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Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

High Performance Biodegradable Fluid Requirements for Mobile Hydraulic Systems

1998-04-08
981518
Technical groups worldwide have been actively developing specifications and requirements for biodegradable hydraulic fluids for mobile applications. These groups have recognized that an industry-wide specification is necessary due to the increase in environmental awareness in the agriculture, construction, forestry, and mining industries, and to the increasing number of local regulations primarily throughout Europe. Caterpillar has responded to this need by publishing a requirement, Caterpillar BF-1, that may be used by Caterpillar dealers, customers, and industry to help select high-performance biodegradable hydraulic fluids. This requirement was written with the input of several organizations that are known to be involved with the development of similar types of specifications and requirements.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part II - Blend Properties and Target Value Sensitivity

2013-04-08
2013-01-1126
Higher carbon number alcohols offer an opportunity to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and improve the energy content, petroleum displacement, and/or knock resistance of gasoline-alcohol blends from traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part II of this paper builds upon the alcohol selection, fuel implementation scenarios, criteria target values, and property prediction methodologies detailed in Part I. For each scenario, optimization schemes include maximizing energy content, knock resistance, or petroleum displacement. Optimum blend composition is very sensitive to energy content, knock resistance, vapor pressure, and oxygen content criteria target values. Iso-propanol is favored in both scenarios' suitable blends because of its high RON value.
Technical Paper

Determination of Source Contribution in Snowmobile Pass-by Noise Testing

2009-05-19
2009-01-2228
As noise concerns for snowmobiles become of greater interest for governing bodies, standards such as SAE J192 are implemented for regulation. Specific to this pass-by noise standard, and unlike many other pass-by tests, multiple non-standardized test surfaces are allowed to be used. Manufacturers must understand how the machines behave during these tests to know how to best improve the measured noise levels. Data is presented that identifies the contributions of different sources for different snowmobiles on various test surface conditions. Adaptive resampling for Doppler removal, frequency response functions and order tracking methods are implemented in order to best understand what components affect the overall measurement during the pass-by noise test.
Technical Paper

World Fuels and Modern Fuel Systems - A Path to Coexistence

2015-09-29
2015-01-2818
All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
Technical Paper

Cost Reduction Challenges and Emission Solutions in Emerging Markets for the Automotive Industry

2013-09-24
2013-01-2441
The growth of auto sales in emerging markets provides a good opportunity for automakers. Cost is a key factor for any automaker to win in an emerging market. This paper analyzes risks and opportunities in a low cost manufacturing environment. The Chinese auto market is used as an example and three categories of risks are analyzed. A typical risk assessment for cost reduction includes the analysis of environment risks, process risks and strategic risks associated with all phases of a product life. In an emerging market, emission regulations are a rapidly-evolving environment variable, since most countries with less regulated emission codes try to catch up with the newly- developed technologies to meet sustainable growth targets. Emission regulations have a huge impact on product design, manufacturing and maintenance in the automotive industry, and hence the related cost reduction must be thoroughly analyzed during risk assessment.
Technical Paper

The Impact of RoHS on Electric Vehicles in the Chinese Automotive Market

2016-09-27
2016-01-8124
China has become the world’s largest vehicle market in terms of sales volume. Automobiles sales keep growing in recent years despite the declining economic growth rate. Due to the increasing attention given to the environmental impact, more stringent emission regulations are being drafted to control traditional internal combustion engine emissions. In order to reduce vehicle emissions, environmentally-friendly new-energy vehicles, such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles, are being promoted by government policies. The Chinese government plans to boost sales of new-energy cars to account for about five percent of China’s total vehicle sales. It is well known that more electric and electronic components will be integrated into a vehicle platform during vehicle electrification.
Technical Paper

Clean Snowmobile Challenge-What have we learned?

