2000 bar, significantly higher than pressure ranges reported previously with DME. A one-dimensional HEUI injector model is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK graphical software environment, to predict the rate of injection (ROI) profile critical to spray and combustion characterization.
Technical Paper

Correlations of Non-Vaporizing Spray Penetration for 3000 Bar Diesel Spray Injection

2013-09-08
2013-24-0033
Increasing fuel injection pressure has enabled reduction of diesel emissions while retaining the advantage of the high thermal efficiency of diesel engines. With production diesel injectors operating in the range from 300 to 2400 bar, there is interest in injection pressures of 3000 bar and higher for further emissions reduction and fuel efficiency improvements. Fundamental understanding of diesel spray characteristics including very early injection and non-vaporizing spray penetration is essential to improve model development and facilitate the integration of advanced injection systems with elevated injection pressure into future diesel engines. Studies were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel under non-vaporizing conditions. Two advanced high pressure multi-hole injectors were used with different hole diameters, number of holes, and flow rates, with only one plume of each injector being imaged to enable high frame rate imaging.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Geometry of a Diesel Single-Hole Injector on Liquid and Vapor Phase Distributions at Engine-Like Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0038
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Modeling Ignition and Premixed Combustion Including Flame Stretch Effects

2017-03-28
2017-01-0553
Objective of this work is the incorporation of the flame stretch effects in an Eulerian-Lagrangian model for premixed SI combustion in order to describe ignition and flame propagation under highly inhomogeneous flow conditions. To this end, effects of energy transfer from electrical circuit and turbulent flame propagation were fully decoupled. The first ones are taken into account by Lagrangian particles whose main purpose is to generate an initial burned field in the computational domain. Turbulent flame development is instead considered only in the Eulerian gas phase for a better description of the local flow effects. To improve the model predictive capabilities, flame stretch effects were introduced in the turbulent combustion model by using formulations coming from the asymptotic theory and recently verified by means of DNS studies. Experiments carried out at Michigan Tech University in a pressurized, constant-volume vessel were used to validate the proposed approach.
Technical Paper

Using a DNS Framework to Test a Splashed Mass Sub-Model for Lagrangian Spray Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0297
Numerical modeling of fuel injection in internal combustion engines in a Lagrangian framework requires the use of a spray-wall interaction sub-model to correctly assess the effects associated with spray impingement. The spray impingement dynamics may influence the air-fuel mixing and result in increased hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. One component of a spray-wall interaction model is the splashed mass fraction, i.e. the amount of mass that is ejected upon impingement. Many existing models are based on relatively large droplets (mm size), while diesel and gasoline sprays are expected to be of micron size before splashing under high pressure conditions. It is challenging to experimentally distinguish pre- from post-impinged spray droplets, leading to difficulty in model validation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Transient Spray Cone Angle Correlation for CFD Simulations at Diesel Engine Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0304
The accurate modeling of fuel spray behavior under diesel engine conditions requires well-characterized boundary conditions. Among those conditions, the spray cone angle is important due to its impact on the spray mixing process, flame lift-off locations and subsequent soot formation. The spray cone angle is a highly dynamic variable, but existing correlations have been developed mainly for diesel fuels at quasi-steady state and relatively low injection pressures. The objective of this study was to develop spray cone angle correlations for both diesel and a light-end gasoline fuel over a wide range of diesel-engine operating conditions that are capable of capturing both the transient and quasi-steady state processes. Two important macroscopic characteristics of solid cone sprays, the spray cone angle and spray penetration, were measured using a single-hole heavy-duty injector using two fuels at diesel engine conditions in an optical constant volume vessel.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Liquid Spray Penetration Fluctuations under Vaporizing Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0455
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is largely spray and mixing controlled and hence understanding spray parameters, specifically vaporization, is key to determine the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, an eight-hole common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel at charge gas conditions typical of full load boosted engine operation. Liquid penetration of the eight sprays was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with 0% oxygen. Conditions investigated included a charge temperature sweep of 800 to 1300 K and injection pressure sweep of 1034 to 2000 bar at a constant charge density of 34.8 kg/m₃.
Journal Article

Measurement of Diesel Spray Formation and Combustion upon Different Nozzle Geometry using Hybrid Imaging Technique

2014-04-01
2014-01-1410
High pressure diesel sprays were visualized under vaporizing and combusting conditions in a constant-volume combustion vessel. Near-simultaneous visualization of vapor and liquid phase fuel distribution were acquired using a hybrid shadowgraph/Mie-scattering imaging setup. This imaging technique used two pulsed LED's operating in an alternative manner to provide proper light sources for both shadowgraph and Mie scattering. In addition, combustion cases under the same ambient conditions were visualized through high-speed combustion luminosity measurement. Two single-hole diesel injectors with same nozzle diameters (100μm) but different k-factors (k0 and k1.5) were tested in this study. Detailed analysis based on spray penetration rate curves, rate of injection measurements, combustion indicators and 1D model comparison have been performed.
Journal Article

Meeting RFS2 Targets with an E10/E15-like Fuel - Experimental and Analytical Assessment of Higher Alcohols in Multi-component Blends with Gasoline

