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Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Frictional Performance Test for Transmission and Drive Train Oils

Lubricating oil affects the performance of friction materials in transmission, steering and brake systems. The TO-2 Test measured friction retention characteristics of lubricating oils used with sintered bronze friction discs. This paper introduces a new friction performance test for drive train lubricants that will be used to support Caterpillar's new transmission and drive train fluid requirements, TO-4, which measures static and dynamic friction, wear, and energy capacity for six friction materials, and replaces the TO-2 test. The new test device to be introduced is an oil cooled, single-faced clutch in the Link Engineering Co. M1158 Oil/Friction Test Machine.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Design and Validation of an Exhaust Muffler for a Commercial Telehandler

This paper describes the design, development and validation of a muffler for reducing exhaust noise from a commercial tele-handler. It also describes the procedure for modeling and optimizing the exhaust muffler along with experimental measurement for correlating the sound transmission loss (STL). The design and tuning of the tele-handler muffler was based on several factors including overall performance, cost, weight, available space, and ease of manufacturing. The analysis for predicting the STL was conducted using the commercial software LMS Virtual Lab (LMS-VL), while the experimental validation was carried out in the laboratory using the two load setup. First, in order to gain confidence in the applicability of LMS-VL, the STL of some simple expansion mufflers with and without extended inlet/outlet and perforations was considered. The STL of these mufflers were predicted using the traditional plane wave transfer matrix approach.
Technical Paper

Calibrating and Protecting Microphones to Allow Acoustic Measurements in Hazardous Environments

Performing acoustic measurements on or near engines, transmissions, as well as in other circumstances where the environment is hazardous and harsh for microphones requires special precautions. Fluids inevitably leak, and the possibility of transducer damage can be very high without proper protection. Properly protecting microphones during testing allows for consistent data quality in these hazardous and difficult environments. While this paper will present the use of a 5 mil Nitrile cover which protects against many fluids within the scope of automotive testing, including water, hydrocarbons, and alcohols, as well as having good heat resistance and high strength, the concepts developed are applicable to other types of microphone protective mechanisms. Acoustic sensitivity was measured and used to calculate the change of the microphone's response after the treatment is applied, as well as after being exposed to various contaminants.
Technical Paper

Sound Power Measurement in a Semi-Reverberant, Volume Deficient Chamber

Sound power can be determined using a variety of methods, but precision methods require the volume of the noise source to be less than 1% of the chamber volume leading to relatively large test chambers. Automotive torque converter performance and noise testing is completed in an enclosed metallic test fixture which inhibits the use of precision methods due to volume and space limitations. This paper describes a new method developed to accurately determine sound power of an automotive torque converter in a relatively small enclosure through characterization of the test environment. The test environment was characterized using two reference noise sources designed to represent torque converter noise output and physical geometry. Sound pressure levels of the sources were measured at multiple microphone locations and at three source amplitude levels to characterize the environment.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Natural Convection in a Simplified Engine Bay Enclosure under Soak Conditions

At the onset of soak, air and surface temperatures in an engine bay enclosure are elevated since temperature of heat sources are high while convective cooling is sharply reduced as a result of airflow being shut off from the inlet grilles of the vehicle leading to temperature spikes. Accurate simulation of this important thermal and flow regime that is natural convection driven, highly transient and complex is therefore very important. In this investigation, we simulate flow in the engine bay at the onset of soak with fixed thermal boundary conditions where the geometries representing the engine bay and components are simplified. Good agreement was observed with detailed experimental data available in references for both velocities and temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Interaction between Flow and Spark Plug Orientation on Ignition Energy and Duration for Different Electrode Designs

The effect of flow direction towards the spark plug electrodes on ignition parameters is analyzed using an innovative spark aerodynamics fixture that enables adjustment of the spark plug gap orientation and plug axis tilt angle with respect to the incoming flow. The ignition was supplied by a long discharge high energy 110 mJ coil. The flow was supplied by compressed air and the spark was discharged into the flow at varying positions relative to the flow. The secondary ignition voltage and current were measured using a high speed (10MHz) data acquisition system, and the ignition-related metrics were calculated accordingly. Six different electrode designs were tested. These designs feature different positions of the electrode gap with respect to the flow and different shapes of the ground electrodes. The resulting ignition metrics were compared with respect to the spark plug ground strap orientation and plug axis tilt angle about the flow direction.
Technical Paper

