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Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

2003-06-23
2003-01-2294
A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

1996-02-01
960879
Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970639
A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

1997-02-24
970986
The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

Convergence of Laboratory Simulation Test Systems

1998-02-23
981018
Laboratory Simulation Testing is widely accepted as an effective tool for validation of automotive designs. In a simulation test, response data are measured whilst a vehicle is in service or tested at a proving ground. These responses are reproduced in the laboratory by mounting the vehicle or a subassembly of the vehicle in a test rig and applying force and displacements by servo hydraulic actuators. The data required as an input to the servo hydraulics, the drive files, are determined by an iterative procedure which overcomes the non linearity in the test specimen and the test rig system. Under certain circumstances, the iteration does not converge, converges too slowly or converges and then diverges. This paper uses mathematical and computer models in a study of the reasons why systems fail to convergence and makes recommendations about the management of the simulation test.
Technical Paper

Process Control Standards for Technology Development

1998-04-08
981502
Engineering new technology and products challenges managers to balance design innovation and program risk. To do this, managers need methods to judge future results to avoid program and product disasters. Besides the traditional prediction tools of schedule, simulations and “iron tests”, process control standards (with measurements) can also be applied to the development programs to mitigate risks. This paper briefly discusses the theory and case history behind some new process control methods and standards currently in place at Caterpillar's Electrical & Electronics department. Process standards reviewed in this paper include process mapping, ISO9001, process controls, and process improvement models (e.g. SEI's CMMs.)
Technical Paper

High Performance Biodegradable Fluid Requirements for Mobile Hydraulic Systems

1998-04-08
981518
Technical groups worldwide have been actively developing specifications and requirements for biodegradable hydraulic fluids for mobile applications. These groups have recognized that an industry-wide specification is necessary due to the increase in environmental awareness in the agriculture, construction, forestry, and mining industries, and to the increasing number of local regulations primarily throughout Europe. Caterpillar has responded to this need by publishing a requirement, Caterpillar BF-1, that may be used by Caterpillar dealers, customers, and industry to help select high-performance biodegradable hydraulic fluids. This requirement was written with the input of several organizations that are known to be involved with the development of similar types of specifications and requirements.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on Spray SMD and D.I. Emissions

1995-10-01
952360
A study was performed to correlate the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), NOx and particulate emissions of a direct injection diesel engine with various injection pressures and different nozzle geometry. The spray experiments and engine emission tests were conducted in parallel using the same fuel injection system and same operating conditions. With high speed photography and digital image analysis, a light extinction technique was used to obtain the spray characteristics which included spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average SMD for the entire spray. The NOx and particulate emissions were acquired by running the tests on a fully instrumented Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine. Experimental results showed that for higher injection pressures, a smaller SMD was observed, i.e. a finer spray was obtained. For this case, a higher NOx and lower particulate resulted.
Technical Paper

A New Multi-point Active Drawbead Forming Die: Model Development for Process Optimization

1998-02-01
980076
A new press/die system for restraining force control has been developed in order to facilitate an increased level of process control in sheet metal forming. The press features a built-in system for controlling drawbead penetration in real time. The die has local force transducers built into the draw radius of the lower tooling. These sensors are designed to give process information useful for the drawbead control. This paper focuses on developing models of the drawbead actuators and the die shoulder sensors. The actuator model is useful for developing optimal control methods. The sensor characterization is necessary in order to develop a relationship between the raw sensor outputs and a definitive process characteristic such as drawbead restraining force (DBRF). Closed loop control of local specific punch force is demonstrated using the die shoulder sensor and a PID controller developed off-line with the actuator model.
Technical Paper

Machinability of As-Compacted P/M Parts: Effect of Material Chemistry

1998-02-23
980635
Since the advent of P/M technology as a near net shape production process, millions of mechanical components of various shapes and sizes have been produced. Although P/M continues to be one of the fast growing shaping processes, it suffers from the inability to produce intricate geometry's such as internal tapers, threads or recesses perpendicular to pressing direction. In such cases application of machining as a secondary forming operation becomes the preferred alternative. However, machining of P/M parts due to their inherent porosity is known to decrease tool life and increase tool chatter and vibration. Consequently, several attempts have been made to improve the machinability of P/M materials by either addition of machinability enhancing elements such as sulfur, calcium, tellurium, selenium, etc., or by resin impregnation of P/M parts.
Technical Paper

