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Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Novel Approach to Integration of Turbocompounding, Electrification and Supercharging Through Use of Planetary Gear System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0887
Technologies that provide potential for significant improvements in engine efficiency include, engine downsizing/downspeeding (enabled by advanced boosting systems such as an electrically driven compressor), waste heat recovery through turbocompounding or organic Rankine cycle and 48 V mild hybridization. FEV’s Integrated Turbocompounding/Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), Electrification and Supercharging (FEV-ITES) is a novel approach for integration of these technologies in a single unit. This approach provides a reduced cost, reduced space claim and an increase in engine efficiency, when compared to the independent integration of each of these technologies. This approach is enabled through the application of a planetary gear system. Specifically, a secondary compressor is connected to the ring gear, a turbocompounding turbine or organic Rankine cycle (ORC) expander is connected to the sun gear, and an electric motor/generator is connected to the carrier gear.
Technical Paper

Determination of Source Contribution in Snowmobile Pass-by Noise Testing

2009-05-19
2009-01-2228
As noise concerns for snowmobiles become of greater interest for governing bodies, standards such as SAE J192 are implemented for regulation. Specific to this pass-by noise standard, and unlike many other pass-by tests, multiple non-standardized test surfaces are allowed to be used. Manufacturers must understand how the machines behave during these tests to know how to best improve the measured noise levels. Data is presented that identifies the contributions of different sources for different snowmobiles on various test surface conditions. Adaptive resampling for Doppler removal, frequency response functions and order tracking methods are implemented in order to best understand what components affect the overall measurement during the pass-by noise test.
Technical Paper

Modeling Interior Noise in Off-Highway Trucks using Statistical Energy Analysis

2009-05-19
2009-01-2239
The objective of this project was to model and study the interior noise in an Off-Highway Truck cab using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The analysis was performed using two different modeling techniques. In the first method, the structural members of the cab were modeled along with the panels and the interior cavity. In the second method, the structural members were not modeled and only the acoustic cavity and panels were modeled. Comparison was done between the model with structural members and without structural members to evaluate the necessity of modeling the structure. Correlation between model prediction of interior sound pressure and test data was performed for eight different load conditions. Power contribution analysis was performed to find dominant paths and 1/3rd octave band frequencies.
Technical Paper

Obtaining Structure-Borne Input Power for a SEA Model of an Earthmoving Machine Cab

2011-05-17
2011-01-1732
Properly characterizing input forces is an important part of simulating structure-borne noise problems. The purpose of this work was to apply a known force reconstruction technique to an earthmoving machinery cab to obtain input functions for modeling purposes. The technique was performed on a cab under controlled laboratory conditions to gain confidence in the method prior to use on actual machines. Forces were measured directly using force transducers and compared to results from the force reconstruction technique. The measured forces and vibrations were used as input power to an SEA model with favorable results.
Technical Paper

Identification and Reduction of Booming Noise on a Motor Grader

2011-05-17
2011-01-1729
NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machines' performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in a motor grader when it is used under certain operating conditions that cause low frequency excitations to the machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, both simulation and testing techniques were leveraged to reduce the booming noise of a motor grader. Simultaneous structural/acoustics simulations and experimental modal tests were performed to evaluate this phenomenon. The simulation models were validated using test results and then used to evaluate solutions to this noise problem. Further field tests confirmed the validity of these recommended solutions.
Technical Paper

Application of an Elastomeric Tuned Mass Damper for Booming Noise on an Off-highway Machine

2013-05-13
2013-01-2010
NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machine performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in an off-highway machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, a tuned mass damper (TMD) was added to the resonating panel to suppress the booming. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and experimental modal analysis (EMA) were performed to identify the resonating panels, a damper was tuned in the lab and on the machine to the specific frequency, machine operational tests were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the damper to deal with booming noise.
Technical Paper