Tribodynamics of a New De-Clutch Mechanism Aimed for Engine Downsizing in Off-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS. The flywheel is introducing the same speed and torque as the engine (represents the engine input to the clutch).
Technical Paper

Torsional Vibration Analysis of Six Speed MT Transmission and Driveline from Road to Lab

When a manual transmission (MT) powertrain is subjected to high speeds and high torques, the vehicle driveshaft, and other components experience an increase in stored potential energy. When the engine and driveshaft are decoupled during an up or down shift, the potential energy is released causing clunk during the shift event. The customer desires a smooth shift thus reduction of clunk will improve experience and satisfaction. In this study, a six-speed MT, rear-wheel-drive (RWD) passenger vehicle was used to experimentally capture acoustic and vibration data during the clunk event. To replicate the in-situ results, additional data was collected and analyzed for powertrain component roll and pitch. A lumped parameter model of key powertrain components was created to replicate the clunk event and correlate with test data. The lumped parameter model was used to modify clutch tip-out parameters, which resulted in reduced prop shaft oscillations.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Effect of Automotive Torque Converter Design Parameters on the Onset of Cavitation at Stall

This paper details a study of the effects of multiple torque converter design and operating point parameters on the resistance of the converter to cavitation during vehicle launch. The onset of cavitation is determined by an identifiable change in the noise radiating from the converter during operation, when the collapse of cavitation bubbles becomes detectable by nearfield acoustical measurement instrumentation. An automated torque converter dynamometer test cell was developed to perform these studies, and special converter test fixturing is utilized to isolate the test unit from outside disturbances. A standard speed sweep test schedule is utilized, and an analytical technique for identifying the onset of cavitation from acoustical measurement is derived. Effects of torque converter diameter, torus dimensions, and pump and stator blade designs are determined.
Technical Paper

Root Cause Identification and Methods of Reducing Rear Window Buffeting Noise

Rear Window Buffeting (RWB) is the low-frequency, high amplitude, sound that occurs in many 4-door vehicles when driven 30-70 mph with one rear window lowered. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the mechanisms of RWB are similar to that of sun roof buffeting and to describe the results of several actions suspected in contributing to the severity of RWB. Finally, the results of several experiments are discussed that may lend insight into ways to reduce the severity of this event. A detailed examination of the side airflow patterns of a small Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) shows these criteria exist on a small SUV, and experiments to modify the SUV airflow pattern to reduce RWB are performed with varying degrees of success. Based on the results of these experiments, design actions are recommended that may result in the reduction of RWB.
Technical Paper

Development of the MTU Automatic Shifting Manual Six Speed Transmission

The purpose of this report is to describe the process for the development of the automatically shifting manual transmission control system hardware and software to be used in the MTU Challenge X Equinox, a through-the-road parallel hybrid electric vehicle. The automatically shifting manual transmission was chosen for development, as it combines the ease of use of an automatic transmission with the fuel efficiency of a manual, while eliminating the parasitic losses in the torque converter and the transmission hydraulic pump. This report illustrates the process used to develop the software-in-the loop modeling that was developed for the initial proof of concept. In addition, it describes the development of the control strategy and hardware build for the prototype transmission. To begin the design process research was preformed on existing automatically shifting manuals and manual transmissions in general. From there vehicle subsystems were assembled using Simulink block diagrams.
Technical Paper

Adaptation of Four-Stroke Motorcycle Engine to Continuously Variable Transmission for Snowmobile Application

The successful implementation of a clean, quiet, high-performance four-stroke motorcycle engine into an existing snowmobile chassis has been achieved. The snowmobile is easy to start, easy to drive, and environmentally friendly. The following paper describes the conversion process in detail with actual dynamometer and field test data. The vehicle meets the proposed 2010 EPA snowmobile emissions regulations and is quieter than a stock snowmobile. The snowmobile not only addresses environmental concerns, it is economical as well, with an approximate cost of $5874.
Technical Paper

Windowed Selected Moving Autocorrelation (WSMA), Tri-Correlation (TriC), and Misfire Detection

