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Technical Paper

Potentials of Electrical Assist and Variable Geometry Turbocharging System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Downsizing

Diesel engine downsizing aimed at reducing fuel consumption while meeting stringent exhaust emissions regulations is currently in high demand. The boost system architecture plays an essential role in providing adequate air flow rate for diesel fuel combustion while avoiding impaired transient response of the downsized engine. Electric Turbocharger Assist (ETA) technology integrates an electric motor/generator with the turbocharger to provide electrical power to assist compressor work or to electrically recover excess turbine power. Additionally, a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is able to bring an extra degree of freedom for the boost system optimization. The electrically-assisted turbocharger, coupled with VGT, provides an illuminating opportunity to increase the diesel engine power density and enhance the downsized engine transient response. This paper assesses the potential benefits of the electrically-assisted turbocharger with VGT to enable heavy-duty diesel engine downsizing.
Technical Paper

A Feasible CFD Methodology for Gasoline Intake Flow Optimization in a HEV Application - Part 2: Prediction and Optimization

Today's engine and combustion process development is closely related to the intake port layout. Combustion, performance and emissions are coupled to the intensity of turbulence, the quality of mixture formation and the distribution of residual gas, all of which depend on the in-cylinder charge motion, which is mainly determined by the intake port and cylinder head design. Additionally, an increasing level of volumetric efficiency is demanded for a high power output. Most optimization efforts on typical homogeneous charge spark ignition (HCSI) engines have been at low loads because that is all that is required for a vehicle to make it through the FTP cycle. However, due to pumping losses, this is where such engines are least efficient, so it would be good to find strategies to allow the engine to operate at higher loads.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of an Advanced Ceramic Diesel Particulate Filter

A Cummins ISB 5.9 liter medium-duty engine with cooled EGR has been used to study an early extrusion of an advanced ceramic uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Data for the advanced ceramic material (ACM) and an uncatalyzed cordierite filter of similar dimensions are presented. Pressure drop data as a function of mass loadings (0, 4, and 6 grams of particulate matter (PM) per liter of filter volume) for various flow rate/temperature combinations (0.115 - 0.187 kg/sec and 240 - 375 °C) based upon loads of 15, 25, 40 and 60% of full engine load (684 N-m) at 2300 rpm are presented. The data obtained from these experiments were used to calibrate the MTU 1-D 2-Layer computer model developed previously at MTU. Clean wall permeability determined from the model calibration for the ACM was 5.0e-13 m2 as compared to 3.0e-13 m2 for cordierite.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Estimate the Mass of Particulate Matter Retained in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter as Applied to Active Regeneration and On-Board Diagnostics to Detect Filter Failures

A methodology to estimate the mass of particulate retained in a catalyzed particulate filter as a function of measured total pressure drop, volumetric flow rate, exhaust temperature, exhaust gas viscosity and cake and wall permeability applicable to real-time computation is discussed. This methodology is discussed from the view point of using it to indicate when to initiate active regeneration and as an On-Board Diagnostic tool to detect filter failures. Steady-state loading characterization experiments were conducted on a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) in a Johnson Matthey CCRT® (catalyzed continuously regenerating trap) system. The experiments were performed using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Experiments were conducted at 20, 60 and 75% of full engine load (1120 Nm) and rated speed (2100 rpm) to measure the pressure drop, transient filtration efficiency, particulate mass balance, and gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper

Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Testing of Electric Power Steering Controllers

The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to decide how much assistance an electric motor applies on a steering wheel. The EPS ECU plays an important role in EPS systems. The effectiveness of an ECU needs to be thoroughly tested before mass production. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation provides an efficient way for the development and testing of embedded controllers. This paper focuses on the development of a HiL system for testing EPS controllers. The hardware of the HiL system employs a dSPACE HiL simulator. The EPS plant model is an integrated model consisting of a Vehicle Dynamics model of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) and the Nexteer Steering model. The paper presents the design of an EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors and actuators, the functions of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with a Steering model.
Technical Paper

Multivariate Regression and Generalized Linear Model Optimization in Diesel Transient Performance Calibration