Sound Power Measurement in a Semi-Reverberant, Volume Deficient Chamber

2015-06-15
2015-01-2359
Sound power can be determined using a variety of methods, but precision methods require the volume of the noise source to be less than 1% of the chamber volume leading to relatively large test chambers. Automotive torque converter performance and noise testing is completed in an enclosed metallic test fixture which inhibits the use of precision methods due to volume and space limitations. This paper describes a new method developed to accurately determine sound power of an automotive torque converter in a relatively small enclosure through characterization of the test environment. The test environment was characterized using two reference noise sources designed to represent torque converter noise output and physical geometry. Sound pressure levels of the sources were measured at multiple microphone locations and at three source amplitude levels to characterize the environment.
Technical Paper

The Artificial Intelligence Application Strategy in Powertrain and Machine Control

2015-09-29
2015-01-2860
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to powertrain calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive. A disruptive impact can be realized when AI applications finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users (e.g., automation of a vehicle or machine operation could dramatically improve the efficiency). However, there is still a gap between current technologies and those that can fully give a vehicle or machine intelligence, including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
Technical Paper

Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Testing of Electric Power Steering Controllers

2016-04-05
2016-01-0029
The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to decide how much assistance an electric motor applies on a steering wheel. The EPS ECU plays an important role in EPS systems. The effectiveness of an ECU needs to be thoroughly tested before mass production. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation provides an efficient way for the development and testing of embedded controllers. This paper focuses on the development of a HiL system for testing EPS controllers. The hardware of the HiL system employs a dSPACE HiL simulator. The EPS plant model is an integrated model consisting of a Vehicle Dynamics model of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) and the Nexteer Steering model. The paper presents the design of an EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors and actuators, the functions of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with a Steering model.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Off-Highway Vehicle Cab Noise and Vibration Using Inverse Matrix Techniques

1999-09-14
1999-01-2815
Noise Path Analysis techniques (NPA) have been developed and refined by the automotive industry for structure-borne noise and vibration evaluation of their products. Off-highway vehicles, particularly those with enclosed cabs, are excellent candidates for the application of these techniques. Like automobiles, many off-highway machines are typically driven by a rotating power source, have a well-defined acoustic receiver space, and use some form of isolation between source and receiver sub-systems. These structural characteristics make NPA a useful tool for identifying dominant sources and energy transfer paths. The objectives of this paper are to revisit the fundamental theory of matrix inversion as it applies to NPA techniques, and to address the common setup and measurement issues encountered when acquiring noise path data on off-highway machines. A general overview of the procedures involved in applying NPA to an off-highway machine will be presented.
Technical Paper

Summary and Characteristics of Rotating Machinery Digital Signal Processing Methods

1999-09-14
1999-01-2818
Several very different order tracking and analysis techniques for rotating equipment have been developed recently that are available in commercial noise and vibrations software packages. Each of these order tracking methods has distinct trade-offs for many common applications and very specific advantages for special applications in sound quality or noise and vibrations troubleshooting. The Kalman, Vold-Kalman, Computed Order Tracking, and the Time Variant Discrete Fourier Transform as well as common FFT based order analysis methods will all be presented. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods will be presented as well as the highlights of their mathematical properties. This paper is intended to be an overview of currently available technology with all methods presented in a common format that allows easy comparison of their properties. Several analytical examples will be presented to thoroughly document each methods' behavior with different types of data.
Technical Paper

Finite Difference Heat Transfer Model of a Steel-clad Aluminum Brake Rotor

2005-10-09
2005-01-3943
This paper describes the heat transfer model of a composite aluminum brake rotor and compares the predicted temperatures to dynamometer measurements taken during a 15 fade stop trial. The model is based on meshed surface geometry which is simulated using RadTherm software. Methods for realistically modeling heat load distribution, surface rotation, convection cooling and radiation losses are also discussed. A comparison of the simulation results to the dynamometer data shows very close agreement throughout the fade stop trial. As such, the model is considered valid and will be used for further Steel Clad Aluminum (SCA) rotor development.
Technical Paper

