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Technical Paper

A Study of the Vapor- and Particle-Phase Sulfur Species in the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler

To meet future NO, heavy-duty diesel emissions standards, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is likely to be used. To improve fuel economy and further lower emissions, the recirculated exhaust gas needs to be cooled, with the possibility that cooling of the exhaust gas may form sulfuric acid condensate in the EGR cooler. This corrosive condensate can cause EGR cooler failure and consequentially result in severe damage to the engine. Both a literature review and a preliminary experimental study were conducted. In this study, a manually controlled EGR system was installed on a 1995 Cummins Ml l-330E engine which was operated at EPA mode 9* (1800 rpm and 75% load). The Goksoyr-Ross method (1)** was used to measure the particle-phase sulfate and vapor-phase H2SO4 and SO2 at the inlet and outlet locations of the EGR cooler, obtaining H2SO4 and SO2 concentrations. About 0.5% of fuel sulfur in the EGR cooler was in the particle-phase.
Technical Paper

A New Multi-point Active Drawbead Forming Die: Model Development for Process Optimization

A new press/die system for restraining force control has been developed in order to facilitate an increased level of process control in sheet metal forming. The press features a built-in system for controlling drawbead penetration in real time. The die has local force transducers built into the draw radius of the lower tooling. These sensors are designed to give process information useful for the drawbead control. This paper focuses on developing models of the drawbead actuators and the die shoulder sensors. The actuator model is useful for developing optimal control methods. The sensor characterization is necessary in order to develop a relationship between the raw sensor outputs and a definitive process characteristic such as drawbead restraining force (DBRF). Closed loop control of local specific punch force is demonstrated using the die shoulder sensor and a PID controller developed off-line with the actuator model.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Quenching Process at Caterpillar

Caterpillar uses heat treatment to enhance the properties of a significant number of parts. Traditional heat treat process optimization is both time consuming and expensive when done by empirical methods. This paper describes a computer simulation of the heat treatment process, developed by Caterpillar, based upon finite element analysis. This approach combines thermal, microstructural, and stress analysis to accurately model material transformation during quenching. Examples are presented to illustrate the program.
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine with Low Exhaust Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

Turbocharging, in addition to increasing an engine's power output, can be effectively used to maintain exhaust emission levels while improving fuel economy. This paper presents the emission and performance results obtained from a turbocharged multicylinder spark ignition engine with thermal reactors and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operated at steady-state, part-load conditions for four engine speeds. When comparing a turbocharged engine to a larger displacement naturally aspirated engine of equal power output, the emissions expressed in grams per mile were relatively unchanged both with and without EGR. However, turbocharging provided an average of 20% improvement in fuel economy both with and without EGR. When comparing the turbocharged and nonturbocharged versions of the same engine without EGR at a given load and speed, turbocharging increased the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and decreased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

A Feasible CFD Methodology for Gasoline Intake Flow Optimization in a HEV Application - Part 2: Prediction and Optimization

Today's engine and combustion process development is closely related to the intake port layout. Combustion, performance and emissions are coupled to the intensity of turbulence, the quality of mixture formation and the distribution of residual gas, all of which depend on the in-cylinder charge motion, which is mainly determined by the intake port and cylinder head design. Additionally, an increasing level of volumetric efficiency is demanded for a high power output. Most optimization efforts on typical homogeneous charge spark ignition (HCSI) engines have been at low loads because that is all that is required for a vehicle to make it through the FTP cycle. However, due to pumping losses, this is where such engines are least efficient, so it would be good to find strategies to allow the engine to operate at higher loads.
Technical Paper

A Feasible CFD Methodology for Gasoline Intake Flow Optimization in a HEV Application - Part 1: Development and Validation

Hybrid vehicle engines modified for high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are a good choice for high efficiency and low NOx emissions. Such operation can result in an HEV when a downsized engine is used at high load for a large fraction of its run time to recharge the battery or provide acceleration assist. However, high EGR will dilute the engine charge and may cause serious performance problems such as incomplete combustion, torque fluctuation, and engine misfire. An efficient way to overcome these drawbacks is to intensify tumble leading to increased turbulent intensity at the time of ignition. The enhancement of turbulent intensity will increase flame velocity and improve combustion quality, therefore increasing engine tolerance to higher EGR. It is accepted that the detailed experimental characterization of flow field near top dead center (TDC) in an engine environment is no longer practical and cost effective.
Technical Paper

Electronic Control Module Network and Data Link Development and Validation using Hardware in the Loop Systems

Increasingly, the exchanges of data in complex ECM (Electronic Control Module) systems rely on multiple communication networks across various physical and network layers. This has greatly increased system flexibility and provided an excellent medium to create well-defined exchangeable interfaces between components; however this added flexibility comes with increased network complexity. A system-level approach allows for the optimization of data exchange and network configuration as well as the development of a comprehensive network failure strategy. Many current ECM systems utilize complex multi-network communication strategies to exchange and control data to components. Recently, Caterpillar implemented an HIL (Hardware-In-the-Loop) test system that provides an approach for developing and testing a comprehensive ECM network strategy.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Design and Validation of an Exhaust Muffler for a Commercial Telehandler

