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Video

Codes and Standards – Global Harmonization

2011-11-18
Electric vehicle codes and standards play a key role in deployment of interoperable charging and communication infrastructure. Harmonization of those standards on a global basis, even though they are not identical, they need to be compatible. There are a comprehensive set of EV standards, even standards to ensure that the EV, EVSE, energy measurement and electric utility are compatible (SAE J2953). This presentation is a summary of the state of standards and some of the commercial deployment of equipment that meets these standards. Presenter Eric Rask, Argonne National Laboratory
Video

Beyond MPG: Characterizing and Conveying the Efficiency of Advanced Plug-In Vehicles 

2011-11-08
Research in plug in vehicles (PHEV and BEV) has of course been ongoing for decades, however now that these vehicles are finally being produced for a mass market an intense focus over the last few years has been given to proper evaluation techniques and standard information to effectively convey efficiency information to potential consumers. The first challenge is the development of suitable test procedures. Thanks to many contributions from SAE members, these test procedures have been developed for PHEVs (SAE J1711 now available) and are under development for BEVs (SAE J1634 available later this year). A bigger challenge, however, is taking the outputs of these test results and dealing with the issue of off-board electrical energy consumption in the context of decades-long consumer understanding of MPG as the chief figure of merit for vehicle efficiency.
Video

Comparison of Powertrain Configuration Options for Plug-in HEVs from a Fuel Economy Perspective

2012-05-25
The first commercially available plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in mid-December 2010. The Volt uses a series-split powertrain architecture, which provides benefits over the series architecture that typically has been considered for use in electric-range extended vehicles (EREVs). A specialized EREV powertrain, called the Voltec, drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone and within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity than a PHEV, which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. This paper assesses the benefits and drawbacks of these two different plug-in hybrid electric architectures (series versus series-split) by comparing component sizes, system efficiency, and fuel consumption over urban and highway drive cycles.
Video

Technical Keynote - Introduction to EcoCAR The NeXt Challenge Year Three: Vehicle Refinement and Testing

2012-06-06
This presentation will introduce the overall goals of the EcoCAR competition in brief, and will go into the third and final year of the competition in detail. The final year of competition saw teams refining and testing their student-built advanced technology vehicles including hybrids, plug-in hybrids, hydrogen fuel cell PHEVs and one battery electric. Important events, such as the Spring Workshop chassis dynamometer testing event at the U.S. Environmental Protection agency, as well as significant competition results, such as vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and efficiency will be presented. Presenter Patrick Walsh
Video

Impact of Supervisory Control on Criteria Tailpipe Emissions for an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle

2012-06-05
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech participated in the three-year EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition organized by Argonne National Laboratory, and sponsored by General Motors and the U.S. Department of Energy. The team established goals for the design of a plug-in, range-extended hybrid electric vehicle that meets or exceeds the competition requirements for EcoCAR. The challenge involved designing a crossover SUV powertrain to reduce fuel consumption, petroleum energy use, regulated tailpipe emissions, and well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions. To interface with and control the hybrid powertrain, the team added a Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Controller, which enacts a torque split control strategy. This paper builds on an earlier paper [1] that evaluated the petroleum energy use, criteria tailpipe emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions of the Virginia Tech EcoCAR vehicle and control strategy from the 2nd year of the competition.
Video

Impact of Technology on Electric Drive Fuel Consumption and Cost

2012-05-25
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Video

Test Results of Plug-In Vehicles According to SAE Standard Testing Practices

2012-03-27
Over the past several years, new recommended practices for testing plug-in vehicles have been developed by SAE standards committees. At first only proprietary or prototype vehicles were available to validate new procedures. However, with the recent availability of Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf, these test procedures were put to the test in Argonne�s National Laboratory�s dynamometer test facility. Procedures for the Volt were according to the SAE J1711 procedures. The Leaf was tested according to procedures still under development in the SAE J1634 task force. Identified were aspects of the tests that were successful and areas where more development is needed. As described in SAE J2841, the Volt results were analyzed using a �utility factor� to estimate in-use expectations of electric-only miles.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Nanofluids for Vehicle Thermal Management

2001-05-14
2001-01-1706
Applying nanotechnology to thermal engineering, ANL has addressed the interesting and timely topic of nanofluids. We have developed methods for producing both oxide and metal nanofluids, studied their thermal conductivity, and obtained promising results: (1) Stable suspensions of nanoparticles can be achieved. (2) Nanofluids have significantly higher thermal conductivities than their base liquids. (3) Measured thermal conductivities of nanofluids are much greater than predicted. For these reasons, nanofluids show promise for improving the design and performance of vehicle thermal management systems. However, critical barriers to further development and application of nanofluid technology are agglomeration of nanoparticles and oxidation of metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, methods to prevent particle agglomeration and degradation are required.
Technical Paper

Effect of Soot Loading on the Thermal Characteristics of Diesel Engine Oils

2001-05-14
2001-01-1714
When compared with new oil, used diesel engine oils exhibited thermal conductivity that increases as the concentration of soot increases. The magnitude of the effect depends on the oil composition, and on the size and dispersion of the soot particles. Although soot in engine oil is generally deleterious to engine performance from the standpoint of wear and deposits, no negative effects were observed on the thermal performance of the oil itself; indeed, even slight positive effects are expected for oils that maintain soot in stable dispersion. Therefore, the thermal challenge for engine oils in diesel engines that use exhaust gas recirculation will be to prevent soot deposition on engine surfaces.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Additives on Diesel Particulate and NOx Emissions

2001-05-07
2001-01-1937
Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions from a 1.9-liter Volkswagen diesel engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel with 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel with 15% ethanol. Engine-out emissions were measured on an engine dynamometer for five different speeds and five different torques using the standard engine-control unit. Results show that particulate emissions can be significantly reduced over approximately two-thirds of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Nitrogen oxide emissions can also be significantly reduced over a smaller portion of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Moreover, there is an overlap between the regions where particulate emissions can be reduced by up to 75% and nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by up to 84% compared with neat diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Reforming Gasoline: All Components are Not Created Equal

2001-05-07
2001-01-1915
Gasoline is a complex fuel. Many of the constituents of gasoline that are beneficial for the internal combustion engine (ICE) are expected to be challenging for on-board reformers in fuel-cell vehicles. To address these issues, the autothermal reforming of gasoline and individual components of gasoline has been investigated. The results indicate that aromatic components require higher temperatures and longer contact times to reform than paraffinic components. Napthenic components require higher temperatures to reform, but can be reformed at higher space velocities than paraffinic components. The effects of sulfur are dependent on the catalyst. These results suggest that further evolution of gasoline could reduce the demands on the reformer and provide a better fuel for a fuel-cell vehicle.
Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

2001-03-05
2001-01-0552
The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Comparison of Two Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) - Honda Insight and Toyota Prius

2001-03-05
2001-01-1335
Two limited-production hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) - a 1988 Japanese model Toyota Prius and a 2000 Honda Insight - were tested at Argonne National Laboratory to collect data from vehicle component and systems operation. The test data are used to analyze operation and efficiency and to help validate computer simulation models. Both HEVs have FTP fuel economy greater than 45 miles per gallon and also have attributes very similar to those of conventional gasoline vehicles, even though each HEV has a unique powertrain configuration and operation control strategy. The designs and characteristics of these vehicles are of interest because they represent production technology with all the compromises for production included. This paper will explore both designs, their control strategies, and under what conditions high fuel economy was achieved.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

2001-03-05
2001-01-1293
A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
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