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Technical Paper

Coordinated Control of Multi-Degree-of Freedom Fuel Systems

1997-04-01
971559
This paper identifies potential performance benefits and computational costs of applying advanced multivariable control theory concepts to coordinate the control of a general multi-degree-of-freedom fuel system. The control variables are injection duration and pressure. The focus is on the design of a robust multi-input multi-output controller using H-infinity and mu synthesis methodology to coordinate the control of injection duration and pressure; reduce overshoots and system sensitivity to parameter variations caused by component aging. Model reduction techniques are used to reduce the order of the H-infinity controller to make it practically implementable. Computer simulation is used to test the robust performance of a generic engine and fuel system model controlled by the reduced order H-infinity controller and a traditional proportional plus integral controller.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on Spray SMD and D.I. Emissions

1995-10-01
952360
A study was performed to correlate the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), NOx and particulate emissions of a direct injection diesel engine with various injection pressures and different nozzle geometry. The spray experiments and engine emission tests were conducted in parallel using the same fuel injection system and same operating conditions. With high speed photography and digital image analysis, a light extinction technique was used to obtain the spray characteristics which included spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average SMD for the entire spray. The NOx and particulate emissions were acquired by running the tests on a fully instrumented Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine. Experimental results showed that for higher injection pressures, a smaller SMD was observed, i.e. a finer spray was obtained. For this case, a higher NOx and lower particulate resulted.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Effect on High Pressure Diesel Injection

1995-02-01
950083
Studies of transient diesel spray characteristics at high injection pressures were conducted in a constant volume chamber by utilizing a high speed photography and light extinction optical diagnostic technique. Two different types of nozzle hole entrances were investigated: a sharp-edged and a round-edged nozzle. The experimental results show that for the same injection delivery, the sharp-edged inlet injector needed a higher injection pressure to overcome the higher friction loss, but it produced longer spray tip penetration length, larger spray angle, smaller droplet sizes, and also lower particulate emission from a parallel engine test. For the round-edged and smooth edged tips at the same injection pressure, the sharp-edged inlet tip took a longer injection duration to deliver a fixed mass of fuel and produced larger overall average Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) droplets.
Technical Paper

A New Multi-point Active Drawbead Forming Die: Model Development for Process Optimization

1998-02-01
980076
A new press/die system for restraining force control has been developed in order to facilitate an increased level of process control in sheet metal forming. The press features a built-in system for controlling drawbead penetration in real time. The die has local force transducers built into the draw radius of the lower tooling. These sensors are designed to give process information useful for the drawbead control. This paper focuses on developing models of the drawbead actuators and the die shoulder sensors. The actuator model is useful for developing optimal control methods. The sensor characterization is necessary in order to develop a relationship between the raw sensor outputs and a definitive process characteristic such as drawbead restraining force (DBRF). Closed loop control of local specific punch force is demonstrated using the die shoulder sensor and a PID controller developed off-line with the actuator model.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Flow and Filtration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980545
A 2-D computational model was developed to describe the flow and filtration processes, in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state trap loading, as well as the transient behavior of the flow and filtration processes. The theoretical model includes the effect of a copper fuel additive on trap loading and transient operation. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations. The filtration theory incorporated in the time dependent numerical code included the diffusion, inertia, and direct interception mechanisms. Based on a measured upstream particle size distribution, using the filtration theory, the downstream particle size distribution was calculated. The theoretical filtration efficiency, based on particle size distribution, agreed very well (within 1%) with experimental data for a number of different cases.
Technical Paper

Machinability of As-Compacted P/M Parts: Effect of Material Chemistry

1998-02-23
980635
Since the advent of P/M technology as a near net shape production process, millions of mechanical components of various shapes and sizes have been produced. Although P/M continues to be one of the fast growing shaping processes, it suffers from the inability to produce intricate geometry's such as internal tapers, threads or recesses perpendicular to pressing direction. In such cases application of machining as a secondary forming operation becomes the preferred alternative. However, machining of P/M parts due to their inherent porosity is known to decrease tool life and increase tool chatter and vibration. Consequently, several attempts have been made to improve the machinability of P/M materials by either addition of machinability enhancing elements such as sulfur, calcium, tellurium, selenium, etc., or by resin impregnation of P/M parts.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Flame Photographs With High Pressure Injection

