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Technical Paper

The Role of Carboxylate-Based Coolants in Cast Iron Corrosion Protection

2001-03-05
2001-01-1184
Nitrites have long been added to heavy-duty coolant to inhibit iron cylinder liner corrosion initiated by cavitation. However, in heavy-duty use, nitrites deplete from the coolant, which then must be refortified using supplemental coolant additives (SCA's). Recently, carboxylates have also been found to provide excellent cylinder liner protection in heavy-duty application. Unlike nitrites, carboxylate inhibitors deplete slowly and thus do not require continual refortification with SCA's. In the present paper laboratory aging experiments shed light on the mechanism of cylinder liner protection by these inhibitors. The performance of carboxylates, nitrites and mixtures of the two inhibitors are compared. Results correlate well with previously published fleet data. Specifically, rapid nitrite and slow carboxylate depletion are observed. More importantly, when nitrite and carboxylates are used in combination, nitrite depletion is repressed while carboxylates deplete at a very slow rate.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

1996-02-01
960879
Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
Technical Paper

Performance of Organic Acid Based Coolants in Heavy Duty Applications

1996-02-01
960644
Coolant formulations based on organic acid corrosion inhibitor technology have been tested in over 180 heavy duty engines for a total of more than 50 million kilometers. This testing has been used to document long life coolant performance in various engine types from four major engine manufacturers. Inspections of engines using organic acid based coolant (with no supplemental coolant additive) for up to 610,000 kilometers showed excellent protection of metal engine components. Improved protection was observed against cylinder liner, water pump, and aluminum spacer deck corrosion. In addition, data accumulated from this testing were used to develop depletion rate curves for long life coolant corrosion inhibitors, including tolyltriazole and nitrite. Nitrite was observed to deplete less rapidly in long life coolants than in conventional formulations.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effect of Oil and Coolant Temperatures on Diesel Engine Brake Specific Fuel Consumption

1977-02-01
770313
Diesel engine fuel consumption is mainly a function of engine component design and power requirements. However, fuel consumption can also be affected by the environment in which the engine operates. This paper considers two controlling parameters of the engine's thermal environment, oil temperature and coolant temperature. The effects of oil and coolant temperatures on Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) are established for a turbocharged diesel engine. Data are also presented for a direct injection, naturally aspirated diesel engine. A matrix of test conditions was run on a Cummins VT-903 diesel engine to evaluate the effects of oil and coolant temperatures on BSFC for several loads and speeds. Loads and speeds were selected based on where a typical semi-tractor engine would operate over the road on a hills and curves route. Oil temperature was monitored and controlled between the oil cooler and the engine. Coolant temperature was monitored and controlled at the engine outlet.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oil and Coolant Temperatures on Diesel Engine Wear

1977-02-01
770086
A study has been made of piston ring wear and total engine wear using literature data and new experimental results. The main purpose of the study was to establish the effects of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear. Wear trends that were found in the early 1960's may not be valid any longer because of the development of higher BMEP turbocharged diesel engines, better metallurgical wear surfaces and improved lube oil properties. New data are presented for the purpose of describing present wear trends. A direct-injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used for the wear tests. The radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the top piston ring chrome face wear. Atomic emission spectroscopy was employed to determine the concentration of wear metals in the oil to determine total engine wear based on iron and lead. The data were analyzed and compared to the results found in the literature from previous investigators.
Technical Paper

Extreme Field Test for Organic Additive Coolant Technology

2005-11-01
2005-01-3579
Field testing of an extended life coolant technology in Class 8 trucks, equipped with Caterpillar C-12 engines revealed excellent coolant life with negligible inhibitor depletion to 400,000 miles with no refortification and no coolant top-off. In separate evaluations in Caterpillar 3406E equipped trucks, extended corrosion protection and component durability were established out to 700,000 miles, without the need for refortification other than top-off.
Technical Paper

Solder Protection with Extended Life, Carboxylate-Based Coolants

2000-06-19
2000-01-1979
Silicate-free, carboxylate based technology as typified by Texaco Extended Life Coolant (TELC) and Caterpillar Extended Life Coolant (ELC), both meeting Caterpillar's EC-1 Coolant Specification, offer excellent corrosion protection for commercial lead solders commonly used in the fabrication of copper/brass radiators and heater cores throughout the trucking industry. Results of laboratory testing using solders from commercial radiators manufacturers and extensive field coolant analysis compare extended life technology with the popular conventional coolant technologies. In the laboratory, the effect of coolant concentration on solder protection is explored using the glassware corrosion test, ASTM D-1384. At concentrations ranging from 33% up to 75% the carboxylate technology offers comparable to superior protection when compared to the popular heavy-duty conventional coolant containing silicates and phosphates.
Technical Paper

An Efficient IC Engine Conjugate Heat Transfer Calculation for Cooling System Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-0147
This study focuses on how to predict hot spots of one of the cylinders of a V8 5.4 L FORD engine running at full load. The KIVA code with conjugate heat transfer capability to simulate the fast transient heat transfer process between the gas and the solid phases has been developed at the Michigan Technological University and will be used in this study. Liquid coolant flow was simulated using FLUENT and will be used as a boundary condition to account for the heat loss to the cooling fluid. In the first step of calculation, the coupling between the gas and the solid phases will be solved using the KIVA code. A 3D transient wall heat flux at the gas-solid interface is then compiled and used along with the heat loss information from the FLUENT data to obtain the temperature distribution for the engine metal components, such as cylinder wall, cylinder head, etc.
Technical Paper

Development of the Enhanced Vehicle and Engine Cooling System Simulation and Application to Active Cooling Control

2005-04-11
2005-01-0697
The increasing complexity of vehicle engine cooling systems results in additional system interactions. Design and evaluation of such systems and related interactions requires a fully coupled detailed engine and cooling system model. The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) developed at Michigan Technological University was enhanced by linking with GT-POWER for the engine/cycle analysis model. Enhanced VECSS (E-VECSS) predicts the effects of cooling system performance on engine performance including accessory power and fuel conversion efficiency. Along with the engine cycle, modeled components include the engine manifolds, turbocharger, radiator, charge-air-cooler, engine oil circuit, oil cooler, cab heater, coolant pump, thermostat, and fan. This tool was then applied to develop and simulate an actively controlled electric cooling system for a 12.7 liter diesel engine.
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