Root Cause Identification and Methods of Reducing Rear Window Buffeting Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2402
Rear Window Buffeting (RWB) is the low-frequency, high amplitude, sound that occurs in many 4-door vehicles when driven 30-70 mph with one rear window lowered. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the mechanisms of RWB are similar to that of sun roof buffeting and to describe the results of several actions suspected in contributing to the severity of RWB. Finally, the results of several experiments are discussed that may lend insight into ways to reduce the severity of this event. A detailed examination of the side airflow patterns of a small Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) shows these criteria exist on a small SUV, and experiments to modify the SUV airflow pattern to reduce RWB are performed with varying degrees of success. Based on the results of these experiments, design actions are recommended that may result in the reduction of RWB.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of an Acoustic Encapsulation to Reduce Diesel Engine Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2375
This paper describes a study to demonstrate the feasibility of developing an acoustic encapsulation to reduce airborne noise from a commercial diesel engine. First, the various sources of noise from the engine were identified using Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH). Detailed NAH measurements were conducted on the four sides of the engine in an engine test cell. The main sources of noise from the engine were ranked and identified within the frequency ranges of interest. Experimental modal analysis was conducted on the oil pan and front cover plate of the engine to reveal correlations of structural vibration results with the data from the NAH. The second phase of the study involved the design and fabrication of the acoustical encapsulation (noise covers) for the engine in a test cell to satisfy the requirements of space, cost and performance constraints. The acoustical materials for the enclosure were selected to meet the frequency and temperature ranges of interest.
Technical Paper

Analytical Simulation of the Effects of Noise Control Treatments on an Excavator Cab using Statistical Energy Analysis

2007-05-15
2007-01-2315
The objective of this study was to utilize Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) to simulate the effects of a variety of noise control treatments on the interior sound pressure level (SPL) of a commercial excavator cab. In addition, the effects of leaks on the SPL of the excavator cab were also investigated. This project was conducted along with various tests that were used to determine the inputs needed to accurately represent the loads that the cab experienced during operation. This paper explains the how the model was constructed, how the loads were applied to the model, the results that were obtained from application of treatments, and a study of the effects of introducing leaks to the cab structure in the SEA model.
Technical Paper

Threshold Level as an Index of Squeak and Rattle Performance

1999-05-17
1999-01-1730
A practical approach for evaluating and validating global system designs for Squeak and Rattle performance is proposed. Using simple slip and rattle models, actual sound and vibration data, and the fundamentals of audiological perception, analysis tools adapted from Chaos Theory are used to establish threshold levels of performance and identify system characteristics which are significant contributors to Squeak and Rattle. Focus on system design is maintained by using a simple rattle noise indicator and relating rattle events to levels of dynamic motion (acceleration, velocity, etc.). The threshold level is defined as the level of acceleration at which the system moves from a non-rattling state to a rattling state. The approach is demonstrated with a simple analytical model applied to an experimental structure under dynamic load.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Dynamic Properties of Automotive Shock Absorbers for NVH

1999-05-17
1999-01-1840
This paper describes a project on the dynamic characterization of automotive shock absorbers. The objective was to develop a new testing and analysis methodology for obtaining equivalent linear stiffness and damping of the shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low- to- mid frequency chassis models. Previous studies using an elastomer test machine proved unsuitable for testing shocks in the mid-to-high frequency range where the typical road input displacements fall within the noise floor of the elastomer machine. Hence, in this project, an electrodynamic shaker was used for exciting the shock absorbers under displacements less than 0.05 mm up to 500 Hz. Furthermore, instead of the swept sine technique, actual road data were used to excite the shocks. Equivalent linear spring-damper models were developed based on least-squares curve-fitting of the test data.
Technical Paper

Post-Processing Analysis of Large Channel Count Order Track Tests and Estimation of Linearly Independent Operating Shapes

1999-05-17
1999-01-1827
Large channel count data acquisition systems have seen increasing use in the acquisition and analysis of rotating machinery, these systems have the ability to generate very large amounts of data for analysis. The most common operating measurement made on powertrains or automobiles on the road or on dynamometers has become the order track measurement. Order tracking analysis can generate a very large amount of information that must be analyzed, both due to the number of channels and orders tracked. Analysis methods to efficiently analyze large numbers of Frequency Response Function (FRF) measurements have been developed and used over the last 20 years in many troubleshooting applications. This paper develops applications for several FRF based analysis methods as applied for efficient analysis of large amounts of order track data.
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