2013-10-14
2013-01-2612
This paper evaluates the potential of adding higher alcohols to gasoline blendstock in an attempt to improve overall fuel performance. The alcohols considered include ethanol, normal- and iso-structures of propanol, butanol and pentanol as well as normal-hexanol (C2-C6). Fuel performance is quantified based on energy content, knock resistance as well as petroleum displacement and promising multi-component blends are systematically identified based on property prediction methods. These promising multi-component blends, as well as their respective reference fuels, are subsequently tested for efficiency and emissions performance utilizing a gasoline direct injection, spark ignition engine. The engine test results confirm that combustion and efficiency of tailored multi-component blends closely match those of the reference fuels. Regulated emissions stemming from combustion of these blends are equal or lower compared to the reference fuels across the tested engine speed and load regime.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Study of Flame Kernel Formation Processes of Propane-Air Mixture in a Pressurized Combustion Vessel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0696
Fuel lean combustion and exhaust gas dilution are known to increase the thermal efficiency and reduce NOx emissions. In this study, experiments are performed to understand the effect of equivalence ratio on flame kernel formation and flame propagation around the spark plug for different low turbulent velocities. A series of experiments are carried out for propane-air mixtures to simulate engine-like conditions. For these experiments, equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.9 are tested with 20 percent mass-based exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Turbulence is generated by a shrouded fan design in the vicinity of J-spark plug. A closed loop feedback control system is used for the fan to generate a consistent flow field. The flow profile is characterized by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. High-speed Schlieren visualization is used for the spark formation and flame propagation.
Journal Article

Performance, Efficiency and Emissions Assessment of Natural Gas Direct Injection compared to Gasoline and Natural Gas Port-Fuel Injection in an Automotive Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0806
Interest in natural gas as a fuel for light-duty transportation has increased due to its domestic availability and lower cost relative to gasoline. Natural gas, comprised mainly of methane, has a higher knock resistance than gasoline making it advantageous for high load operation. However, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can cause ignitability issues at part-load operation leading to an increase in the initial flame development process. While port-fuel injection of natural gas can lead to a loss in power density due to the displacement of intake air, injecting natural gas directly into the cylinder can reduce such losses. A study was designed and performed to evaluate the potential of natural gas for use as a light-duty fuel. Steady-state baseline tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped for port-fuel injection of gasoline and natural gas, as well as centrally mounted direct injection of natural gas.
Journal Article

Comparison of Direct-Injection Spray Development of E10 Gasoline to a Single and Multi-Component E10 Gasoline Surrogate

2017-03-28
2017-01-0833
Optical and laser diagnostics enable in-depth spray characterization in regards to macroscopic spray characteristics and in-situ fuel mixture quality information, which are needed in understanding the spray injection process and for spray model development, validation and calibration. Use of fuel surrogates in spray researches is beneficial in controlling fuel parameters, developing spray and combustion kinetic models, and performing laser diagnostics with known fluorescence characteristics. This study quantifies and evaluates the macroscopic spray characteristics of a single and multi-component surrogate in comparison to a gasoline with 10% ethanol under gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine conditions. In addition, the effect of fuel tracers on spray evolution and vaporization is also investigated. Both diethyl-methyl-amine/fluorobenzene as a laser-induced exciplex (LIEF) fluorescence tracer pair and 3-pentanone as a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) tracer are examined.
Technical Paper

Impinged Diesel Spray Combustion Evaluation for Indirect Air-Fuel Mixing Processes and Its Comparison with Non-Vaporing Impinging Spray Under Diesel Engine Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0267
Under low-temperature combustion for the high fuel efficiency and low emissions achievement, the fuel impingement often occurs in diesel engines with direct injection especially for a short distance between the injector and piston head/cylinder wall. Spray impingement plays an important role in the mixing-controlled combustion phase since it affects the air-fuel mixing rate through the disrupted event by the impingement. However, the degree of air entrainment into the spray is hard to be directly evaluated. Since the high spray expansion rate could allow more opportunity for fuel to mix with air, in this study, the expansion rate of impinged flame is quantified and compared with the spray expansion rate under non-vaporizing conditions. The experiments were conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber with an ambient density of 22.8 kg/m3 and the injection pressure of 150 MPa.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Multi-Hole Impinging Jet High Pressure Spray Characteristics under Gasoline Engine-Like Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0847
Impingement of jet-to-jet has been found to give improved spray penetration characteristics and higher vaporization rates when compared to multi-hole outwardly injecting fuel injectors which are commonly used in the gasoline engine. The current work studies a non-reacting spray by using a 5-hole impinging-jet style direct-injection injector. The jet-to-jet collision induced by the inwardly opening nozzles of the multi-hole injector produces rapid and short jet breakup which is fundamentally different from how conventional fuel injectors operate. A non-reacting spray study is performed using a 5-hole impinging jet injector and a traditional 6-hole Bosch Hochdruck-Einspritzventil (HDEV)-5 gasoline direct-injection (GDI) injector with gasoline as a fuel injected at 172 bar pressure with ambient temperature of 653 K and 490 K and ambient pressure of 37.4 bar and 12.4 bar.
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