1988-02-01
880298
The effect of high pressure injection (using an accumulator type unit injector with peak injection pressure of approximately 20,000 psi, having a decreasing injection rate profile) on combustion was studied. Combustion results were obtained using a DDA Series 3–53 diesel engine with both conventional analysis techniques and high speed photography. Diesel No. 2 fuel and a low viscosity - high volatility fuel, similar to gasoline were used in the study. Results were compared against baseline data obtained with standard injectors. Some of the characteristics of high pressure injection used with Diesel No. 2 fuel include: substantially improved ignition, shorter ignition delay, and higher pressure rise. Under heavy load - high speed conditions, greater smokemeter readings were achieved with the high pressure injection system with Diesel No. 2 fuel. Higher flame speeds and hence, greater resistance to knock were observed with the high volatility low cetane fuel.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hydraulic System for the Caterpillar 416 Backhoe Loader

1986-09-01
861290
A key ingredient in the development of the Caterpillar 416 backhoe loader was the development of the hydraulic system. A load sensing, pressure compensated system was selected on the basis of its best being able to meet design goals. The result is a backhoe loader in which the hydraulic system contributes greatly to the vehicle's overall acceptance by operating efficiently and utilizing low lever efforts for ease of control.
Technical Paper

Identifying Optimal Operating Points in Terms of Engineering Constraints and Regulated Emissions in Modern Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1388
In recent decades, “physics-based” gas-dynamics simulation tools have been employed to reduce development timescales of IC engines by enabling engineers to carry out parametric examinations and optimisation of alternative engine geometry and operating strategy configurations using desktop PCs. However to date, these models have proved inadequate for optimisation of in-cylinder combustion and emissions characteristics thus extending development timescales through additional experimental development efforts. This research paper describes how a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) with reduced chemistry can be employed to successfully determine in-cylinder pressure, heat release and emissions trends from a diesel fuelled engine operated in compression ignition direct injection mode using computations which are completed in 147 seconds per cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study Comparing Particle Size and Mass Concentration Data for a Cracked and Un-Cracked Diesel Particulate Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-0629
Steady state loading characterization experiments were conducted at three different engine load conditions and rated speed on the cracked catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). The experiments were performed using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM-330 heavy duty diesel engine. The CPF underwent a ring off failure, commonly seen in particulate filters, due to high radial and axial temperature gradients. The filters were cracked during baking in an oven which was done to regenerate PM collected after every loading characterization experiment. Two different configurations i.e. with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the CPF were studied. The data were compared with that on an un-cracked CPF at similar engine conditions and configurations. Pressure drop, transient filtration efficiency by particle size and PM mass and gaseous emissions measurements were made during each experiment.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part II - Blend Properties and Target Value Sensitivity

2013-04-08
2013-01-1126
Higher carbon number alcohols offer an opportunity to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and improve the energy content, petroleum displacement, and/or knock resistance of gasoline-alcohol blends from traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part II of this paper builds upon the alcohol selection, fuel implementation scenarios, criteria target values, and property prediction methodologies detailed in Part I. For each scenario, optimization schemes include maximizing energy content, knock resistance, or petroleum displacement. Optimum blend composition is very sensitive to energy content, knock resistance, vapor pressure, and oxygen content criteria target values. Iso-propanol is favored in both scenarios' suitable blends because of its high RON value.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part I - Methodology and Scenario Definition

2013-04-08
2013-01-1144
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) requires an increase in the use of advanced biofuels up to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Longer chain alcohols, in addition to cellulosic ethanol and synthetic biofuels, could be used to meet this demand while adhering to the RFS2 corn-based ethanol limitation. Higher carbon number alcohols can be utilized to improve the energy content, knock resistance, and/or petroleum displacement of gasoline-alcohol blends compared to traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part I of this paper focuses on the development of scenarios by which to compare higher alcohol fuel blends to traditional ethanol blends. It also details the implementation of fuel property prediction methods adapted from literature. Possible combinations of eight alcohols mixed with a gasoline blendstock were calculated and the properties of the theoretical fuel blends were predicted.
Technical Paper

The Filtration, Oxidation and Pressure Drop Characteristics of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration – A 1D Modeling Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-1274
Active regeneration of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is affected by a number of parameters specifically particulate matter loading and inlet temperature. The MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model [1] was used to analyze these effects on the pressure drop, oxidation and filtration characteristics of a CPF during active regeneration. In addition, modeling results for post loading experiments were analyzed to understand the difference between loading a clean filter as compared to a partially regenerated filter. Experimental data obtained with a production Cummins regenerative particulate filter for loading, active regenerations and post loading experiments were used to calibrate the MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model. The model predicted results are compared with the experimental data and were analyzed to understand the CPF characteristics during active regeneration at 1.1, 2.2 and 4.1 g/L particulate matter (PM) loading and CPF inlet temperatures of 525, 550 and 600°C.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Estimate the Mass of Particulate Matter Retained in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter as Applied to Active Regeneration and On-Board Diagnostics to Detect Filter Failures