This paper describes the design, development and validation of a muffler for reducing exhaust noise from a commercial tele-handler. It also describes the procedure for modeling and optimizing the exhaust muffler along with experimental measurement for correlating the sound transmission loss (STL). The design and tuning of the tele-handler muffler was based on several factors including overall performance, cost, weight, available space, and ease of manufacturing. The analysis for predicting the STL was conducted using the commercial software LMS Virtual Lab (LMS-VL), while the experimental validation was carried out in the laboratory using the two load setup. First, in order to gain confidence in the applicability of LMS-VL, the STL of some simple expansion mufflers with and without extended inlet/outlet and perforations was considered. The STL of these mufflers were predicted using the traditional plane wave transfer matrix approach.
Technical Paper

Linkage and Structural Optimization of an Earth Moving Machine

Faced with competitive environments, pressure to lower development costs and aggressive timelines engineers are not only increasingly adopting numerical simulation techniques but are also embracing design optimization schemes to augment their efforts. These techniques not only provide more understanding of the trade-offs but are also capable of proactively guiding the decision making process. However, design optimization and exploration tools have struggled to find complete acceptance and are typically underutilized in many applications; especially in situations where the algorithms have to compete with existing swift decision making processes. In this paper we demonstrate how the type of setup and algorithmic choice can have an influence and make optimization more lucrative in a new product development atmosphere. We also present some results from a design exploration activity, involving linkage and structural development, of an earth moving machine application.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Study of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) under Transient and CPF Active Regeneration Conditions

In this study, a DOC catalyst was experimentally studied in an engine test cell with a2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB diesel and a production aftertreatment system. The test matrix consisted of steady state, active regeneration with in-cylinder fuel dosing and transient conditions. Conversion efficiencies of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, and NO were quantified under each condition. A previously developed high-fidelity DOC model capable of predicting both steady state and transient active regeneration gaseous emissions was calibrated to the experimental data. The model consists of a single 1D channel where mass and energy balance equations were solved for both surface and bulk gas regions. The steady-state data were used to identify the activation energies and pre-exponential factors for CO, NO and HC oxidation, while the steady-state active regeneration data were used to identify the inhibition factors. The transient data were used to simulate the thermal response of the DOC.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Frontal Area Using Image Processing

The projected frontal area of a vehicle has a significant impact on aerodynamic drag, and thus is an important parameter, for vehicle development, benchmarking, and modeling. However, determining vehicle frontal area can be tedious, time consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. Existing methods include analysis of engineering drawings, vehicle projections, 3D scanners, planimeter measurements from photographs, and estimations using vehicle dimensions. Currently accepted approximation methods can be somewhat unreliable. This study focuses on introducing a method to find vehicle frontal area using digital images and subtraction functions via MATLABs' Image Processing Toolbox. In addition to an overview of the method, this paper describes several variables that were examined to optimize and improve the process such as camera position, surface glare, and vehicle shadow effects.
Technical Paper

Blend Ratio Optimization of Fuels Containing Gasoline Blendstock, Ethanol, and Higher Alcohols (C3-C6): Part II - Blend Properties and Target Value Sensitivity

Higher carbon number alcohols offer an opportunity to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) and improve the energy content, petroleum displacement, and/or knock resistance of gasoline-alcohol blends from traditional ethanol blends such as E10 while maintaining desired and regulated fuel properties. Part II of this paper builds upon the alcohol selection, fuel implementation scenarios, criteria target values, and property prediction methodologies detailed in Part I. For each scenario, optimization schemes include maximizing energy content, knock resistance, or petroleum displacement. Optimum blend composition is very sensitive to energy content, knock resistance, vapor pressure, and oxygen content criteria target values. Iso-propanol is favored in both scenarios' suitable blends because of its high RON value.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Asynchronous Fuel Injection System in Diesel Engines by Means of a Micro-Genetic Algorithm and an Adaptive Gradient Method

Optimal fuel injection strategies are obtained with a micro-genetic algorithm and an adaptive gradient method for a nonroad, medium-speed DI diesel engine equipped with a multi-orifice, asynchronous fuel injection system. The gradient optimization utilizes a fast-converging backtracking algorithm and an adaptive cost function which is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The micro-genetic algorithm uses parameter combinations of the best two individuals in each generation until a local convergence is achieved, and then generates a random population to continue the global search. The optimizations have been performed for a two pulse fuel injection strategy where the optimization parameters are the injection timings and the nozzle orifice diameters.
Technical Paper