In this paper, two correlations, Windowed Selected Moving Autocorrelation (WSMA) and Tri-Correlation (TriC), are introduced and discussed. The WSMA is simpler than the conventional autocorrelation. WSMA uses less data points to obtain useful signal content at desired frequencies. The computational requirement is therefore reduced compared to the conventional autocorrelation. The simplified TriC provides improved signal to noise separation capability than WSMA does while still requiring reduced computational effort compared to the standard autocorrelation. Very often, computation resource limitation exists for real-time applications. Therefore, the WSMA and TriC offer more opportunities for real-time monitor and feedback control applications in the frequency domain due to their high efficiencies. As an example, applications in internal combustion (IC) engine misfire detection are presented. Simulation and vehicle test results are also presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Cavitation Detection in Automotive Torque Converters Using Nearfield Acoustical Measurements

As automotive torque converters decrease in both diameter and axial length, the effects of cavitation in the torque converter becomes increasingly important on noise, efficiency, and performance goals. Cavitation is the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles in a working fluid when local static pressure falls below the vapor pressure of the working fluid. A technique to detect cavitation in automotive torque converters using nearfield acoustical measurements is presented. The technique concentrates on high frequency noise that is associated with the collapse of vapor bubbles. The nearfield acoustical technique is compared to two other techniques using static pressure measurements inside the torque converter; one on the torque converter stator blades and the other on the torque converter pump blades. A microwave telemetry transmitter was used to obtain data from inside the torque converter in both previous investigations.
Technical Paper

Cavitation Prediction in Automotive Torque Converters

As automotive torque converters decrease in both diameter and axial length, the effects of cavitation in the torque converter becomes increasingly important on noise, efficiency, and performance goals. Therefore, a cavitation prediction technique is developed in this investigation. In a previous investigation it was shown that cavitation is effected by inlet temperature, charge pressure, and K-factor. The prediction technique is devolved to encompass these variables. A dimensional analysis using the power product method is performed with all relevant variables. The nearfield acoustical cavitation detection technique, discussed in the previous investigation, is used to obtain experimental results from a torque converter test lab. The test matrix for the experimental results was constructed to include effects from inlet temperature, charge pressure, and K-factor. The data obtained experimentally is used to curve fit the results found through the power product method.
Technical Paper

Model Based Design Accelerates the Development of Mechanical Locomotive Controls

Smaller locomotives often use mechanical transmissions instead of diesel-electric drive systems typically used in larger locomotives. This paper discusses how Model Based Design was used to develop the complete drive train control system for a 24 ton sugar cane locomotive. A complete MATLAB Simulink machine model was built to fully test and verify the shift control logic, traction control, vehicle speed limiting, and braking control for this locomotive application before it was commissioned. The model included the engine, torque converter, planetary transmission, drive line, and steel on steel driving surface. Simulation was used to debug all control code and test and refine control strategies so that the initial field commissioning in remote Australia was executed very quickly with minimal engineering support required.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Modeling of a Vehicle Drivetrain for Shuffle and Clunk Mitigation

Flexibility and backlash of vehicle drivelines typically cause unwanted oscillations and noise, known as shuffle and clunk, during tip-in and tip-out events. Computationally efficient and accurate driveline models are necessary for the design and evaluation of torque shaping strategies to mitigate this shuffle and clunk. To accomplish these goals, this paper develops a full-order physics-based model and uses this model to develop a reduced-order model (ROM), which captures the main dynamics that influence the shuffle and clunk phenomena. The full-order model (FOM) comprises several components, including the engine as a torque generator, backlash elements as discontinuities, and propeller and axle shafts as compliant elements. This model is experimentally validated using the data collected from a Ford vehicle. The validation results indicate less than 1% error between the model and measured shuffle oscillation frequencies.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy and Energy Recovery Potential for P2 Parallel Hybrid Step Gear Automatic Transmissions

The purpose of this investigation is to present a control strategy and energy recovery potential for P2 parallel hybrid step gear automatic transmissions. The automatic transmission types considered for the investigation are rear wheel drive 8 speed dual clutch transmission and 8 speed planetary automatic equipped each equipped with an electric motor between the engine and transmission. The governing equations of clutch-to-clutch upshift controls are presented and are identical for each transmission type. Various strategies are explored for executing the upshift under a range of input torques, shift times and engine torque management approaches. The differences in energy recovery potential based upon control strategy is explored piecewise as well as through a DFSS study. On a comprehensive drive cycle consisting of FTP 75, US06 and HWFET test cycles, it is shown that upshift regen torque management can be equivalent to approximately 0.8% of the total fuel energy used.