Frictional Performance Test for Transmission and Drive Train Oils

1991-02-01
910745
Lubricating oil affects the performance of friction materials in transmission, steering and brake systems. The TO-2 Test measured friction retention characteristics of lubricating oils used with sintered bronze friction discs. This paper introduces a new friction performance test for drive train lubricants that will be used to support Caterpillar's new transmission and drive train fluid requirements, TO-4, which measures static and dynamic friction, wear, and energy capacity for six friction materials, and replaces the TO-2 test. The new test device to be introduced is an oil cooled, single-faced clutch in the Link Engineering Co. M1158 Oil/Friction Test Machine.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Production Qualified Catalytic Converter

1993-03-01
930133
Catalytic converters have become a viable aftertreatment system for reducing emissions from on-highway diesel engines. This paper addresses the development and production qualification of a catalytic converter. The testing programs that were utilized to qualify the converter system for production included emissions performance, emissions durability, physical durability, and field test programs. This paper reports on the specific tests that were utilized for the emissions performance and emissions durability testing programs. An explanation on the development of an accelerated durability test program is also included. The physical durability section of the paper discusses the development and execution of laboratory bench tests to insure the catalytic converter/muffler maintains acceptable physical integrity.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Quenching Process at Caterpillar

1993-04-01
931172
Caterpillar uses heat treatment to enhance the properties of a significant number of parts. Traditional heat treat process optimization is both time consuming and expensive when done by empirical methods. This paper describes a computer simulation of the heat treatment process, developed by Caterpillar, based upon finite element analysis. This approach combines thermal, microstructural, and stress analysis to accurately model material transformation during quenching. Examples are presented to illustrate the program.
Technical Paper

Payload Measurement System on Off-Highway Trucks for Mine Applications

1987-11-08
871200
The need to accurately measure and record the payload of large off-highway mining trucks was identified by The Broken Hill Proprietary Co. Ltd. (BHP). In response. Caterpillar designed and developed a system to fufill that need. The payload carried by mine haul trucks has a strong influence on production rates and costs. The system developed should enable payloads to be much better controlled than has been previously possible. The system also provides a number of mine management features. The development of the system is described from the concept stage to the production stage. Final production capabilities of the microprocessor based system are described. Payload measurement capabilities, diagnostic capabilities, data storage, and data extraction methods are discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Study of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) under Transient and CPF Active Regeneration Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1046
In this study, a DOC catalyst was experimentally studied in an engine test cell with a2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB diesel and a production aftertreatment system. The test matrix consisted of steady state, active regeneration with in-cylinder fuel dosing and transient conditions. Conversion efficiencies of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, and NO were quantified under each condition. A previously developed high-fidelity DOC model capable of predicting both steady state and transient active regeneration gaseous emissions was calibrated to the experimental data. The model consists of a single 1D channel where mass and energy balance equations were solved for both surface and bulk gas regions. The steady-state data were used to identify the activation energies and pre-exponential factors for CO, NO and HC oxidation, while the steady-state active regeneration data were used to identify the inhibition factors. The transient data were used to simulate the thermal response of the DOC.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part I - Methodology and Scenario Definition

2013-04-08
2013-01-1144
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) requires an increase in the use of advanced biofuels up to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Longer chain alcohols, in addition to cellulosic ethanol and synthetic biofuels, could be used to meet this demand while adhering to the RFS2 corn-based ethanol limitation. Higher carbon number alcohols can be utilized to improve the energy content, knock resistance, and/or petroleum displacement of gasoline-alcohol blends compared to traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part I of this paper focuses on the development of scenarios by which to compare higher alcohol fuel blends to traditional ethanol blends. It also details the implementation of fuel property prediction methods adapted from literature. Possible combinations of eight alcohols mixed with a gasoline blendstock were calculated and the properties of the theoretical fuel blends were predicted.
Technical Paper

Adequacy of Reduced Order Models for Model-Based Control in a Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0617
Model-based control strategies are important for meeting the dual objective of maximizing NOx reduction and minimizing NH3 slip in urea-SCR catalysts. To be implementable on the vehicle, the models should capture the essential behavior of the system, while not being computationally intensive. This paper discusses the adequacy of two different reduced order SCR catalyst models and compares their performance with a higher order model. The higher order model assumes that the catalyst has both diffusion and reaction kinetics, whereas the reduced order models contain only reaction kinetics. After describing each model, its parameter identification and model validation based on experiments on a Navistar I6 7.6L engine are presented. The adequacy of reduced order models is demonstrated by comparing the NO, NO2 and NH3 concentrations predicted by the models to their concentrations from the test data.
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