Impact of EGR on Combustion Processes in a Hydrogen Fuelled SI Engine

With concerns continuing to grow with respect to global warming from greenhouse gases, further regulations are being examined, developed and are expected for the emission of CO2 as an automobile exhaust. Renewable alternate fuels offer the potential to significantly reduce the CO2 impact of transportation. Hydrogen as a spark - ignition (SI) engine fuel provides this potential for significant CO2 reduction when generated from renewable resources. In addition, hydrogen has advantageous combustion properties including a wide flammable mixture range which facilitates lean burning and high dilution, fast combustion energy release and zero CO2 emissions. However, the high burning rates and fast energy release can lead to excessive in-cylinder pressures and temperatures resulting in combustion knock and high NOx emissions at stoichiometric operation.
Technical Paper

Adequacy of Reduced Order Models for Model-Based Control in a Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

Model-based control strategies are important for meeting the dual objective of maximizing NOx reduction and minimizing NH3 slip in urea-SCR catalysts. To be implementable on the vehicle, the models should capture the essential behavior of the system, while not being computationally intensive. This paper discusses the adequacy of two different reduced order SCR catalyst models and compares their performance with a higher order model. The higher order model assumes that the catalyst has both diffusion and reaction kinetics, whereas the reduced order models contain only reaction kinetics. After describing each model, its parameter identification and model validation based on experiments on a Navistar I6 7.6L engine are presented. The adequacy of reduced order models is demonstrated by comparing the NO, NO2 and NH3 concentrations predicted by the models to their concentrations from the test data.
Technical Paper

Preparation and Characterization of Nanophase Gold Catalysts for Emissions Control

Various gold catalysts were prepared using commercial and in-house fabricated advanced catalyst supports that included mesoporous silica, mesoporous alumina, sol-gel alumina, and transition metal oxides. Gold nanoparticles were loaded on the supports by co-precipitation, deposition-precipitation, ion exchange and surface functionalization techniques. The average gold particle size was ∼20nm or less. The oxidation activity of the prepared catalysts was studied using carbon monoxide and light hydrocarbons (ethylene, propylene and propane) in presence of water and CO2 and the results are presented.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification of Gasoline Intake Port Design

The hybrid vehicle engines modified for high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a good choice for high efficiency and low NOx emissions. However, high EGR will dilute the engine charge and may cause serious performance problems, such as incomplete combustion, torque fluctuation, and engine misfire. An efficient way to overcome these drawbacks is to intensify tumble leading to increased turbulent intensity at the time of ignition. The enhancement of turbulent intensity will increase flame velocity and improve combustion quality, therefore increasing engine tolerance to higher EGR. To achieve the goal of increasing tolerance to EGR, this work reports a CFD investigation of high tumble intake port design using STAR-CD. The validations had been performed through the comparison with PIV experimental tests.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis for Optimal Control of Power Split in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Power split in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs) has been controlled using different strategies ranging from rule-based to optimal control. Dynamic Programming (DP) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) are two common optimal control strategies used in optimization of the power split in FCHEVs with a trade-off between global optimality of the solution and online implementation of the controller. In this paper, both control strategies are developed and tested on a FC/battery vehicle model, and the results are compared in terms of total energy consumption. In addition, the effects of the MPC prediction horizon length on the controller performance are studied. Results show that by using the DP strategy, up to 12% less total energy consumption is achieved compared to MPC for a charge sustaining mode in the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Easily Verifiable Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller Design with Application to Automotive Engines

Verification and validation (V&V) are essential stages in the design cycle of industrial controllers to remove the gap between the designed and implemented controller. In this study, a model-based adaptive methodology is proposed to enable easily verifiable controller design based on the formulation of a sliding mode controller (SMC). The proposed adaptive SMC improves the controller robustness against major implementation imprecisions including sampling and quantization. The application of the proposed technique is demonstrated on the engine cold start emission control problem in a mid-size passenger car. The cold start controller is first designed in a single-input single-output (SISO) structure with three separate sliding surfaces, and then is redesigned based on a multiinput multi-output (MIMO) SMC design technique using nonlinear balanced realization.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Dynamics Analysis for Electrified Turbocharged Diesel Engines

Engine electrification is a critical technology in the promotion of engine fuel efficiency, among which the electrified turbocharger is regarded as the promising solution in engine downsizing. By installing electrical devices on the turbocharger, the excess energy can be captured, stored, and re-used. The electrified turbocharger consists of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and an electric motor (EM) within the turbocharger bearing housing, where the EM is capable in bi-directional power transfer. The VGT, EM, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve all impact the dynamics of air path. In this paper, the dynamics in an electrified turbocharged diesel engine (ETDE), especially the couplings between different loops in the air path is analyzed. Furthermore, an explicit principle in selecting control variables is proposed. Based on the analysis, a model-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) decoupling controller is designed to regulate the air path dynamics.