With stringent emission regulations, aftertreatment systems with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are required for diesel engines to meet PM and NOx emissions. The adoption of aftertreatment increases the back pressure on a typical diesel engine and makes engine calibration a complicated process, requiring thousands of steady state testing points to optimize engine performance. When configuring an engine to meet Tier IV final emission regulations in the USA or corresponding Stage IV emission regulations in Europe, this high back pressure dramatically impacts transient performance. The peak NOx, smoke and exhaust temperature during a diesel engine transient cycle, such as the Non-Road Transient Cycle (NRTC) defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), will in turn affect the performance of the aftertreatment system and the tailpipe emissions level.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Fuel Properties on Diesel Engine Emissions and a Feasible Solution for Common Calibration

Fuel properties impact the engine-out emission directly. For some geographic regions where diesel engines can meet emission regulations without aftertreatment, the change of fuel properties will lead to final tailpipe emission variation. Aftertreatment systems such as Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are required for diesel engines to meet stringent regulations. These regulations include off-road Tier 4 Final emission regulations in the USA or the corresponding Stage IV emission regulations in Europe. As an engine with an aftertreatment system, the change of fuel properties will also affect the system conversion efficiency and regeneration cycle. Previous research works focus on prediction of engine-out emission, and many are based on chemical reactions. Due to the complex mixing, pyrolysis and reaction process in heterogeneous combustion, it is not cost-effective to find a general model to predict emission shifting due to fuel variation.
Technical Paper

Continued Drive Signal Development for the Carbon Nanotube Thermoacoustic Loudspeaker Using Techniques Derived from the Hearing Aid Industry

Compared to moving coil loudspeakers, carbon nanotube (CNT) loudspeakers are extremely lightweight and are capable of creating sound over a broad frequency range (1 Hz to 100 kHz). The thermoacoustic effect that allows for this non-vibrating sound source is naturally inefficient and nonlinear. Signal processing techniques are one option that may help counteract these concerns. Previous studies have evaluated a hybrid efficiency metric, the ratio of the sound pressure level at a single point to the input electrical power. True efficiency is the ratio of output acoustic power to the input electrical power. True efficiency data are presented for two new drive signal processing techniques borrowed from the hearing aid industry. Spectral envelope decimation of an AC signal operates in the frequency domain (FCAC) and dynamic linear frequency compression of an AC signal operates in the time domain (TCAC). Each type of processing affects the true efficiency differently.
Technical Paper

Thermal and Chemical Aging of Diesel Particulate Filters

The effects of thermal and chemical aging on the performance of cordierite-based and high-porosity mullite-based diesel particulate filters (DPFs), were quantified, particularly their filtration efficiency, pressure drop, and regeneration capability. Both catalyzed and uncatalyzed core-size samples were tested in the lab using a diesel fuel burner and a chemical reactor. The diesel fuel burner generated carbonaceous particulate matter with a pre-specified particle-size distribution, which was loaded in the DPF cores. As the particulate loading evolved, measurements were made for the filtration efficiency and pressure drop across the filter using, respectively, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a pressure transducer. In a subsequent process and on a different bench system, the regeneration capability was tested by measuring the concentration of CO plus CO2 evolved during the controlled oxidation of the carbonaceous species previously deposited on the DPF samples.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Study of the Pressure Drop and Regeneration Characteristics of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Particulate Filter

An experimental and computational study was performed to evaluate the performance of the CRT™ technology with an off-highway engine with a cooled low pressure loop EGR system. The MTU-Filter 1D DPF code predicts the particulate mass evolution (deposition and oxidation) in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) during simultaneous loading and during thermal and NO2-assisted regeneration conditions. It also predicts the pressure drop across the DPF, the flow and temperature fields, the solid filtration efficiency and the particle number distribution downstream of the DPF. A DOC model was also used to predict the NO2 upstream of the DPF. The DPF model was calibrated to experimental data at temperatures from 230°C to 550°C, and volumetric flow rates from 9 to 39 actual m3/min.
Technical Paper