2008-04-14
2008-01-0764
A methodology to estimate the mass of particulate retained in a catalyzed particulate filter as a function of measured total pressure drop, volumetric flow rate, exhaust temperature, exhaust gas viscosity and cake and wall permeability applicable to real-time computation is discussed. This methodology is discussed from the view point of using it to indicate when to initiate active regeneration and as an On-Board Diagnostic tool to detect filter failures. Steady-state loading characterization experiments were conducted on a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) in a Johnson Matthey CCRT® (catalyzed continuously regenerating trap) system. The experiments were performed using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Experiments were conducted at 20, 60 and 75% of full engine load (1120 Nm) and rated speed (2100 rpm) to measure the pressure drop, transient filtration efficiency, particulate mass balance, and gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper

Preparation and Characterization of Nanophase Gold Catalysts for Emissions Control

2008-10-07
2008-01-2639
Various gold catalysts were prepared using commercial and in-house fabricated advanced catalyst supports that included mesoporous silica, mesoporous alumina, sol-gel alumina, and transition metal oxides. Gold nanoparticles were loaded on the supports by co-precipitation, deposition-precipitation, ion exchange and surface functionalization techniques. The average gold particle size was ∼20nm or less. The oxidation activity of the prepared catalysts was studied using carbon monoxide and light hydrocarbons (ethylene, propylene and propane) in presence of water and CO2 and the results are presented.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Engine Testing System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0105
A test stand was developed to evaluate an 11.5 cc, two-stroke, internal combustion engine in anticipation of future combustion system modifications. Detailed engine testing and analysis often requires complex, specialized, and expensive equipment, which can be problematic for research budgets. This problem is compounded by the fact that testing “micro” engines involves low flow rates, high rotational speeds, and compact dimensions which demand high-accuracy, high-speed, and compact measurement systems. On a limited budget, the task of developing a micro-engine testing system for advanced development appears quite challenging, but with careful component selection it can be accomplished. The anticipated engine investigation includes performance testing, fuel system calibration, and combustion analysis. To complete this testing, a custom test system was developed.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Impact of Impingement Distance on Momentum Flux Rate of Injection Measurements of a Diesel Injector

2015-04-14
2015-01-0933
Diesel combustion and emissions is largely spray and mixing controlled. Spray and combustion models enable characterization over a range of conditions to understand optimum combustion strategies. The validity of models depends on the inputs, including the rate of injection profile of the injector. One method to measure the rate of injection is to measure the momentum, where the injected fuel spray is directed onto a force transducer which provides measurements of momentum flux. From this the mass flow rate is calculated. In this study, the impact of impingement distance, the distance from injector nozzle exit to the anvil connected to the force transducer, is characterized over a range of 2 - 12 mm. This characterization includes the impact of the distance on the momentum flux signal in both magnitude and shape. At longer impingement distances, it is hypothesized that a peak in momentum could occur due to increasing velocity of fuel injected as the pintle fully opens.
Technical Paper

HEUI Injector Modeling and ROI Experiments for High Injection Pressure of Diesel and Dimethyl Ether (DME)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0855
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is considered a clean alternative fuel to diesel due to its soot-free combustion characteristics and its capability to be produced from renewable energy sources rather than fossil fuels such as coal or petroleum. To mitigate the effect of strong wave dynamics on fuel supply lines caused due to the high compressibility of DME and to overcome its low lubricity, a hydraulically actuated electronic unit injector (HEUI) with pressure intensification was used. The study focuses on high pressure operation, up to 2000 bar, significantly higher than pressure ranges reported previously with DME. A one-dimensional HEUI injector model is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK graphical software environment, to predict the rate of injection (ROI) profile critical to spray and combustion characterization.
Technical Paper

Design for 6 Sigma Application in Engine System Integration

2015-09-29
2015-01-2864
With stringent emission regulations, many subsystems that abate engine tailpipe-out emissions become a necessary part for engines. The increased level of complexity poses technical challenges for the quality and reliability for modern engines. Among the spectrum of quality control methodologies, one conventional methodology focuses on every component's quality to ensure that the accumulative deviation is within predetermined limits. This conventional methodology tightens the component tolerance during the manufacturing process and typically results in increased cost. Another conventional methodology that is on the other side of the spectrum focuses on tailoring an engine calibration solution to offset the manufacturing differences. Although the tailored engine calibration solution reduces manufacturing cost for components, it increases the development and validation cost for engines. Given the cost and time constraints, system integration plays an important role in engine development.
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