2005-10-24
2005-01-3682
The Society of Automotive Engineers' (SAE) Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) 2005 was hosted by Michigan Technological University (MTU) in Houghton, Michigan during the week of March 14, 2005. The events were held at the Keweenaw Research Center (KRC), a research arm of MTU. With energy prices on the rise and pollution regulations tightening, efficient and clean modes of transportation are becoming more important. The emissions, noise, and fuel economy events are all significant portions of this year's competition. MTU has hosted the Clean Snowmobile Challenge for the past three years, during which there have been numerous modifications to the events and logistics of the competition to make the experience as beneficial as possible. This paper looks at not only the results from the 2005 competition, but also discusses trends and common design strategies that the winning teams from each year possess.
Technical Paper

Vibrational and Sound Radiation Properties of a Double Layered Diesel Engine Gear Cover

1999-05-17
1999-01-1773
The introduction of a thin fluid layer between two layers of sheet metal offers a highly effective and economical alternative to the use of constrained viscoelastic damping layers in sheet metal structures. A diesel engine gear cover, which is constructed of two sheet metal sections spot welded together, takes advantage of fluid layer damping to produce superior vibration and sound radiation performance. In this paper, the bending of a double layered plate coupled through a thin fluid layer is modeled using a traveling wave approach which results in a impedance function that can be used to assess the vibration and sound radiation performance of practical double layered plate structures. Guided by this model, the influence of fluid layer thickness and inside-to-outside sheet thickness is studied.
Technical Paper

Finite Difference Heat Transfer Model of a Steel-clad Aluminum Brake Rotor

2005-10-09
2005-01-3943
This paper describes the heat transfer model of a composite aluminum brake rotor and compares the predicted temperatures to dynamometer measurements taken during a 15 fade stop trial. The model is based on meshed surface geometry which is simulated using RadTherm software. Methods for realistically modeling heat load distribution, surface rotation, convection cooling and radiation losses are also discussed. A comparison of the simulation results to the dynamometer data shows very close agreement throughout the fade stop trial. As such, the model is considered valid and will be used for further Steel Clad Aluminum (SCA) rotor development.
Technical Paper

Bayesian Reliability-Based Design Optimization Using Eigenvector Dimension Reduction (EDR) Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0559
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in reliability-based design optimization (RBDO). One assumption in RBDO is that the complete information of input uncertainties are known. However, this assumption is not valid in practical engineering applications, due to the lack of sufficient data. In practical engineering design, information concerning uncertainty parameters is usually in the form of finite samples. Existing methods in uncertainty based design optimization cannot handle design problems involving epistemic uncertainty with a shortage of information. Recently, a novel method referred to as Bayesian Reliability-Based Design Optimization (BRBDO) was proposed to properly handle design problems when engaging both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties [1]. However, when a design problem involves a large number of epistemic variables, the computation task for BRBDO becomes extremely expensive.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Based Robust Design Optimization Using the EDR Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0550
This paper attempts to integrate a derivative-free probability analysis method to Reliability-Based Robust Design Optimization (RBRDO). The Eigenvector Dimension Reduction (EDR) method is used for the probability analysis method. It has been demonstrated that the EDR method is more accurate and efficient than the Second-Order Reliability Method (SORM) for reliability and quality assessment. Moreover, it can simultaneously evaluate both reliability and quality without any extra expense. Two practical engineering problems (vehicle side impact and layered bonding plates) are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the EDR method.
Technical Paper

Innovative Six Sigma Design Using the Eigenvector Dimension-Reduction (EDR) Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0799
This paper presents an innovative approach for quality engineering using the Eigenvector Dimension Reduction (EDR) Method. Currently industry relies heavily upon the use of the Taguchi method and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratios as quality indices. However, some disadvantages of the Taguchi method exist such as, its reliance upon samples occurring at specified levels, results to be valid at only the current design point, and its expensiveness to maintain a certain level of confidence. Recently, it has been shown that the EDR method can accurately provide an analysis of variance, similar to that of the Taguchi method, but is not hindered by the aforementioned drawbacks of the Taguchi method. This is evident because the EDR method is based upon fundamental statistics, where the statistical information for each design parameter is used to estimate the uncertainty propagation through engineering systems.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Deer with RADAR and LIDAR for Active Safety Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-0217
To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.
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