An Advanced 1D 2-Layer Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Model to Simulate: Filtration by the Wall and Particulate Cake, Oxidation in the Wall and Particulate Cake by NO2 and O2, and Regeneration by Heat Addition

A numerical model to simulate the filtration and regeneration performance of catalyzed diesel particulate filters (CPFs) was developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The mathematical formulation of the model and some results are described. The model is a single channel (inlet and outlet) representation of the flow while the thermal and catalytic regeneration framework is based on a 2-layer approach. The 2-layer model can simulate particulate matter (PM) oxidation by thermal and ‘catalytic’ means of oxidation with O2. Several improvements were made to this basic model and are described in this paper. A model to simulate PM oxidation by NO2/Temperature entering the particulate filter and oxidizing the PM in the two layers of the PM cake was developed. This model can be used to simulate the performance of filters with catalyst washcoats and uncatalyzed filters placed downstream of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), as in the continuously regenerating traps, CRT's®.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Modeling Study of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Using a 1-D 2-Layer Model

Modeling of diesel exhaust after-treatment devices is a valuable tool in the development and performance evaluation of these devices in a cost effective manner. Results from steady state loading experiments on a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) in a Johnson Matthey CCRT®, performed with and without the upstream diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) are described in this paper. The experiments were performed at 20, 40, 60 and 75% of full load (1120 Nm) at rated speed (2100 rpm) on a Cummins ISM 2002 heavy duty diesel engine. The data obtained were used to calibrate one dimensional (1-D) DOC and CPF models developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The 1-D 2-layer single channel CPF model helped evaluate the filtration and passive oxidation performance of the CPF. DOC modeling results of the pressure drop and gaseous emission oxidation performance using a previously developed model are also presented.
Technical Paper

The Filtration and Particulate Matter Oxidation Characteristics of a Catalyzed Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter: Experimental and 1-D 2-Layer Model Results

A 1-D 2-layer model developed previously at MTU was used in this research to predict the pressure drop, filtration characteristics and various properties of the particulate filter and the particulate deposit layer. The model was calibrated and validated for this CPF with data obtained from steady state experiments conducted using a 1995 Cummins M11-330E heavy-duty diesel engine with manual EGR and using ULSF. The CPF used is a NGK filter having a cordierite substrate with NEX catalyst type formulation (54% porosity, 15.0 μm mean pore diameter and 50 gms/ft3 Pt). The filter was catalyzed using a wash coat process. The model was used to predict the pressure drop, particulate mass retained inside the CPF, particulate mass filtration efficiency and concentration downstream of the CPF with agreement between the experimental and simulated data.
Technical Paper

A One-Dimensional Computational Model for Studying the Filtration and Regeneration Characteristics of a Catalyzed Wall-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter

A one-dimensional, two layer computational model was developed to predict the behavior of a clean and particulate-loaded catalyzed wall-flow diesel particulate filter (CPF). The model included the mechanisms of particle deposition inside the CPF porous wall and on the CPF wall surface, the exhaust flow field and temperature field inside the CPF, as well as the particulate catalytic oxidation mechanisms accounting for the catalyst-assisted particulate oxidation by the catalytic coating in addition to the conventional particulate thermal oxidation. The paper also develops the methodology for calibrating and validating the model with experimental data. Steady state loading experiments were performed to calibrate and validate the model.
Journal Article

Optimal Power Management of Vehicle Sourced Military Outposts

This paper considers optimal power management during the establishment of an expeditionary outpost using battery and vehicle assets for electrical generation. The first step in creating a new outpost is implementing the physical protection and barrier system. Afterwards, facilities that provide communications, fires, meals, and moral boosts are implemented that steadily increase the electrical load while dynamic events, such as patrols, can cause abrupt changes in the electrical load profile. Being able to create a fully functioning outpost within 72 hours is a typical objective where the electrical power generation starts with batteries, transitions to gasoline generators and is eventually replaced by diesel generators as the outpost matures. Vehicles with power export capability are an attractive supplement to this electrical power evolution since they are usually on site, would reduce the amount of material for outpost creation, and provide a modular approach to outpost build-up.